10,454 results match your criteria modulate host

Phytohormones selectively affect plant parasitic nematodes associated with Arabidopsis roots.

New Phytol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Agroecology, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Aarhus University, 4200, Slagelse, Denmark.

Phytohormones may affect plant-nematode interactions directly as chemo-attractants or -repellents, or indirectly through the root-associated microbiome or through host defense mechanisms. However, the exact roles of phytohormones in these complex plant-soil-nematode interactions are not well understood. We used Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in phytohormone synthesis or sensitivity to elucidate their role in root-nematode interactions. Read More

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Enzymatically synthesised MnO nanoparticles for efficient near-infrared photothermal therapy and dual-responsive magnetic resonance imaging.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic Chemistry and Materia Medica, Hubei Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials and Medical Protective Materials, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are highly attractive for biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, stimuli-responsive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties and capability to modulate the hypoxic tumour microenvironment (TME). However, conventional MnO2 NPs do not possess photothermal therapy (PTT) functions except for hybrids with other photothermal materials. Herein, we first reveal the extraordinary photothermal conversion efficiency (44%) of enzymatically synthesised MnO2 NPs (Bio-MnO2 NPs), which are distinct from chemically synthesised MnO2 NPs. Read More

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lncRNA SNHG7 promotes cell proliferation in glioma by acting as a competing endogenous RNA and sponging miR-138-5p to regulate EZH2 expression.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 29;22(1):565. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, P.R. China.

Glioma is the most common type of primary brain cancer in adults. Accumulating studies have reported that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve a significant role in the initiation and development of glioma. lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 7 (SNHG7) has been previously demonstrated to serve a role in numerous glioma biological processes, including cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Read More

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The Adenylate Cyclase, CyaB, Is Important for Virulence Factor Production and Mammalian Infection.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:676192. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, United States.

, the causative agent of Lyme disease, traverses through vastly distinct environments between the tick vector and the multiple phases of the mammalian infection that requires genetic adaptation for the progression of pathogenesis. Borrelial gene expression is highly responsive to changes in specific environmental signals that initiate the RpoS regulon for mammalian adaptation, but the mechanism(s) for direct detection of environmental cues has yet to be identified. Secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) produced by adenylate cyclase is responsive to environmental signals, such as carbon source and pH, in many bacterial pathogens to promote virulence by altering gene regulation. Read More

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A probiotic has differential effects on allergic airway inflammation in A/J and C57BL/6 mice and is correlated with the gut microbiome.

Microbiome 2021 Jun 10;9(1):134. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pharmaceutics Sciences, Institute of Environmental, Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, R. São Nicolau, 210, Diadema, SP, 09913-03, Brazil.

The phenotypes of allergic airway diseases are influenced by the interplay between host genetics and the gut microbiota, which may be modulated by probiotics. We investigated the probiotic effects on allergic inflammation in A/J and C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mice had increased gut microbiota diversity compared to A/J mice at baseline. Read More

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Hookworm treatment induces a decrease of suppressive regulatory T cell associated with a Th2 inflammatory response.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252921. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Clinic of Immunoallergology, CHU Brugmann, ULB, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Like other helminths, hookworms (HW) induce a regulatory immune response able to modulate and dampen reactivity of the host to antigens. No data about the evolution of the immune response after treatment are available. We aim to phenotype the regulatory immune response during natural HW infection and its evolution after treatment. Read More

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Systematic review and meta-analysis on the adjunctive use of host immune modulators in non-surgical periodontal treatment in healthy and systemically compromised patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12125. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Considering the central role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the combination of NSPT with different agents that can modulate the host immune-inflammatory response has been proposed to enhance the outcomes of NSPT. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the literature on the efficacy of systemic host modulators (HMs) as adjuncts to non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in improving pocket depth (PD) reduction and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain in healthy and systemically compromised patients. RCTs with ≥ 3 months follow-up were independently searched by two reviewers. Read More

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Zika Virus Induces an Atypical Tripartite Unfolded Protein Response with Sustained Sensor and Transient Effector Activation and a Blunted BiP Response.

mSphere 2021 Jun 9:e0036121. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

To study how the Zika virus (ZIKV) interacts with the host unfolded protein response (UPR), we undertook a kinetics study. We show that ZIKV infection triggers an atypical tripartite UPR in A549 cells involving transient activation of the effectors X-box-binding protein 1, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein, and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 during early infection and sustained activation of all three UPR sensors: RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum-resident kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring kinase-1α (IRE1α), and ATF6. Sustained phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and rRNA degradation coincide with host translational shutoff, cell lysis, and virus release during late infection. Read More

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Cinnamaldehyde Improves Metabolic Functions in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice by Regulating Gut Microbiota.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 1;15:2339-2355. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Shenzhen, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of cinnamaldehyde (CA) on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms by using multiple omics technology.

Methods: T1DM was induced by streptozotocin in the mice. Immunostaining was performed to evaluate glycogen synthesis in the liver and morphological changes in the heart. Read More

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Designing Biomaterials for the Modulation of Allogeneic and Autoimmune Responses to Cellular Implants in Type 1 Diabetes.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; University of Florida Diabetes Institute, Gainesville, FL, USA; Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

The effective suppression of adaptive immune responses is essential for the success of allogeneic cell therapies. In islet transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes, pre-existing autoimmunity provides an additional hurdle, as memory autoimmune T cells mediate both an autoantigen-specific attack on the donor beta cells and an alloantigen-specific attack on the donor graft cells. Immunosuppressive agents used for islet transplantation are generally successful in suppressing alloimmune responses, but dramatically hinder the widespread adoption of this therapeutic approach and fail to control memory T cell populations, which leaves the graft vulnerable to destruction. Read More

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Anti-parasitics drugs that modulates non-selective channels formed by connexins or pannexins.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jun 5:166188. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Laboratory of Gap Junction and Parasitic Diseases (GaPaL), Instituto Antofagasta, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta, Chile. Electronic address:

The proteins connexin, innexin, and pannexin are the subunits of non-selective channels present in the membranes of vertebrates (connexins and pannexins) and invertebrate (innexins) cells. These channels allow the flow of signaling molecules between the interior and exterior of the cell or, in many cases, between the cytoplasm of neighboring cells. These channels participate in various physiological processes, especially in pathophysiological conditions such as infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Read More

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Neuraminidase and SIGLEC15 modulate the host defense against pulmonary aspergillosis.

Cell Rep Med 2021 May 18;2(5):100289. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) has been reported increasingly since the advent of use of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors following the 2009 influenza pandemic. We hypothesize that blocking host NA modulates the immune response against . We demonstrate that NA influences the host response against and that oseltamivir increases the susceptibility of mice to pulmonary aspergillosis. Read More

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Modulation of Immune Responses by Nutritional Ligands of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:645168. Epub 2021 May 20.

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, INSERM U932, Paris, France.

Accumulating evidence indicates that nutrition can modulate the immune system through metabolites, either produced by host digestion or by microbiota metabolism. In this review, we focus on dietary metabolites that are agonists of the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor, initially characterized for its interaction with xenobiotic pollutants. Read More

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Sex-Bias in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Linking Steroids to the Gut-Brain Axis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:684096. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is more common in females. Despite its high global incidence, the disease mechanism is still unclear and therapeutic options remain limited. The sexual dimorphism in IBS incidence suggests that sex steroids play a role in disease onset and symptoms severity. Read More

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An elegant nano-injection machinery for sabotaging the host: Role of Type III secretion system in virulence of different human and animal pathogenic bacteria.

Phys Life Rev 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Microbiology & Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, India. Electronic address:

Various Gram-negative bacteria possess a specialized membrane-bound protein secretion system known as the Type III secretion system (T3SS), which transports the bacterial effector proteins into the host cytosol thereby helping in bacterial pathogenesis. The T3SS has a special needle-like translocon that can sense the contact with the host cell membrane and translocate effectors. The export apparatus of T3SS recognizes these effector proteins bound to chaperones and translocates them into the host cell. Read More

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Structural insights of macromolecules involved in bacteria-induced apoptosis in the pathogenesis of human diseases.

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2021 18;126:1-38. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Computer Aided Drug Design and Molecular Modeling Lab, Department of Bioinformatics, Science Block, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Numbers of pathogenic bacteria can induce apoptosis in human host cells and modulate the cellular pathways responsible for inducing or inhibiting apoptosis. These pathogens are significantly recognized by host proteins and provoke the multitude of several signaling pathways and alter the cellular apoptotic stimuli. This process leads the bacterial entry into the mammalian cells and evokes a variety of responses like phagocytosis, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, secretion of bacterial effectors, release of both apoptotic and inflammatory cytokines, and the triggering of apoptosis. Read More

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Cryo-EM structure of the cetacean morbillivirus nucleoprotein-RNA complex.

J Struct Biol 2021 Jun 3;213(3):107750. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Max-Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany. Electronic address:

Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) is an emerging and highly infectious paramyxovirus that causes outbreaks in cetaceans and occasionally in pinnipeds, representing a major threat to biodiversity and conservation of endangered marine mammal populations in both hemispheres. As for all non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, the morbilliviral genome is enwrapped by thousands of nucleoprotein (N) protomers. Each bound to six ribonucleotides, N protomers assemble to form a helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that serves as scaffold for nucleocapsid formation and as template for viral replication and transcription. Read More

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Sequence modification on demand: search and replace tools for precise gene editing in plants.

Tomáš Čermák

Transgenic Res 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Inari Agriculture, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA.

Until recently, our ability to generate allelic diversity in plants was limited to introduction of variants from domesticated and wild species by breeding via uncontrolled recombination or the use of chemical and physical mutagens-processes that are lengthy and costly or lack specificity, respectively. Gene editing provides a faster and more precise way to create new variation, although its application in plants has been dominated by the creation of short insertion and deletion mutations leading to loss of gene function, mostly due to the dependence of editing outcomes on DNA repair pathway choices intrinsic to higher eukaryotes. Other types of edits such as point mutations and precise and pre-designed targeted sequence insertions have rarely been implemented, despite providing means to modulate the expression of target genes or to engineer the function and stability of their protein products. Read More

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A conserved rhizobial peptidase that interacts with host-derived symbiotic peptides.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11779. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA.

In the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis, chemical signaling initiates rhizobial infection of root nodule tissue, where a large portion of the bacteria are endocytosed into root nodule cells to function in nitrogen-fixing organelles. These intracellular bacteria are subjected to an arsenal of plant-derived nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, which induce the physiological changes that accompany nitrogen fixation. NCR peptides drive these intracellular bacteria toward terminal differentiation. Read More

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The Effect of Lidocaine and Bosutinib on 4T1 Murine Breast Cancer Cell Behaviour .

Anticancer Res 2021 Jun;41(6):2835-2840

Department of Anesthesiology, Mater University Hospital, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background/aim: Systemic lidocaine has recently emerged as a promising agent possessing numerous potentially anti-neoplastic effects. In vitro studies suggest that lidocaine may prevent metastasis by acting on the tyrosine kinase enzyme Src. Intravenous lidocaine has been reported to reduce pulmonary metastasis in vivo in a murine breast cancer model, however the beneficial effect is abolished by the Src inhibitor bosutinib. Read More

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Modulating tyrosine sulfation of recombinant antibodies in CHO cell culture by host selection and sodium chlorate supplementation.

Biotechnol J 2021 Jun 3:e2100142. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Cell Line Development, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Background: Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification found on many surface receptors and plays an important role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, tyrosine sulfation of therapeutic antibodies has only been reported very recently. Because of potential potency and immunogenicity concerns, tyrosine sulfation needs to be controlled during the manufacturing process. Read More

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Bacteria- and host-derived extracellular vesicles - two sides of the same coin?

J Cell Sci 2021 Jun 3;134(11). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Galvin Life Science Center, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA.

Intracellular bacterial pathogens spend portions of their life cycle both inside and outside host cells. While in these two distinct environments, they release or shed bacterial components, including virulence factors that promote their survival and replication. Some of these components are released through extracellular vesicles, which are either derived from the bacteria themselves or from the host cells. Read More

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A large-scale metagenomic survey dataset of the post-weaning piglet gut lumen.

Gigascience 2021 Jun;10(6)

The iThree Institute, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Background: Early weaning and intensive farming practices predispose piglets to the development of infectious and often lethal diseases, against which antibiotics are used. Besides contributing to the build-up of antimicrobial resistance, antibiotics are known to modulate the gut microbial composition. As an alternative to antibiotic treatment, studies have previously investigated the potential of probiotics for the prevention of postweaning diarrhea. Read More

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Is the oral microbiome a source to enhance mucosal immunity against infectious diseases?

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Jun 2;6(1):80. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Departments of Genomic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, J. Craig Venter Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Mucosal tissues act as a barrier throughout the oral, nasopharyngeal, lung, and intestinal systems, offering first-line protection against potential pathogens. Conventionally, vaccines are applied parenterally to induce serotype-dependent humoral response but fail to drive adequate mucosal immune protection for viral infections such as influenza, HIV, and coronaviruses. Oral mucosa, however, provides a vast immune repertoire against specific microbial pathogens and yet is shaped by an ever-present microbiome community that has co-evolved with the host over thousands of years. Read More

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Integrative analysis of colonic biopsies from inflammatory bowel disease patients identifies an interaction between microbial bile-acid inducible gene abundance and human Angiopoietin-like 4 gene expression.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Aims: Microbial derived-bile acids can modulate host gene expression, and their fecal abundance is decreased in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We analyzed the impact of endoscopic inflammation on microbial genes involved in bile acid biotransformation, and their interaction with host transcriptome in the intestinal mucosa of IBD patients.

Methods: Endoscopic mucosal biopsies were collected from non-inflamed and inflamed terminal ileum, ascending and sigmoid colon of IBD patients. Read More

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The role of the microbiome in gastrointestinal inflammation.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jun;41(6)

Department of Microbial Diseases, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Royal Free Campus, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The microbiome plays an important role in maintaining human health. Despite multiple factors being attributed to the shaping of the human microbiome, extrinsic factors such diet and use of medications including antibiotics appear to dominate. Mucosal surfaces, particularly in the gut, are highly adapted to be able to tolerate a large population of microorganisms whilst still being able to produce a rapid and effective immune response against infection. Read More

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Engineering Gac/Rsm Signaling Cascade for Optogenetic Induction of the Pathogenicity Switch in .

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale; Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

Bacterial pathogens operate by tightly controlling the pathogenicity to facilitate invasion and survival in host. While small molecule inducers can be designed to modulate pathogenicity to perform studies of pathogen-host interaction, these approaches, due to the diffusion property of chemicals, may have unintended, or pleiotropic effects that can impose limitations on their use. By contrast, light provides superior spatial and temporal resolution. Read More

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ST8Sia6 Promotes Tumor Growth in Mice by Inhibiting Immune Responses.

Cancer Immunol Res 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Immunology, Mayo Clinic

Many tumors exhibit increased incorporation of sialic acids into cell-surface glycans, which impact the tumor microenvironment. Sialic acid immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are receptors that recognize sialic acids and modulate immune responses, including responses to tumors. However, the roles of individual sialyltransferases in tumorigenesis and tumor growth is not well understood. Read More

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Different Non-Structural Carbohydrates/Crude Proteins (NCS/CP) Ratios in Diet Shape the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of Water Buffalo.

Vet Sci 2021 May 31;8(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples "Federico II", 80137 Naples, Italy.

The microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are crucial for host health and production efficiency in ruminants. Its microbial composition can be influenced by several endogenous and exogenous factors. In the beef and dairy industry, the possibility to manipulate gut microbiota by diet and management can have important health and economic implications. Read More

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Race as a Contributor to Stromal Modulation of Tumor Progression.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 28;13(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Research Institute, 1001 University Place, Evanston, IL 60201, USA.

Stromal cells play crucial roles in tumor development and are increasingly attractive targets for therapy. There are considerable racial disparities in the incidence and progression of many tumors, reflecting both environmental exposure and genetic differences existing between races. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression are linked to both the propensity to suffer an initiating event and the host response to such an event once it occurs, contributing to incidence and outcomes. Read More

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