10,706 results match your criteria models differing

Leveraging vibration of effects analysis for robust discovery in observational biomedical data science.

PLoS Biol 2021 Sep 23;19(9):e3001398. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Hypothesis generation in observational, biomedical data science often starts with computing an association or identifying the statistical relationship between a dependent and an independent variable. However, the outcome of this process depends fundamentally on modeling strategy, with differing strategies generating what can be called "vibration of effects" (VoE). VoE is defined by variation in associations that often lead to contradictory results. Read More

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September 2021

How to Use Model-Based Cluster Analysis Efficiently in Person-Oriented Research.

J Pers Oriented Res 2021 26;7(1):22-35. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Károli Gáspár University, Budapest, Hungary.

Model-based cluster analysis (MBCA) was created to automatize the often subjective model-selection procedure of traditional explorative clustering methods. It is a type of finite mixture modelling, assuming that the data come from a mixture of different subpopulations following given distributions, typically multivariate normal. In that case cluster analysis is the exploration of the underlying mixture structure. Read More

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Modeling and forecasting the COVID-19 pandemic time-series data.

Soc Sci Q 2021 Aug 7. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Nuffield College, Oxford, UK.

Objective: We analyze the number of recorded cases and deaths of COVID-19 in many parts of the world, with the aim to understand the complexities of the data, and produce regular forecasts.

Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 has affected societies in all corners of the globe but with vastly differing experiences across countries. Health-care and economic systems vary significantly across countries, as do policy responses, including testing, intermittent lockdowns, quarantine, contact tracing, mask wearing, and social distancing. Read More

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Gastric organoids: progress and remaining challenges.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, Key Laboratory of Precision Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Tumors, Ministry of Education, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. Electronic address:

The stomach is a complex and physiologically necessary organ, yet large differences in physiology between mouse and human stomachs have impeded translation of physiological discoveries and drug screens performed using murine gastric tissues. Gastric cancer (GC) is a global health threat, with a high mortality rate and limited treatment options. The heterogeneous nature of gastric cancer makes it poorly suited for current "one size fits all" standard treatments. Read More

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September 2021

Studying independent knock-out mice reveals toxicity of exogenous LacZ to central nociceptor terminals and differential effects of Kv1.6 on acute and neuropathic pain sensation.

J Neurosci 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK

The potassium channel Kv1.6 has recently been implicated as a major modulatory channel subunit expressed in primary nociceptors. Furthermore, its expression at juxtaparanodes (JXP) of myelinated primary afferents is induced following traumatic nerve injury as part of an endogenous mechanism to reduce hyperexcitability and pain-related hypersensitivity. Read More

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September 2021

Neural dynamics underlying the acquisition of distinct auditory category structures.

Neuroimage 2021 Sep 17:118565. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Communication Science and Disorders, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA; Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA, 15232, USA. Electronic address:

Despite the multidimensional and temporally fleeting nature of auditory signals we quickly learn to assign novel sounds to behaviorally relevant categories. The neural systems underlying the learning and representation of novel auditory categories are far from understood. Current models argue for a rigid specialization of hierarchically organized core regions that are fine-tuned to extracting and mapping relevant auditory dimensions to meaningful categories. Read More

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September 2021

Compositional Shift of Bacterial, Archaeal, and Fungal Communities Is Dependent on Trophic Lifestyles in Rice Paddy Soil.

Front Microbiol 2021 1;12:719486. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

The soil environment determines plants' health and performance during their life cycle. Therefore, ecological understanding on variations in soil environments, including physical, chemical, and biological properties, is crucial for managing agricultural fields. Here, we present a comprehensive and extensive blueprint of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities in rice paddy soils with differing soil types and chemical properties. Read More

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September 2021

A Roadmap to Gene Discoveries and Novel Therapies in Monogenic Low and High Bone Mass Disorders.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 13;12:709711. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Genetic disorders of the skeleton encompass a diverse group of bone diseases differing in clinical characteristics, severity, incidence and molecular etiology. Of particular interest are the monogenic rare bone mass disorders, with the underlying genetic defect contributing to either low or high bone mass phenotype. Extensive, deep phenotyping coupled with high-throughput, cost-effective genotyping is crucial in the characterization and diagnosis of affected individuals. Read More

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Intensification strategies for temperate hot-summer grazing dairy systems in South America: Effects of feeding strategy and cow genotype.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Programa Nacional de Investigación en Producción de Leche, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, 39173 Colonia, Uruguay.

Pasture-based dairy systems present the opportunity to increase productivity per hectare through increasing stocking rate and forage utilization. However, in the temperate hot-summer region of South America, different productive strategies are being adopted by farmers. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of feeding strategy (FS) and cow genotype (G) on individual animal and whole-farm biophysical performance. Read More

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September 2021

Community-facility linkage models and maternal and infant health outcomes in Malawi's PMTCT/ART program: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 17;18(9):e1003780. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, 3 community-facility linkage (CFL) models-Expert Clients, Community Health Workers (CHWs), and Mentor Mothers-have been widely implemented to support pregnant and breastfeeding women (PBFW) living with HIV and their infants to access and sustain care for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), yet their comparative impact under real-world conditions is poorly understood.

Methods And Findings: We sought to estimate the effects of CFL models on a primary outcome of maternal loss to follow-up (LTFU), and secondary outcomes of maternal longitudinal viral suppression and infant "poor outcome" (encompassing documented HIV-positive test result, LTFU, or death), in Malawi's PMTCT/ART program. We sampled 30 of 42 high-volume health facilities ("sites") in 5 Malawi districts for study inclusion. Read More

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September 2021

Waiting for a Match: Mitigating Reactance in Prosocial Health Behavior Using Psychological Distance.

Health Commun 2021 Sep 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Communication, The University of Missouri.

This study examined how psychological distance, both social and temporal, can be leveraged in prosocial health behavior messages to mitigate perceived psychological reactance. Following the construal level and psychological reactance theories, we conducted a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design ( = 245), which manipulated naturalistic messages regarding a prosocial communications campaign. Structural equation modeling showed that far temporal distance combined with far social distance could significantly reduce threat to freedom and therefore positively affect attitudes and behavioral intentions toward prosocial health topics. Read More

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September 2021

Bioengineered Models to Study Microenvironmental Regulation of Glioblastoma Metabolism.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

From the Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA (JC, CJC, HBF); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA (JC, DMM, HBF); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA (HL, BJW); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA (PS, DMM); Department of Radiation Oncology, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA (DMM, BJW, HBF); Center for Predictive Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA (HBF); Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA (ELB).

Despite extensive research and aggressive therapies, glioblastoma (GBM) remains a central nervous system malignancy with poor prognosis. The varied histopathology of GBM suggests a landscape of differing microenvironments and clonal expansions, which may influence metabolism, driving tumor progression. Indeed, GBM metabolic plasticity in response to differing nutrient supply within these microenvironments has emerged as a key driver of aggressiveness. Read More

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September 2021

Differential spatial responses of rodents to masting on forest sites with differing disturbance history.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 13;11(17):11890-11902. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research Institute of Wildlife Biology and Game Management University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna Austria.

Mast seeding, the synchronized interannual variation in seed production of trees, is a well-known bottom-up driver for population densities of granivorous forest rodents. Such demographic effects also affect habitat preferences of the animals: After large seed production events, reduced habitat selectivity can lead to spillover from forest patches into adjacent alpine meadows or clear-cuts, as has been reported for human-impacted forests. In unmanaged, primeval forests, however, gaps created by natural disturbances are typical elements, yet it is unclear whether the same spillover dynamics occur under natural conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Inheritance of hormonal stress response and temperament in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca Mulatta): Nonadditive and sex-specific effects.

Behav Neurosci 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

California National Primate Research Center.

Objective: Early life interindividual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity to stress is predictive of later life psychological and physical well-being, including the development of many pathological syndromes that are often sex-biased. A complex and interactive set of environmental and genetic causes for such variation has been implicated by previous studies, though little attention has been paid to nonadditive effects (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

A multidimensional zero-inflated graded response model for ordinal symptom data.

Psychol Methods 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Sociology.

Zero responses and their equivalents-for example, never, none, not at all-are commonly observed on measures of psychopathology inquiring about symptom frequencies, particularly when these measures are administered to community samples. Measurement researchers typically accommodate multivariate zero inflation by including a class of respondents who endorse zero for all symptoms. While this latent class approach accounts for test-level zero inflation (i. Read More

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September 2021

Treatment of Psychiatric Problems After Traumatic Brain Injury.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania.

Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause significant and often chronic impairment in functioning and quality of life; however, their phenomenological and mechanistic complexities continue to present significant treatment challenges. The clinical presentation is often an amalgam of syndromes and co-occurring symptoms that require a highly nuanced and systematic approach to treatment. Although few randomized controlled trials have tested treatments for psychiatric problems after TBI and the synthesis of results continues to be compromised by the heterogeneity of study populations, small samples, and differing inclusion criteria and outcome measures, an increasing body of literature supports evidence-based treatment strategies. Read More

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Continued need for non-pharmaceutical interventions after COVID-19 vaccination in long-term-care facilities.

Sci Rep 2021 09 10;11(1):18093. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

University of Utah Division of Epidemiology, Salt Lake City, USA.

Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) bear disproportionate burden of COVID-19 and are prioritized for vaccine deployment. LTCF outbreaks could continue occurring during vaccine rollout due to incomplete population coverage, and the effect of vaccines on viral transmission are currently unknown. Declining adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against within-facility transmission could therefore limit the effectiveness of vaccination. Read More

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September 2021

The Effect of Achieving Target Intraocular Pressure on Visual Field Worsening.

Ophthalmology 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Malone Center for Engineering in Healthcare, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Objective: To estimate the effect of achieving target intraocular pressure (IOP) values on visual field (VF) worsening in a treated clinical population.

Design: Retrospective analysis of longitudinal data.

Participants: 2,852 eyes of 1,688 patients with glaucoma-related diagnoses treated in a tertiary care practice. Read More

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September 2021

A Murine Model of Infection Reproducing Necrotic Lung Pathology Reveals Considerable Heterogeneity in Virulence of Clinical Isolates.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:718477. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Laboratory of Biology of Recognition, State University of North Fluminense, Campos, Brazil.

Among non-tuberculous mycobacteria, is one of the most pathogenic, able to cause pulmonary disease indistinguishable from tuberculosis in immunocompetent susceptible adults. The lack of animal models that reproduce human-like lung disease, associated with the necrotic lung pathology, impairs studies of virulence and pathogenicity. In this study, we examined the ability of the C57BL/6 mice, intratracheally infected with highly virulent strains, to produce a chronic infection and necrotic lung pathology. Read More

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Tuning Cell-Free Composition Controls the Time Delay, Dynamics, and Productivity of TX-TL Expression.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Biological Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States.

The composition of cell-free expression systems (TX-TL) is adjusted by adding macromolecular crowding agents and salts. However, the effects of these cosolutes on the dynamics of individual gene expression processes have not been quantified. Here, we carry out kinetic mRNA and protein level measurements on libraries of genetic constructs using the common cosolutes PEG-8000, Ficoll-400, and magnesium glutamate. Read More

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September 2021

Autofluorescence-spectral imaging as an innovative method for rapid, non-destructive and reliable assessing of soybean seed quality.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 8;11(1):17834. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Biosystems Engineering, School of Sciences and Engineering, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Tupã, SP, 17602-496, Brazil.

In the agricultural industry, advances in optical imaging technologies based on rapid and non-destructive approaches have contributed to increase food production for the growing population. The present study employed autofluorescence-spectral imaging and machine learning algorithms to develop distinct models for classification of soybean seeds differing in physiological quality after artificial aging. Autofluorescence signals from the 365/400 nm excitation-emission combination (that exhibited a perfect correlation with the total phenols in the embryo) were efficiently able to segregate treatments. Read More

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September 2021

Fluctuating biomarkers in primary sclerosing cholangitis: A longitudinal comparison of alkaline phosphatase, liver stiffness, and ELF.

JHEP Rep 2021 Oct 2;3(5):100328. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Norwegian PSC Research Centre, Department of Transplantation Medicine, Division of Surgery, Inflammatory Diseases and Transplantation, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.

Background & Aims: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive liver disease characterised by fluctuating liver biochemistries and highly variable disease progression. The Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF®) test and liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) reflect fibrosis and predict clinical outcomes in PSC; however, longitudinal assessments are missing. We aimed to characterise the systematic change in ELF and LSM over time in a prospective cohort of patients with PSC, along with their longitudinal relationship to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. Read More

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October 2021

Integration of phlebotomine ecological niche modelling, and mapping of cutaneous leishmaniasis surveillance data, to identify areas at risk of under-estimation.

Acta Trop 2021 Sep 2;224:106122. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas, CIDEIM. Cali, Colombia; Universidad Icesi., Cali, Colombia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Passive surveillance systems are thought to under-estimate the true incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) by two- to five-fold. Ecological niche models based on remotely sensed data can identify environmental factors which favor phlebotomine vectors. Here we report an integrated approach to identifying areas at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis by applying spatial analysis methods to niche model results, and local surveillance data, in two locations in Colombia with differing vector ecology. Read More

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September 2021

Correlating in situ RHEED and XRD to study growth dynamics of polytypism in nanowires.

Nanoscale 2021 Aug 23;13(30):13095-13107. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstraße 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.

Design of novel nanowire (NW) based semiconductor devices requires deep understanding and technological control of NW growth. Therefore, quantitative feedback over the structure evolution of the NW ensemble during growth is highly desirable. We analyse and compare the methodical potential of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and X-ray diffraction reciprocal space imaging (XRD) for in situ growth characterization during molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Read More

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Phase-locking intermittency induced by dynamical heterogeneity in networks of thermosensitive neurons.

Chaos 2021 Aug;31(8):083121

Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-980 Curitiba, Brazil.

In this work, we study the phase synchronization of a neural network and explore how the heterogeneity in the neurons' dynamics can lead their phases to intermittently phase-lock and unlock. The neurons are connected through chemical excitatory connections in a sparse random topology, feel no noise or external inputs, and have identical parameters except for different in-degrees. They follow a modification of the Hodgkin-Huxley model, which adds details like temperature dependence, and can burst either periodically or chaotically when uncoupled. Read More

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Measuring the accuracy of gridded human population density surfaces: A case study in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(9):e0248646. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

Background: Geospatial datasets of population are becoming more common in models used for health policy. Publicly-available maps of human population make a consistent picture from inconsistent census data, and the techniques they use to impute data makes each population map unique. Each mapping model explains its methods, but it can be difficult to know which map is appropriate for which policy work. Read More

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September 2021

Comparing approaches for modelling indirect contact transmission of infectious diseases.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Sep 1;18(182):20210281. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Mathematical models describing indirect contact transmission are an important component of infectious disease mitigation and risk assessment. A model that tracks microorganisms between compartments by coupled ordinary differential equations or a Markov chain is benchmarked against a mechanistic interpretation of the physical transfer of microorganisms from surfaces to fingers and subsequently to a susceptible person's facial mucosal membranes. The primary objective was to compare these models in their estimates of doses and changes in microorganism concentrations on hands and fomites over time. Read More

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September 2021

Examining the Relations between Preschooler's Externalizing Behaviors and Academic Performance Using an S-1 Bifactor Model.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Psychology and the Florida Center for Reading Research, Florida State University, 1107 W. Call Street, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-4301, US.

Externalizing behaviors are associated with poor academic outcomes in community-based samples of children as young as preschool-age. However, there remains debate as to which specific externalizing dimensions link externalizing behaviors to early academic skills. Recently, research has supported the use of S-1 bifactor models to examine the hierarchical structure of externalizing behaviors and the unique relations between externalizing factors and academic impairment in samples of school-age children. Read More

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Survival of breast cancer patients in German-Danish border regions - A registry-based cohort study.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Oct 24;74:102001. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Institute for Cancer Epidemiology, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562, Lübeck, Germany.

Background And Aim: Denmark reports slightly lower breast cancer survival before 2010 than its neighbouring country Germany. Previous research is limited by lacking stage and treatment information. This study aims to investigate differences in breast cancer survival between the bordering regions Schleswig-Holstein (Germany), Southern Denmark and Zealand (Denmark) using registry data including stage and treatment information. Read More

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October 2021

Morphological and mechanical characterization of bone phenotypes in the Amish G610C murine model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(8):e0255315. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University Purdue University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, United States of America.

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary bone disease where gene mutations affect Type I collagen formation resulting in osteopenia and increased fracture risk. There are several established mouse models of OI, but some are severe and result in spontaneous fractures or early animal death. The Amish Col1a2G610C/+ (G610C) mouse model is a newer, moderate OI model that is currently being used in a variety of intervention studies, with differing background strains, sexes, ages, and bone endpoints. Read More

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