8,858 results match your criteria modifications affect


Trimethylacetic anhydride-based derivatization facilitates quantification of histone marks at the MS1 level.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Jun 12:100114. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic; Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs) are epigenetic marks that strongly affect numerous processes, including cell cycling and protein interactions. They have been studied by both antibody- and mass spectrometry-based methods for years, but the analyses are still challenging, mainly due to the diversity of histones and their modifications arising from high contents of reactive amine groups in their amino acid sequences. Here, we introduce use of trimethylacetic anhydride (TMA) as a new reagent for efficient histone derivatization, which is a requirement for bottom-up proteomic hPTM analysis. Read More

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HIV Reverse Transcriptase Pre-Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of Chain Terminators and Translocation Inhibitors Reveals Interactions between Magnesium and Nucleotide 3'-OH.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 25;6(22):14621-14628. Epub 2021 May 25.

Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, 3130 Bioscience Research Building, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

Deoxythymidine triphosphate analogues with various 3' substituents in the sugar ring (-OH (dTTP)), -H, -N, -NH, -F, -O-CH, no group (2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine triphosphate (d4TTP)), and those retaining the 3'-OH but with 4' additions (4'--methyl, 4'--ethyl) or sugar ring modifications (d-carba dTTP) were evaluated using pre-steady-state kinetics in low (0.5 mM) and high (6 mM) Mg with HIV reverse transcriptase (RT). Analogues showed diminished observed incorporation rate constants () compared to dTTP ranging from about 2-fold (3'-H, -N, and d4TTP with high Mg) to >10-fold (3'-NH and 3'-F with low Mg), while 3'-O-CH dTTP incorporated much slower than other analogues. Read More

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Altered Glycosylation in the Aging Heart.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 28;8:673044. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Jena, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries. Because the incidence increases exponentially in the aging population, aging is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation are typical hallmarks of the aged heart. Read More

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Surgical outcome and molecular pattern characterization of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme: A single-center retrospective series.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Jun 8;207:106735. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana (AOUP), Pisa, Italy; Department of Translational Research and of New Surgical and Medical Technologies, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Objective: Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of the disease, the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains poor. While the value of molecular pattern profiles at first diagnosis has been demonstrated, only few studies have examined these biomarkers at the time of recurrence. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of extent of resection at repeated craniotomy on overall survival (OS) of patients with recurrent GBM. Read More

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mA modification of RNA and its role in cancer, with a special focus on lung cancer.

Genomics 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, UP, India.

Epitranscriptomics involves functionally relevant biochemical modifications of RNA taking place at the transcriptome level without a change in the sequence of ribonucleotides. Several types of modifications that affect the processing and function of differentRNA types have been reported. Methylation at N of Adenosine called mA is one such modification, quite widespread in occurrence and reported in snRNAs, lncRNAs, circRNAs, rRNAs, miRNAs, and most abundantly, in mRNAs. Read More

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Cancer-induced muscle atrophy is determined by intrinsic muscle oxidative capacity.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21714

School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

We tested the hypothesis that cancer cachexia progression would induce oxidative post-translational modifications (Ox-PTMs) associated with skeletal muscle wasting, with different responses in muscles with the prevalence of glycolytic and oxidative fibers. We used cysteine-specific isotopic coded affinity tags (OxICAT) and gel-free mass spectrometry analysis to investigate the cysteine Ox-PTMs profile in the proteome of both plantaris (glycolytic) and soleus (oxidative) muscles in tumor-bearing and control rats. Histological analysis revealed muscle atrophy in type II fibers in plantaris muscle, with no changes in plantaris type I fibers and no differences in both soleus type I and II fibers in tumor-bearing rats when compared to healthy controls. Read More

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Research advances on epigenetics and cancer metabolism.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Feb;50(1):1-16

School of Medicine,Tsinghua University,Beijing 100084,China.

Epigenetics concerns gene regulatory mechanisms beyond DNA sequence,such as DNA methylation,histone modification,chromatin remodeling,and non-coding RNA. Epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in development,cell fate decision and tumorigenesis. Chromatin modifications and its high order structure across our genome are major forms of epigenetic information,and its establishment and maintenance are closely related to cell metabolism. Read More

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February 2021

Histone citrullination: a new target for tumors.

Mol Cancer 2021 Jun 11;20(1):90. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, China.

As the main protein components of chromatin, histones play central roles in gene regulation as spools of winding DNA. Histones are subject to various modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, methylation, ubiquitination and citrullination, which affect gene transcription. Histone citrullination, a posttranscriptional modification catalyzed by peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes, is involved in human carcinogenesis. Read More

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Psychostimulants and opioids differentially influence the epigenetic modification of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase in astrocytes.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252895. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M University, Kingsville, Texas, United States of America.

Illicit drugs are known to affect central nervous system (CNS). Majorly psychostimulants such as cocaine, methamphetamine (METH) and opioids such as morphine are known to induce epigenetic changes of histone modifications and chromatin remodeling which are mediated by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). Aberrant changes in histone acetylation-deacetylation process further exacerbate dysregulation of gene expression and protein modification which has been linked with neuronal impairments including memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Read More

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Post-translational modification of factors involved in homologous recombination.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Jun 7;104:103114. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan; School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

DNA is the molecule that stores the chemical instructions necessary for life and its stability is therefore of the utmost importance. Despite this, DNA is damaged by both exogenous and endogenous factors at an alarming frequency. The most severe type of DNA damage is a double-strand break (DSB), in which a scission occurs in both strands of the double helix, effectively dividing a single normal chromosome into two pathological chromosomes. Read More

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Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Animal Reproductive Systems and Epigenetic Modifications.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistance Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of highly toxic endocrine-disrupting chemicals comprising 209 homologs. PCBs are extensively found in the environment and can induce typical estrogenic and profound, long-lasting effects on animals. In this article, the introduction of PCB residues into the environment and the pathways of PCB enrichment in animals are described. Read More

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Thermal Treatment Effect on CO and NO Adsorption on Fe(II) and Fe(III) Species in FeO-Based MIL-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Density Functional Theory Study.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States.

The properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on triiron oxo-centered (FeO) metal nodes are often related to the efficiency of the removal of the solvent molecules and the counteranion chemisorbed on the FeO unit by postsynthetic thermal treatment. Temperature, time, and the reaction environment play a significant role in modifying key features of the materials, that is, the number of open metal sites and the reduction of Fe(III) centers to Fe(II). IR spectroscopy allows the inspection of these postsynthetic modifications by using carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) as probe molecules. Read More

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The Bidirectional Relationship Between Cancer Epigenetics and Metabolism.

Annu Rev Cancer Biol 2021 Mar 30;5(1):235-257. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Cancer Biology and Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming are characteristics of cancer cells that, in many cases, are linked. Oncogenic signaling, diet, and tumor microenvironment each influence the availability of metabolites that are substrates or inhibitors of epigenetic enzymes. Reciprocally, altered expression or activity of chromatin-modifying enzymes can exert direct and indirect effects on cellular metabolism. Read More

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Impacts of diphenylamine NSAID halogenation on bioactivation risks.

Toxicology 2021 Jun 6:152832. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, United States. Electronic address:

Diphenylamine NSAIDs are highly prescribed therapeutics for chronic pain despite causing symptomatic hepatotoxicity through mitochondrial damage in five percent of patients taking them. Differences in toxicity are attributed to structural modifications to the diphenylamine scaffold rather than its inherent toxicity. We hypothesize that marketed diphenylamine NSAID substituents affect preference and efficiency of bioactivation pathways and clearance. Read More

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Effect of protein concentrate mixtures and dietary addition of exogenous phytase on major milk minerals and proteins, including casein phosphorylation.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Agro Food Park 48, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

Variations in major milk minerals, proteins, and their posttranslational modifications are largely under genetic influence, whereas the effect of nongenetic factors is less studied. Through a controlled feeding experiment (incomplete balanced Latin square design), the effect of concentrate mixtures, based on fava beans, rapeseed meal, or soybean meal as main P and protein sources, on milk composition was examined under typical Danish management conditions. Concentrations of P, Ca, and Mg, together with proteomics for relative quantification of major milk proteins and their isoforms, were analyzed in milk samples from 24 cows sampled in 4 periods. Read More

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Protein Lipidation by Palmitoylation and Myristoylation in Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:673647. Epub 2021 May 20.

Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Posttranslational modification of proteins with lipid moieties is known as protein lipidation. The attachment of a lipid molecule to proteins endows distinct properties, which affect their hydrophobicity, structural stability, localization, trafficking between membrane compartments, and influences its interaction with effectors. Lipids or lipid metabolites can serve as substrates for lipidation, and the availability of these lipid substrates are tightly regulated by cellular metabolism. Read More

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Phosphorylation in Novel Mitochondrial Creatine Kinase Tyrosine Residues Render Cardioprotection against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury.

J Lipid Atheroscler 2021 May 19;10(2):223-239. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center, Smart Marine Therapeutics Center, Inje University, Busan, Korea.

Objective: Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is the leading cause of heart failure. Proteomic and genomic studies have demonstrated ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can assert cardioprotection against ICM through mitochondrial function regulation. Considering IPC is conducted in a relatively brief period, regulation of protein expression also occurs very rapidly, highlighting the importance of protein function modulation by post-translational modifications. Read More

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The role of HPV-induced epigenetic changes in cervical carcinogenesis (Review).

Biomed Rep 2021 Jul 20;15(1):60. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59078-970, Brazil.

Cervical cancer is associated with infection by certain types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and this affects women worldwide. Despite the improvements in prevention and cure of HPV-induced cervical cancer, it remains the second most common type of cancer in women in the least developed regions of the world. Epigenetic modifications are stable long-term changes that occur in the DNA, and are part of a natural evolutionary process of necessary adaptations to the environment. Read More

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Functionalized pyridine in pyclen-based iron(iii) complexes: evaluation of fundamental properties.

RSC Adv 2020 26;10(52):31165-31170. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Christian University, 2950 W. Bowie, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA.

The use of tetra-aza pyridinophanes is of increasing interest in the fields of bioinorganic modeling, catalysis, and imaging. However, a full study of how modifications to the pyridyl moiety affect the characteristics of the daughter metal complexes, has not been explored. In this study, six tetra-aza macrocyclic ligands were metalated with Fe(iii) and were characterized for the first time. Read More

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DNA Methylation, Deamination, and Translesion Synthesis Combine to Generate Footprint Mutations in Cancer Driver Genes in B-Cell Derived Lymphomas and Other Cancers.

Front Genet 2021 19;12:671866. Epub 2021 May 19.

Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, Omaha, NE, United States.

Cancer genomes harbor numerous genomic alterations and many cancers accumulate thousands of nucleotide sequence variations. A prominent fraction of these mutations arises as a consequence of the off-target activity of DNA/RNA editing cytosine deaminases followed by the replication/repair of edited sites by DNA polymerases (pol), as deduced from the analysis of the DNA sequence context of mutations in different tumor tissues. We have used the weight matrix (sequence profile) approach to analyze mutagenesis due to Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) and two error-prone DNA polymerases. Read More

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Characterizing Genetic Regulatory Elements in Ovine Tissues.

Front Genet 2021 20;12:628849. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Animal, Veterinary, and Food Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, United States.

The Ovine Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) project, part of the broader livestock species FAANG initiative, aims to identify and characterize gene regulatory elements in domestic sheep. Regulatory element annotation is essential for identifying genetic variants that affect health and production traits in this important agricultural species, as greater than 90% of variants underlying genetic effects are estimated to lie outside of transcribed regions. Histone modifications that distinguish active or repressed chromatin states, CTCF binding, and DNA methylation were used to characterize regulatory elements in liver, spleen, and cerebellum tissues from four yearling sheep. Read More

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Implications of the Thermodynamic Response of Soil Mineralization, Respiration, and Nitrification on Soil Organic Matter Retention.

Front Microbiol 2021 19;12:651210. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.

Considerable research has shown that modifications in global temperature regimes can lead to changes in the interactions between soil respiration and the sequestration of C and N into soil organic matter (SOM). We hypothesized that despite the interconnected nature of respiration, net N mineralization, and nitrification processes, there would be differences in their thermodynamic responses that would affect the composition of inorganic soil N and the potential for retention of N in SOM. To test this hypothesis, soil respiration, N mineralization and nitrification responses were evaluated during constant temperature incubations at seven temperatures (4-42°C) in tilled and no-till soils from two major agroecological zones in Oregon; Willamette Valley, and Pendleton located in the Columbia River Basin. Read More

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Surface-modified magnetite nanoparticles affect lysozyme amyloid fibrillization.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 Jun 6;1865(9):129941. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, Slovakia. Electronic address:

Background: The surface of nanoparticles (NPs) is an important factor affecting the process of poly/peptides' amyloid aggregation. We have investigated the in vitro effect of trisodium citrate (TC), gum arabic (GA) and citric acid (CA) surface-modified magnetite nanoparticles (COAT-MNPs) on hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) amyloid fibrillization and mature HEWL fibrils.

Methods: Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of studied COAT-MNPs and determine the adsorption potential of their surface towards HEWL. Read More

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Facile Fabrication of Functionalized Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Ionic Conduction Path Modifications via the γ-Ray Co-irradiation Grafting Process.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 4;13(23):27663-27673. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, P. R. China.

Separators play a vital role in electronic insulation and ionic conduction in lithium-ion batteries. The common improvement strategy of polyolefin separators is mostly based on modifications with a coating layer, which is simple and effective to some extent. However, the improvement is often accompanied by negative effects such as the increase of the thickness and the blockage of the porous structure, resulting in the decrease of energy density and power density. Read More

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Early-life exposure to tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate caused multigenerational neurodevelopmental toxicity in zebrafish via altering maternal thyroid hormones transfer and epigenetic modifications.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 28;285:117471. Epub 2021 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), an alternative to brominated flame retardants, might pose an exposure risk to humans and wild animals during fetal development. Our recent study suggested that short-term TDCIPP exposure during early development caused sex-dependent behavioral alteration in adults. In the present study, multigenerational neurodevelopmental toxicity upon early-life exposure of parental zebrafish was evaluated, and the possible underlying mechanisms were further explored. Read More

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The challenge of differentiating fibromyalgia from small-fiber neuropathy in clinical practice.

Authors:
Florian Bailly

Joint Bone Spine 2021 May 31:105232. Epub 2021 May 31.

MD, Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière - Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Rheumatology department, Pain unit ; 47-83 boulevard de l'hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Fibromyalgia and small fibre neuropathy are two diseases leading to chronic widespread pain, and it is difficult to differentiate them in order to provide appropriate care. In this review, we will describe the pathophysiological and clinical differences between fibromyalgia and small fibre neuropathy. In fibromyalgia, pain is increased by dysregulation of central pain processing while small fibre neuropathy pain is related to loss or dysfunction of intraepidermal small nerve fibres. Read More

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A review of rodent models for metabolic syndromes and pulmonary hypertension.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 May 31;425:115599. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University of Łódź, ul. Muszyńskiego 1, 90-151 Lodz, Poland. Electronic address:

Purpose: Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, may affect the pathogenesis and development of pulmonary hypertension (PH), and therefore some treatments could be beneficial for both disorders. The present study investigates whether such metabolic diseases increase susceptibility to PH in rodent models, and identifies which models are suitable for research on PH and its potential therapeutic candidates. It also explores whether particular PH model can worsen the metabolic parameters. Read More

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The Effects of Amalgam Contamination and Different Surface Modifications on Dentin Shear Bond Strength When Using Different Adhesive Protocols.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2021 27;13:211-221. Epub 2021 May 27.

Restorative Dental Sciences Department, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of amalgam contamination, different surface treatments, and adhesive protocols on dentin shear bond strength (SBS) to bulk-fill composite resin material.

Materials And Methods: Eighty teeth were fixed in molds, and the dentin was exposed and then polished. Sixty teeth were restored by amalgam and thermocycled to 10,000 cycles (5°C and 55°C, 30-second dwell time). Read More

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Proteomics and Post-Translational Modifications of Starch Biosynthesis-Related Proteins in Developing Seeds of Rice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Rice ( L.) is a foremost staple food for approximately half the world's population. The components of rice starch, amylose, and amylopectin are synthesized by a series of enzymes, which are responsible for rice starch properties and functionality, and then affect rice cooking and eating quality. Read More

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Changes of the tRNA Modification Pattern during the Development of .

Noncoding RNA 2021 May 28;7(2). Epub 2021 May 28.

Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics, Leipzig University, Härtelstraße 16-18, D-04107 Leipzig, Germany.

is a social amoeba, which on starvation develops from a single-cell state to a multicellular fruiting body. This developmental process is accompanied by massive changes in gene expression, which also affect non-coding RNAs. Here, we investigate how tRNAs as key regulators of the translation process are affected by this transition. Read More

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