900 results match your criteria modifies differentiation

Cryptic genetic variation in a heat shock protein modifies the outcome of a mutation affecting epidermal stem cell development in C. elegans.

Nat Commun 2021 05 31;12(1):3263. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

A fundamental question in medical genetics is how the genetic background modifies the phenotypic outcome of mutations. We address this question by focusing on the seam cells, which display stem cell properties in the epidermis of Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that a putative null mutation in the GATA transcription factor egl-18, which is involved in seam cell fate maintenance, is more tolerated in the CB4856 isolate from Hawaii than the lab reference strain N2 from Bristol. Read More

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Abscisic acid signaling activates distinct VND transcription factors to promote xylem differentiation in Arabidopsis.

Curr Biol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany, Linnean Centre for Plant Biology, Uppsala University, Ullsv. 24E, SE-756 51 Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Plants display remarkable abilities to adjust growth and development to environmental conditions, such as the amount of available water. This developmental plasticity is apparent not only in root and shoot growth rates, but also in tissue patterning and cell morphology. We have previously shown that in response to limited water availability, Arabidopsis thaliana root displays changes in xylem morphology, mediated by the non-cell-autonomous action of abscisic acid, ABA. Read More

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Early response of monocyte-derived macrophages from vaccinated and non-vaccinated goats against in vitro infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

Vet Res 2021 May 12;52(1):69. Epub 2021 May 12.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana s/n, 24007, León, Spain.

Paratuberculosis is a disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Vaccination is the most cost-effective control method. Read More

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PTEN and α-SMA Expression and Diagnostic Role in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Concomitant Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

J Oral Maxillofac Res 2021 Jan-Mar;12(1):e3. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Oral Microbiology, SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, DharwadIndia.

Objectives: The diagnostic role and correlation between phosphatase and tensin homologue and alpha-smooth muscle actin in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma with concomitant oral submucous fibrosis was analysed by this case control study. The mechanism by which phosphatase and tensin homologue controls myofibroblast expression was also evaluated.

Material And Methods: Overall, 10 normal mucosa, 30 oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and 30 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with OSF were stained immunohistochemically with phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Read More

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Propionate hampers differentiation and modifies histone propionylation and acetylation in skeletal muscle cells.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Jun 28;196:111495. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Human and Animal Physiology, Wageningen University and Research, PO Box 338, 6700 AH, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Protein acylation via metabolic acyl-CoA intermediates provides a link between cellular metabolism and protein functionality. A process in which acetyl-CoA and acetylation are fine-tuned is during myogenic differentiation. However, the roles of other protein acylations remain unknown. Read More

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Reactivation of the Hedgehog pathway in esophageal progenitors turns on an embryonic-like program to initiate columnar metaplasia.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

IRIBHM, ULB/Faculty of Medicine, 808 route de Lennik, 1070 Brussels, Belgium; WELBIO/FNRS Principal Investigator at IRIBHM, ULB/Faculty of Medicine, 808 route de Lennik, 1070 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Columnar metaplasia of the esophagus is the main risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. There is a lack of evidence to demonstrate that esophageal progenitors can be the source of columnar metaplasia. In this study, using transgenic mouse models, lineage tracing, single-cell RNA sequencing, and transcriptomic and epigenetic profiling, we found that the activation of the Hedgehog pathway in esophageal cells modifies their differentiation status in vivo. Read More

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Hypoxic preconditioning induces epigenetic changes and modifies swine mesenchymal stem cell angiogenesis and senescence in experimental atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Apr 14;12(1):240. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, 200, First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55902, USA.

Background: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is a risk factor for ischemic and hypertensive kidney disease (HKD) for which autologous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) appears to be a promising therapy. However, MSCs from ARAS patients exhibit impaired function, senescence, and DNA damage, possibly due to epigenetic mechanisms. Hypoxia preconditioning (HPC) exerts beneficial effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, and gene and protein expression. Read More

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A Requirement of Protein Geranylgeranylation for Chemokine Receptor Signaling and Th17 Cell Function in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:641188. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States.

Precisely controlled lymphocyte migration is critically required for immune surveillance and successful immune responses. Lymphocyte migration is strictly regulated by chemokines and chemokine receptors. Here we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a form of post-translational protein lipid modification, is required for chemokine receptor-proximal signaling. Read More

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Gene and Protein Expression Is Altered by Ascorbate Availability in Murine Macrophages Cultured under Tumour-Like Conditions.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Mackenzie Cancer Research Group, Department of Pathology & Biomedical Science, University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand.

Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are ubiquitously present in tumours and commonly associated with poor prognosis. In immune cells, ascorbate affects epigenetic regulation, differentiation and phenotype via its co-factor activity for the 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenase enzymes. Here, we determined the effect of ascorbate on TAM development in response to tumour microenvironmental cues. Read More

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Up-Regulated Vitamin D Receptor by Extract EPs 7630 Contributes to Rhinovirus Defense in Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Feb 22;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Pulmonary Cell Research & Pneumology, Department Biomedicine & Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland.

EPs7630, extracted from , reduces the severity of viral upper respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D also improves anti-viral host defense through similar signaling pathways. This study assessed if EPs7630 modifies vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and function by human bronchial epithelial cells. Read More

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February 2021

The in vitro multilineage differentiation and maturation of lung and airway cells from human pluripotent stem cell-derived lung progenitors in 3D.

Nat Protoc 2021 04 1;16(4):1802-1829. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Columbia Center for Human Development, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Lung and airway epithelial cells generated in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have applications in regenerative medicine, modeling of lung disease, drug screening and studies of human lung development. Here, we describe a strategy for directed differentiation of hPSCs into mature lung and airway epithelial cells obtained through maturation of NKX2.1 hPSC-derived lung progenitors in a 3D matrix of collagen I in the absence of glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition. Read More

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Formalin-killed Propionibacterium acnes activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and modifies differentiation of SZ95 sebocytes in vitro.

Eur J Dermatol 2021 Feb;31(1):32-40

Department of Dermatology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, PR China.

Background: Acne vulgaris is a common pilosebaceous disease associated with Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). Resolution of comedones may occur in association with shrunken sebaceous glands (SGs) containing de-differentiated cells, however the role of P. Read More

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February 2021

FTO modifies the m6A level of MALAT and promotes bladder cancer progression.

Clin Transl Med 2021 Feb;11(2):e310

Department of Urology, Menchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Nearly a half million people around the world are diagnosed with bladder cancer each year, and an incomplete understanding of its pathogenicity and lack of efficient biomarkers having been discovered lead to poor clinical management of bladder cancer. Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is a critical player in carcinogenesis. We, here, explored the role of FTO and unraveled the mechanism of its function in bladder cancer. Read More

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February 2021

Association of Wolbachia with Gene Expression in Drosophila Testes.

Microb Ecol 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular symbiotic bacteria that are widely distributed in arthropods and nematodes. These maternally inherited bacteria regulate host reproductive systems in various ways to facilitate their vertical transmission. Since the identification of Wolbachia in many insects, the relationship between Wolbachia and the host has attracted great interest. Read More

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February 2021

Metabolic reprogramming of T regulatory cells in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Biomedical Research Center, School of Science, Engineering and Environment, University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT, UK.

Metabolic dysregulation in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME) is considered as a hallmark of solid tumors, leading to changes in biosynthetic pathways favoring onset, survival and proliferation of malignant cells. Within the TME, hypoxic milieu favors metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, which subsequently affects biological properties of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. T regulatory cells (Tregs), including both circulating and tissue-resident cells, are particularly susceptible to hypoxic metabolic signaling that can reprogram their biological and physicochemical properties. Read More

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February 2021

Deletion of LRP1 From Astrocytes Modifies Neuronal Network Activity in an Model of the Tripartite Synapse.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 14;14:567253. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Cell Morphology and Molecular Neurobiology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a transmembrane receptor that binds over 40 potential ligands and is involved in processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. LRP1 is ubiquitously expressed in the organism and enriched among others in blood vessels, liver, and the central nervous system (CNS). There, it is strongly expressed by neurons, microglia, immature oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Read More

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January 2021

Loss of tRNA-modifying enzyme Elp3 activates a p53-dependent antitumor checkpoint in hematopoiesis.

J Exp Med 2021 Mar;218(3)

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, GIGA-Stem Cells, GIGA-Research, Liege University, Liège, Belgium.

The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to perturbations in the translational machinery, of which an emerging level of regulation lies in the epitranscriptomic modification of transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Here, we interrogate the role of tRNA anticodon modifications in hematopoiesis by using mouse models of conditional inactivation of Elp3, the catalytic subunit of Elongator that modifies wobble uridine in specific tRNAs. Loss of Elp3 causes bone marrow failure by inducing death in committing progenitors and compromises the grafting activity of hematopoietic stem cells. Read More

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Bioactive Elastic Scaffolds Loaded with Neural Stem Cells Promote Rapid Spinal Cord Regeneration.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 11 7;6(11):6331-6343. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Orthopedics, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, #88 Jie Fang Road, Hangzhou, 310009 Zhejiang, PR China.

Despite decades of research, spinal cord injury (SCI) still causes irreparable damage to the human body. Key challenges that hinder the regeneration and extension of neurons following SCI must be overcome, including the overexpressed glial scar formation and strong inflammatory responses in lesion tissue. Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) represents a promising therapeutic method due to its beneficial roles like growth factor secretion and anti-inflammation. Read More

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November 2020

The role of microRNAs in cell death pathways.

Yeungnam Univ J Med 2021 Apr 13;38(2):107-117. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Anatomy, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate target messenger RNAs. In multicellular eukaryotes, numerous miRNAs perform basic cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Abnormal expression of miRNAs weakens or modifies various apoptosis pathways, leading to the development of human cancer. Read More

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Dental pulp stem cells response on the nanotopography of scaffold to regenerate dentin-pulp complex tissue.

Regen Ther 2020 Dec 7;15:243-250. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl Denta Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia.

The study of regenerative dentistry receives a fast growing interest. The potential ability of the dentin-pulp complex to regenerate is both promising and perplexing. To answer the challenging nature of the dental environment, scientists have developed various combinations of biomaterial scaffolds, stem cells, and incorporation of several growth factors. Read More

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December 2020

Gene expression of type II collagen is regulated by direct interaction with Kruppel-like factor 4 and AT-rich interactive domain 5B.

Gene 2021 Mar 29;773:145381. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Tissue Regeneration, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan. Electronic address:

We have previously found and characterized two pairs of enhancer elements, E1 and E2, in the type II collagen alpha 1 chain (COL2A1) gene. Subsequent studies have suggested that these enhancers function differently in the regulation of gene expression. For example, histone deacetylase 10 modifies only the E2 enhancer region to affect gene expression. Read More

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Protocol for Tri-culture of hiPSC-Derived Neurons, Astrocytes, and Microglia.

STAR Protoc 2020 Dec 1;1(3):100190. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Psychiatry, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

This protocol establishes a tri-culture of hiPSC-derived neurons, astrocytes, and microglia for the study of cellular interactions during homeostasis, injury, and disease. This system allows for mechanistic studies that can identify the roles of individual cell types in disease and injury response in a physiologically relevant, all-human system. This protocol utilizes and modifies prior differentiations. Read More

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December 2020

Fibronectin and Its Receptors in Hematopoiesis.

Cells 2020 12 18;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Fibronectin is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix protein that is produced by many cell types in the bone marrow and distributed throughout it. Cells of the stem cell niche produce the various isoforms of this protein. Fibronectin not only provides the cells a scaffold to bind to, but it also modulates their behavior by binding to receptors on the adjacent hematopoietic stem cells and stromal cells. Read More

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December 2020

Deubiquitylases in developmental ubiquitin signaling and congenital diseases.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Feb 17;28(2):538-556. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Stem Cell Biochemistry Unit, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Metazoan development from a one-cell zygote to a fully formed organism requires complex cellular differentiation and communication pathways. To coordinate these processes, embryos frequently encode signaling information with the small protein modifier ubiquitin, which is typically attached to lysine residues within substrates. During ubiquitin signaling, a three-step enzymatic cascade modifies specific substrates with topologically unique ubiquitin modifications, which mediate changes in the substrate's stability, activity, localization, or interacting proteins. Read More

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February 2021

CPEB3 regulates neuron-specific alternative splicing and involves neurogenesis gene expression.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 12 9;13(2):2330-2347. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Hand Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, China.

In the mammalian brain, alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a fundamental mechanism that modifies neuronal function dynamically where secretion of different splice variants regulates neurogenesis, development, pathfinding, maintenance, migration, and synaptogenesis. Sequence-specific RNA-Binding Protein CPEB3 has distinctive isoform-distinct biochemical interactions and neuronal development assembly roles. Nonetheless, the mechanisms moderating splice isoform options remain unclear. Read More

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December 2020

Angiotensin-(1-7) Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Autophagy via the Mas Receptor in Skeletal Muscle.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 8;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Laboratory of Muscle Pathology, Fragility and Aging, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8370146, Chile.

Skeletal muscle atrophy, which occurs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis, causes a severe muscle function reduction. The increased autophagy contributes to sepsis-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in a model of LPS injection, increasing LC3II/LC3I ratio, autophagy flux, and autophagosomes. Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) has anti-atrophic effects via the Mas receptor in skeletal muscle. Read More

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December 2020

[Functional integrity of aging skin, from cutaneous biology to anti-aging strategies].

Med Sci (Paris) 2020 Dec 9;36(12):1155-1162. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Équipe Intégrité fonctionnelle du tissu cutané (SKIN). Laboratoire de biologie tissulaire et d'ingénierie thérapeutique (LBTI), CNRS UMR5305, Université Lyon I, 7 passage du Vercors, 69367 Lyon Cedex 07, France.

The skin is a sentinel organ making easily visible the passing of time. Chronological and environmental aging weakens skin structure and functions. The skin barrier, the elastic and mechanical properties of the cutaneous tissue as well as its vascular reactivity are impacted by aging. Read More

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December 2020

Orexin B inhibits viability and differentiation of stromal cells from swine adipose tissue.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Apr 12;75:106594. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Dipartimento di Scienze Medico-Veterinarie, Università degli Studi di Parma, Via del Taglio, 10, 43126 Parma, Italy.

Adipose tissue is recognized as a fundamental endocrine organ. Nowadays, we are also aware that it contains the highest number of stromal cells (ASCs) per unit of volume. These cells can differentiate between different phenotypes among which the adipocytes. Read More

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The Balance of Stromal BMP Signaling Mediated by GREM1 and ISLR Drives Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

Gastroenterology 2021 Mar 14;160(4):1224-1239.e30. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Background & Aims: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), key constituents of the tumor microenvironment, either promote or restrain tumor growth. Attempts to therapeutically target CAFs have been hampered by our incomplete understanding of these functionally heterogeneous cells. Key growth factors in the intestinal epithelial niche, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), also play a critical role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Read More

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