3,383 results match your criteria modulated viral

Characteristics of Immediate-Early 2 (IE2) and UL84 Proteins in UL84-Independent Strains of Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV).

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 22:e0053921. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Reno School of Medicine, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate-early 2 (IE2) protein is the major transactivator for viral gene expression and is required for lytic replication. In addition to transcriptional activation, IE2 is known to mediate transcriptional repression of promoters, including the major immediate-early (MIE) promoter and a bidirectional promoter within the lytic origin of replication (Lyt). The activity of IE2 is modulated by another viral protein, UL84. Read More

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September 2021

Contribution of single mutations to selected SARS-CoV-2 emerging variants spike antigenicity.

Virology 2021 Sep 11;563:134-145. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Centre de Recherche du CHUM, QC, H2X 0A9, Canada; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 0G4, Canada; Département de Microbiologie, Infectiologie et Immunologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, H2X 0A9, Canada. Electronic address:

Towards the end of 2020, multiple variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs) have arisen from the original SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 strain. Mutations in the Spike protein are highly scrutinized for their impact on transmissibility, pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy. Here, we contribute to the growing body of literature on emerging variants by evaluating the impact of single mutations on the overall antigenicity of selected variants and their binding to the ACE2 receptor. Read More

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September 2021

Antioxidant and antiviral activity of fullerol against Zika virus.

Acta Trop 2021 Sep 15;224:106135. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Laboratório de Biologia e Tecnologia de Micro-organismos, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Brazil; Programa de Pós Graduação em Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Brazil; Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Brazil. Electronic address:

Neglected for years, Zika virus (ZIKV) has become one of the most relevant arboviruses in current public health. The recent Zika fever epidemic in the Americas generated a worldwide alert due to the association with diseases such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital syndromes. Among the pathogenesis of ZIKV, recent studies suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role during infection and that compounds capable of modulating oxidative stress are promising as therapeutics. Read More

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September 2021


iScience 2021 Sep 10:103115. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Division of Biomedical Informatics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA.

Numerous studies have provided single-cell transcriptome profiles of host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Critically lacking however is a datamine that allows users to compare and explore cell profiles to gain insights and develop new hypotheses. To accomplish this, we harmonized datasets from COVID-19 and other control condition blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, and tissue samples, and derived a compendium of gene signature modules per cell type, subtype, clinical condition, and compartment. Read More

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September 2021

Predicted pH-dependent stability of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein trimer from interfacial acidic groups.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 2;19:5140-5148. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, M1 7DN, UK.

Transition between receptor binding domain (RBD) up and down forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein trimer is coupled to receptor binding and is one route by which variants can alter viral properties. It is becoming apparent that key roles in the transition are played by pH and a more compact closed form, termed locked. Calculations of pH-dependence are made for a large set of spike trimers, including locked form trimer structures that have recently become available. Read More

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September 2021

Factors regulating dynamics of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), the gateway of SARS-CoV-2: Epigenetic modifications and therapeutic interventions by epidrugs.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 30;143:112095. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Centre of Excellence in Integrated Omics and Computational Biology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Odisha, India; Post-Graduate Department of Biotechnology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, Odisha, India. Electronic address:

Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is one of the major components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and participates in the physiological functions of the cardiovascular system and lungs. Recent studies identified ACE2 as the receptor for the S-protein of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and thus acts as the gateway for viral entry into the human body. Virus infection causes an imbalance in the RAS axis and induces acute lungs injury and fibrosis. Read More

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UHRF1 Suppresses HIV-1 Transcription and Promotes HIV-1 Latency by Competing with p-TEFb for Ubiquitination-Proteasomal Degradation of Tat.

mBio 2021 Aug 31;12(4):e0162521. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Drug Research for Emerging Virus Prevention and Treatment, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

HIV-1 remains incurable due to viral reservoirs, which lead to durably latent HIV infection. Identifying novel host factors and deciphering the molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of latency are critical to discover new targets for the development of novel anti-HIV agents. Here, we show that ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domain 1 (UHRF1) modulates HIV-1 5'-long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription of the viral genome as a novel HIV-1 restriction factor. Read More

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Potent Activity of Hybrid Arthropod Antimicrobial Peptides Linked by Glycine Spacers.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 18;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Institute for Insect Biotechnology, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Arthropod antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) offer a promising source of new leads to address the declining number of novel antibiotics and the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. AMPs with potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and distinct modes of action have been identified in insects and scorpions, allowing the discovery of AMP combinations with additive and/or synergistic effects. Here, we tested the synergistic activity of two AMPs, from the dung beetle (CopA3) and the scorpion (Hp1090), against two strains of . Read More

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Urokinase plasminogen activator mediates changes in human astrocytes modeling fragile X syndrome.

Glia 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

The function of astrocytes intertwines with the extracellular matrix, whose neuron and glial cell-derived components shape neuronal plasticity. Astrocyte abnormalities have been reported in the brain of the mouse model for fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, and a monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder. We compared human FXS and control astrocytes generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells and we found increased expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), which modulates degradation of extracellular matrix. Read More

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Shell-mediated phagocytosis to reshape viral-vectored vaccine-induced immunity.

Biomaterials 2021 09 10;276:121062. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, 518107, China; State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health (GIBH), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 518107, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, 514400, China. Electronic address:

Adenovirus (Ad) has been extensively developed as a gene delivery vector, but the potential side effect caused by systematic immunization remains one major obstacle for its clinical application. Needle-free mucosal immunization with Ad-based vaccine shows advantages but still faces poor mucosal responses. We herein report that the chemical engineering of single live viral-based vaccine effectively modulated the location and pattern of the subsequently elicited immunity. Read More

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September 2021

Accuracy of an experimental whole-blood test for detecting reactivation of echinococcal cysts.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Aug 20;15(8):e0009648. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Translational Research Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI) "Lazzaro Spallanzani"-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a complex disease for which clear understanding of clinical manifestations is needed to avoid misdiagnosis, inappropriate treatment, and severe complications. We evaluated the accuracy of a whole-blood stimulation test based on Interleukin (IL)-4 detection in response to Antigen B (AgB) of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato to discriminate cyst viability and detect cyst reactivation in patients with hepatic CE.

Methodology/principal Findings: Thirty patients with CE3b cysts and 37 patients with spontaneously-inactivated CE4-CE5 cysts were recruited (T0). Read More

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Comprehensive Analysis of Human Cytomegalovirus- and HIV-Mediated Plasma Membrane Remodeling in Macrophages.

mBio 2021 Aug 17;12(4):e0177021. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Institute for Medical Virology and Epidemiology of Viral Diseases, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

The plasma membrane (PM) must be overcome by viruses during entry and release. Furthermore, the PM represents the cellular communication compartment and the immune system interface. Hence, viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to remodel the PM, for instance to avoid immune sensing and clearance of infected cells. Read More

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MgrB Inactivation Confers Trimethoprim Resistance in .

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:682205. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

After several decades of use, trimethoprim (TMP) remains one of the key access antimicrobial drugs listed by the World Health Organization. To circumvent the problem of trimethoprim resistance worldwide, a better understanding of drug-resistance mechanisms is required. In this study, we screened the single-gene knockout library of , and identified and other several genes involved in trimethoprim resistance. Read More

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Looking for pathways related to COVID-19: confirmation of pathogenic mechanisms by SARS-CoV-2-host interactome.

Cell Death Dis 2021 08 12;12(8):788. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani" IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

In the last months, many studies have clearly described several mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection at cell and tissue level, but the mechanisms of interaction between host and SARS-CoV-2, determining the grade of COVID-19 severity, are still unknown. We provide a network analysis on protein-protein interactions (PPI) between viral and host proteins to better identify host biological responses, induced by both whole proteome of SARS-CoV-2 and specific viral proteins. A host-virus interactome was inferred, applying an explorative algorithm (Random Walk with Restart, RWR) triggered by 28 proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Unfolded Protein Response Inhibition Reduces Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

mBio 2021 08 10;12(4):e0157221. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hillgrid.10698.36, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns are highly variable within and across individuals, leading to altered host responses after acute virus infection. Unraveling key tissue-specific response patterns provides novel opportunities for defining fundamental mechanisms of virus-host interaction in disease and the identification of critical tissue-specific networks for disease intervention in the lung. Currently, there are no approved therapeutics for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients, and little is understood about how lung cell types contribute to disease outcomes. Read More

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Genetic and Chemical Capsid Modifications of Adenovirus Vectors to Modulate Vector-Host Interactions.

Viruses 2021 07 2;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Chair of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Center for Biomedical Education and Research (ZBAF), Witten/Herdecke University, Stockumer Street 10, 58453 Witten, Germany.

Adenovirus-based vectors are playing an important role as efficacious genetic vaccines to fight the current COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, they have an enormous potential as oncolytic vectors for virotherapy and as vectors for classic gene therapy. However, numerous vector-host interactions on a cellular and noncellular level, including specific components of the immune system, must be modulated in order to generate safe and efficacious vectors for virotherapy or classic gene therapy. Read More

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Organelle Crosstalk Regulators Are Regulated in Diseases, Tumors, and Regulatory T Cells: Novel Classification of Organelle Crosstalk Regulators.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 22;8:713170. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centers for Cardiovascular Research, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

To examine whether the expressions of 260 organelle crosstalk regulators (OCRGs) in 16 functional groups are modulated in 23 diseases and 28 tumors, we performed extensive -omics data mining analyses and made a set of significant findings: (1) the ratios of upregulated vs. downregulated OCRGs are 1:2.8 in acute inflammations, 1:1 in metabolic diseases, 1:1. Read More

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Mitochondrial Modulations, Autophagy Pathways Shifts in Viral Infections: Consequences of COVID-19.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 30;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bathinda 151001, Punjab, India.

Mitochondria are vital intracellular organelles that play an important role in regulating various intracellular events such as metabolism, bioenergetics, cell death (apoptosis), and innate immune signaling. Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and membrane potential play a central role in maintaining mitochondrial dynamics and the overall shape of mitochondria. Viruses change the dynamics of the mitochondria by altering the mitochondrial processes/functions, such as autophagy, mitophagy, and enzymes involved in metabolism. Read More

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Transcryptomic Analysis of Human Brain -Microvascular Endothelial Cell Driven Changes in -Vascular Pericytes.

Cells 2021 Jul 14;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, University Hospital Zurich, 8952 Schlieren, Switzerland.

Many pathological conditions of the brain are associated with structural abnormalities within the neurovascular system and linked to pericyte (PC) loss and/or dysfunction. Since crosstalk between endothelial cells (ECs) and PCs greatly impacts the function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), effects of PCs on endothelial integrity and function have been investigated extensively. However, the impact of ECs on the function and activity of PCs remains largely unknown. Read More

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Neuroprotective effects of ononin against the aluminium chloride-induced Alzheimer's disease in rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Aug 15;28(8):4232-4239. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease categorized by the deficiency in the cognition and memory. Approximately 50 million peoples has the AD, which is categorized by the deficiency in the cognition, memory and other kinds of cognitive dissention. The present exploration was designed to unveil the ameliorative properties of ononin against the aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-provoked AD in animals via the suppression of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Read More

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Marburg and Ebola Virus mRNA 3' Untranslated Regions Contain Negative Regulators of Translation That Are Modulated by ADAR1 Editing.

J Virol 2021 Sep 9;95(19):e0065221. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State Universitygrid.256304.6, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

The filovirus family includes deadly pathogens such as Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV). A substantial portion of filovirus genomes encode 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of viral mRNAs. Select viral genomic RNA sequences corresponding to 3' UTRs are prone to editing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1). Read More

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September 2021

Polyphenols Could Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Modulating the Expression of miRNAs in the Host Cells.

Aging Dis 2021 Aug 1;12(5):1169-1182. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

5Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Science and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are single-stranded RNA viruses which following virus attachment and entry into the host cell, particularly type 2 pneumocytes but also endothelial cells, release RNA into cytosol where it serves as a matrix for the host translation machinery to produce viral proteins. The viral RNA in cytoplasm can interact with host cell microRNAs which can degrade viral RNA and/or prevent viral replication. As such host cellular miRNAs represent key cellular mediators of antiviral defense. Read More

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Phosphorylation of JIP4 at S730 presents anti-viral properties against influenza A virus infection.

J Virol 2021 Jul 28:JVI0067221. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Virology Muenster, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster, Germany.

Influenza A virus (IAV) is the causative agent of flu disease that results in annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. IAV alters several signaling pathways of the cellular host response in order to promote its replication. Therefore, some of these pathways can serve as targets for novel anti-viral agents. Read More

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Interplays between human microbiota and microRNAs in COVID-19 pathogenesis: a literature review.

Phys Act Nutr 2021 Jun 30;25(2):1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Nursing, Cheju Halla University, Jeju, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Recent studies have shown that COVID-19 is often associated with altered gut microbiota composition and reflects disease severity. Furthermore, various reports suggest that the interaction between COVID-19 and host-microbiota homeostasis is mediated through the modulation of microRNAs (miRNAs). Thus, in this review, we aim to summarize the association between human microbiota and miRNAs in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Read More

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Cuticular Hydrocarbon Plasticity in Three Rice Planthopper Species.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 20;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Insect Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are organic compounds of the surface lipid layer, which function as a barrier against water loss and xenobiotic penetration, while also serving as chemical signals. Plasticity of CHC profiles can vary depending upon numerous biological and environmental factors. Here, we investigated potential sources of variation in CHC profiles of , and which are considered to be the most important rice pests in Asia. Read More

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Selective targeting of ligand-dependent and -independent signaling by GPCR conformation-specific anti-US28 intrabodies.

Nat Commun 2021 07 16;12(1):4357. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Amsterdam Institute of Molecular and Life Sciences (AIMMS), Division of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

While various GPCRs, including US28, display constitutive, ligand-independent activity, it remains to be established whether ligand-dependent and -independent active conformations differ and can be selectively modulated. Previously, the agonist-bound conformation of US28 was stabilized and its structure was solved using the anti-US28 nanobody Nb7. Here we report the recognition of the constitutively active, apo-conformation of US28 by another nanobody VUN103. Read More

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Free Energy Landscapes from SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein Simulations Suggest that RBD Opening Can Be Modulated via Interactions in an Allosteric Pocket.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 08 16;143(30):11349-11360. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, United States.

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The spike is a class I viral fusion glycoprotein that extends from the viral surface and is responsible for viral entry into the host cell and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike samples multiple conformations in a compromise between evading immune recognition and searching for the host-cell surface receptor. Read More

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Induction of Protective Immunity by a Single Low Dose of a Master Cell Bank cGMP-rBCG-P Vaccine Against the Human Metapneumovirus in Mice.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 29;11:662714. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an emergent virus, which mainly infects the upper and lower respiratory tract epithelium. This pathogen is responsible for a significant portion of hospitalizations due to bronchitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly worldwide. hMPV infection induces a pro-inflammatory immune response upon infection of the host, which is not adequate for the clearance of this pathogen. Read More

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Subjective sleep quality and characteristics across the menstrual cycle in women with and without Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

J Psychosom Res 2021 Sep 7;148:110570. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Past studies have found that various psychiatric symptoms fluctuate over the menstrual cycle. Sleep disturbance is a transdiagnostic feature of psychiatric conditions and is associated with several symptoms that exhibit menstrual fluctuations. Although some evidence indicates that subjective sleep quality changes over the menstrual cycle in healthy women, no studies have investigated whether sleep fluctuates over the menstrual cycle in psychiatric populations, other than premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Read More

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September 2021

BTN2A1, an immune checkpoint targeting Vγ9Vδ2 T cell cytotoxicity against malignant cells.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(2):109359

Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), INSERM U1068, 13009 Marseille, France; Institut Paoli-Calmettes, 13009 Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université UM105, CNRS UMR 7258, 13009 Marseille, France. Electronic address:

The anti-tumor response of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells requires the sensing of accumulated phosphoantigens (pAgs) bound intracellularly to butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1). In this study, we show that butyrophilin 2A1 (BTN2A1) is required for BTN3A-mediated Vγ9Vδ2 T cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, and that expression of the BTN2A1/BTN3A1 complex is sufficient to trigger Vγ9Vδ2 TCR activation. Also, BTN2A1 interacts with all isoforms of BTN3A (BTN3A1, BTN3A2, BTN3A3), which appears to be a rate-limiting factor to BTN2A1 export to the plasma membrane. Read More

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