15,415 results match your criteria models propensity

High school seniors who used e-cigarettes may have otherwise been cigarette smokers: Evidence from Monitoring the Future (United States, 2009-2018).

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

FXB Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University, Boston, MA.

Introduction: Studies have indicated that youth who use e-cigarettes are more likely to progress to cigarette smoking; however, the likelihood that these youth would have used tobacco products in the pre-vaping era is unclear. This study sought to determine whether youth who used e-cigarettes in 2014-2018 would have likely been smokers in the period preceding e-cigarette availability.

Methods: Analyzing Monitoring the Future 12 th grade data (USA, 2009-2018), we forecasted the prevalence of current smoking with logistic regression-derived propensity scores. Read More

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Low LDL-C levels are associated with risk of mortality in a Chinese cohort study.

Endocrine 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, Zhejiang, 310058, Hangzhou, China.

Background And Aims: Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been considered as a risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, limited studies can be available to evaluate the association of LDL-C with risk of mortality in the general population. This study aimed to examine the association of LDL-C level with risk of mortality using a propensity-score weighting method in a Chinese population, based on the health examination data.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study with 65,517 participants aged 40 years or older in Ningbo city, Zhejiang. Read More

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Longer-term effects of school-based counselling in UK primary schools.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Children's mental health is deteriorating while access to child and adolescent mental health services is decreasing. Recent UK policy has focused on schools as a setting for the provision of mental health services, and counselling is the most common type of school-based mental health provision. This study examined the longer-term effectiveness of one-to-one school-based counselling delivered to children in UK primary schools. Read More

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Endoscopic and surgical treatment of T1N0M0 colorectal neuroendocrine tumors: a population-based comparative study.

Surg Endosc 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Medical Centre for Digestive Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210011, China.

Background: With the rapid advances in endoscopic technology, endoscopic therapy (ET) is increasingly applied to the treatment of small (≤ 20 mm) colorectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). However, long-term data comparing ET and surgery for management of T1N0M0 colorectal NETs are lacking. The purpose of this work was to compare overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of such patients with ET or surgery. Read More

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Association of cardiovascular disease with 30-day hospital readmission in Chinese patients receiving maintenance dialysis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):617

Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Previous studies have shown cardiovascular disease (CVD) to be a risk factor in the prediction of 30-day hospital readmission among patients receiving dialysis. However, studies of Asian populations are limited. In the present study, we examined the association between CVD and 30-day hospital readmission in Chinese patients receiving maintenance dialysis. Read More

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Long Term Outcome of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac Surgery-A Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Analysis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 27;8:650147. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) results in a longer hospital stay and excess mortality. However, whether POAF would increase stroke rate has been debated for years. When and how long should anticoagulation be used to prevent stroke are unknown. Read More

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Unbiased Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics of Cells Expressing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Mutations in Reveals Activation of the Apoptosis Pathway: A Workflow to Screen Pathogenic Gene Mutations.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 27;14:627740. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Centre for Motor Neuron Disease Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Health, and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia.

The past decade has seen a rapid acceleration in the discovery of new genetic causes of ALS, with more than 20 putative ALS-causing genes now cited. These genes encode proteins that cover a diverse range of molecular functions, including free radical scavenging (e.g. Read More

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Breastfeeding Duration Is Associated With Domain-Specific Improvements in Cognitive Performance in 9-10-Year-Old Children.

Front Public Health 2021 26;9:657422. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

The Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory, The Del Monte Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States.

Significant immunological, physical and neurological benefits of breastfeeding in infancy are well-established, but to what extent these gains persist into later childhood remain uncertain. This study examines the association between breastfeeding duration and subsequent domain-specific cognitive performance in a diverse sample of 9-10-year-olds enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study®. The analyses included 9,116 children that attended baseline with their biological mother and had complete neurocognitive and breastfeeding data. Read More

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Prognostic Models for Patients With Gleason Score 9 Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:633312. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Gleason score (GS) system is one of the most widely used histological grading methods for prostate cancer (PCa) all over the world. GS can be obtained by adding the primary Gleason pattern (GP) and secondary GP. Different proportions of GP 4 and GP 5 in prostate specimens can both lead to GS 9. Read More

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Androgen-deprivation therapy and the risk of newly developed fractures in patients with prostate cancer: a nationwide cohort study in Korea.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10057. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Urology, Prostate Cancer Center, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06273, Republic of Korea.

We evaluated the risk of osteoporosis and fractures associated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use and duration in men with prostate cancer. From the nationwide claims database in South Korea, a total of 218,203 men with prostate cancer were identified between 2008 and 2017. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 144,670 patients were included in the analysis. Read More

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Association between smoking and in-hospital mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: a propensity-matched study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 May 12;21(1):236. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 167A Beilishi Rd, Xi Cheng District, Beijing, 100037, People's Republic of China.

Background: Data on the effect of smoking on In-hospital outcome in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are limited. We sought to determine the influence of smoking on CABG patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using data from the China Heart Failure Surgery Registry database. Read More

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Effect of zinc deficiency on chronic kidney disease progression and effect modification by hypoalbuminemia.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251554. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan.

Serum zinc (Zn) levels tend to be low in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This cohort study was conducted to investigate the relationship between zinc deficiency and CKD progression. Patients were classified into two groups based on Zn levels < 60 μg/dl (low-Zn group, n = 160) and ≥ 60 μg/dl (high-Zn group, n = 152). Read More

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The Value of Three-Dimensional Printing Spine Model in Severe Spine Deformity Correction Surgery.

Global Spine J 2021 May 11:21925682211008830. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, 74639Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China.

Study Design: Retrospective case-control study.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the value of 3-dimensional printing (3DP) spine model in the surgical treatment of severe spinal deformity since the prosperous development of 3DP technology.

Methods: Severe scoliosis or hyper-kyphosis patients underwent posterior fixation and fusion surgery using the 3DP spine models were reviewed (3DP group). Read More

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Plasma hemoglobin and the risk of death in HIV/AIDS patients treated with antiretroviral therapy.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 7;13. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Management, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Previous studies concerning the effect of plasma hemoglobin (HB) and other factors that may modify the risk of death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited.

Results: Higher HB was independently linked to a lower death risk in PLHIV, with a decrease of 29% (13%, 43%) per standard deviation (SD) increment after adjusting for CD4, VL and other potential factors [hazard ratio (HR): 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0. Read More

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Laparoscopic vs. Open Repeat Hepatectomy for Recurrent Liver Tumors: A Propensity Score-Matched Study and Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:646737. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Liver Surgery & Transplantation, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

It remains unclear whether the short-term benefits of laparoscopic repeat hepatectomy (LRH) accrue to patients with recurrent liver tumors. The present study aimed to report our own center's experience and perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and feasibility of LRH in comparison with open repeat hepatectomy (ORH) for treating recurrent liver tumors. A propensity score-matched study was performed including 426 patients receiving LRH or ORH for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma between January 2017 and December 2018. Read More

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Association of 5-Hydroxytryptamine 3 Receptor Antagonists With the Prognosis of Liver Failure.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:648736. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Liver failure is a severe clinical syndrome with high mortality. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3RAs) can reduce liver damage in animal models. We investigated whether 5-HT3RAs may improve the prognosis of liver failure. Read More

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Fragmentation of surgery and chemotherapy in the initial phase of ovarian cancer care and its association with overall survival.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, United States of America; New York Presbyterian Hospital, United States of America; Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, United States of America; Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Fragmentation occurs when a patient receives care at more than one hospital, and the long-term effects in ovarian cancer are unknown. We examined the association between fragmentation of primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) and overall survival (OS).

Methods: The National Cancer Database was used to identify women with stage II-IV epithelial ovarian cancer between 2004 and 2016 who underwent PDS followed by AC. Read More

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One year survival worse for lung retransplants relative to primary lung transplants.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri.

Background: Outcomes after lung re-transplantation (LRT) remain inferior compared to primary lung transplantation (PLT). We examined the impact of center volume on one-year survival after LRT.

Methods: Using the UNOS database, we abstracted patients undergoing PLT and LRT between January 2006 and December 2017, excluding combined heart-lung transplants and multiple re-transplants. Read More

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Duration of Untreated Psychosis in First-Episode Psychosis is not Associated With Common Genetic Variants for Major Psychiatric Conditions: Results From the Multi-Center EU-GEI Study.

Schizophr Bull 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with clinical outcomes in people with a diagnosis of first-episode psychosis (FEP), but factors associated with length of DUP are still poorly understood. Aiming to obtain insights into the possible biological impact on DUP, we report genetic analyses of a large multi-center phenotypically well-defined sample encompassing individuals with a diagnosis of FEP recruited from 6 countries spanning 17 research sites, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Genetic propensity was measured using polygenic scores for schizophrenia (SZ-PGS), bipolar disorder (BD-PGS), major depressive disorder (MDD-PGS), and intelligence (IQ-PGS), which were calculated based on the results from the most recent genome-wide association meta-analyses. Read More

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Use of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants Among Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation and Multimorbidity.

Adv Ther 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Liverpool Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Liverpool and Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital, Liverpool, UK.

Introduction: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is often accompanied by multiple comorbid conditions, which increase the associated risks and complexity of patient management. This study evaluated the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding (MB) among multimorbid patients with NVAF who were prescribed non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) or warfarin.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients with NVAF and high multimorbidity who initiated apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin from 1 January 2013 to 30 September 2015 was conducted using five insurance claims databases. Read More

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Human convalescent plasma protects K18-hACE2 mice against severe respiratory disease.

J Gen Virol 2021 05;102(5)

Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 and human infections have resulted in a global health emergency. Small animal models that reproduce key elements of SARS-CoV-2 human infections are needed to rigorously screen candidate drugs to mitigate severe disease and prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We and others have reported that transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) viral receptor under the control of the Keratin 18 (K18) promoter develop severe and lethal respiratory disease subsequent to SARS-CoV-2 intranasal challenge. Read More

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Drawbacks and aftermath of the Affordable Care Act: ex-ante moral hazard and inequalities in health care access.

Daniele Corso

J Public Health Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia.

Background: Following the introduction of the Affordable Care Act, various studies have tried to identify the effects of the Reform, without reaching a clear consensus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expansion of the Medicaid program has led to less inequality in access to health care and to a higher level of ex-ante moral hazard.

Design And Methods: The analysis was conducted on two-year longitudinal data (2014-2015) regarding a cohort of 15,898 individuals from a Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Read More

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Proposal for the binding mode of the 23-mer inhibitory peptide to myostatin.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Apr 29;40:116181. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan. Electronic address:

Inhibition of myostatin is a promising strategy for the treatment of amyotrophic disorders. Previously, we identified a minimum 23-mer peptide spanning positions 21-43 of a mouse myostatin precursor-derived prodomain and identified the nine key residues for effective myostatin inhibition through Ala scanning. We also reported the 23-mer peptides that show the propensity to form an α-helical structure around positions 32-36. Read More

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Pre-transplant Amiodarone Use Does Not Affect Long-Term Heart Transplant Survival.

Pharmacotherapy 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Hartford HealthCare Heart and Vascular Institute, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA.

Purpose: Effect of pre-transplant amiodarone use on post heart transplant (HT) survival is not well established. We therefore sought to examine the effect of amiodarone use on post HT survival.

Methods: We stratified adults who underwent HT between January 2000 and August 2018 in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients according to pre-transplant amiodarone use and used recipient and donor characteristics to calculate propensity scores. Read More

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Relative effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapeutic agents for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants: a protocol for a multicentre comparative effectiveness study (CANRxPDA).

BMJ Open 2021 May 5;11(5):e050682. Epub 2021 May 5.

Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common cardiovascular problem that develops in preterm infants and evidence regarding the best treatment approach is lacking. Currently available medical options to treat a PDA include indomethacin, ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Wide variation exists in PDA treatment practices across Canada. Read More

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Bridging With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Under the New Heart Allocation System: A United Network for Organ Sharing Database Analysis.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 May 6:CIRCHEARTFAILURE120007966. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA. (T.N., S.H.M., F.Y.C., G.S.C., M.K.).

Background: The effect of the new donor heart allocation system on survival following bridging to transplantation with venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remains unknown. The new allocation system places extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-supported candidates at the highest status.

Methods: The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for adults bridged to single-organ heart transplantation with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from October 2006 to February 2020. Read More

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Comparison of accredited person and medical officer discharge decisions under the Mental Health Act of NSW: A cohort study of deliberate self-poisoning patients.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 May 5:48674211009613. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre for Brain and Mental Health Research, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: The Accredited Persons Programme was introduced in 2003. The relevant (NSW) authorised reviews by appropriately credentialed non-medical health professionals as part of the process of detaining and treating a person without consent: an authority previously held by medical officers. Evaluations of the Programme are needed. Read More

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Generally rare but occasionally severe weight gain after switching to an integrase inhibitor in virally suppressed AGEhIV cohort participants.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251205. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Recent studies have reported disproportionate weight gain associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) initiation in antiretroviral therapy(ART)-naive people with HIV (PWH), particularly among black women. We investigated if HIV-positive AGEhIV participants with suppressed viremia switching to INSTI-containing ART experienced more weight gain compared to HIV-positive virally-suppressed non-switching and HIV-negative controls.

Methods: In the AGEhIV cohort, standardized weight measurements were performed biennially. Read More

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Size matters in atrial fibrillation: the underestimated importance of reduction of contiguous electrical mass underlying the effectiveness of catheter ablation.

Europace 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, 740 Hillside Ave, Vancouver, BC V8T 1Z4, Canada.

Evidence has accumulated over the last century of the importance of a critical electrical mass in sustaining atrial fibrillation (AF). AF ablation certainly reduces electrically contiguous atrial mass, but this is not widely accepted to be an important part of its mechanism of action. In this article, we review data showing that atrial size is correlated in many settings with AF propensity. Read More

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