248,011 results match your criteria models developed

Lizard osteoderms - morphological characterisation, biomimetic design and manufacturing based on three species.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University College London, Mechanical Engineering, London, WC1E 6JE, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

Osteoderms (OD) are mineralised dermal structures consisting mainly of calcium phosphate and collagen. The sheer diversity of OD morphologies and their distribution within the skin of lizards makes these reptiles an ideal group in which to study ODs. Nonetheless, our understanding of the structure, development, and function of lizard ODs remains limited. Read More

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September 2021

Modelling electrocatalytic reactions with a concerted treatment of multistep electron transfer kinetics and local reaction conditions.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Ulm University, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm Germany, Ulm, 89069, GERMANY.

A physicochemical model is developed for electrocatalytic reactions involving multiple electron transfer steps occurring in the electric double layer (EDL). The local reaction conditions are calculated using a mean-field EDL model, which is derived from a comprehensive grand potential that considers the steric effects, solvent polarization, and chemisorption-induced surface dipoles. Macroscopic mass transport in the so-called diffusion layer is controlled by the same set of controlling equations of the EDL model without imposing the electroneutrality assumption as usual. Read More

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September 2021

Semi-supervised semantic segmentation of prostate and organs-at-risk on 3D pelvic CT images.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, Saint Louis, Missouri, 63110-1010, UNITED STATES.

Automated segmentation can assist radiotherapy treatment planning by saving manual contouring efforts and reducing intra-observer and inter-observer variations. The recent development of deep learning approaches has revoluted medical data processing, including semantic segmentation, by dramatically improving performance. However, training effective deep learning models usually require a large amount of high-quality labeled data, which are often costly to collect. Read More

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September 2021

Applying interpretable deep learning models to identify chronic cough patients using EHR data.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Sep 4;210:106395. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Indiana University School of Medicine, 340W 10th St #6200, Indianapolis, IN 46202, United States; Regenstrief Institute, 1101W 10th Street, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, United States. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Chronic cough (CC) affects approximately 10% of adults. Many disease states are associated with chronic cough, such as asthma, upper airway cough syndrome, bronchitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. The lack of an ICD code specific for chronic cough makes it challenging to identify such patients from electronic health records (EHRs). Read More

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September 2021

Human stem cell-based retina on chip as new translational model for validation of AAV retinal gene therapy vectors.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Sep;16(9):2242-2256

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at the University of Tübingen, Reutlingen, Germany; 3R-Center for In vitro Models and Alternatives to Animal Testing, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Gene therapies using adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are among the most promising strategies to treat or even cure hereditary and acquired retinal diseases. However, the development of new efficient AAV vectors is slow and costly, largely because of the lack of suitable non-clinical models. By faithfully recreating structure and function of human tissues, human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived retinal organoids could become an essential part of the test cascade addressing translational aspects. Read More

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September 2021

Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical and laboratory variables related to new phenotypes using machine-learning models.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Departamento de Genética, Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Purpose: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Machine learning (ML) is the area of artificial intelligence with a focus on predictive computing algorithms. We aimed to define the most relevant clinical and laboratory variables related to PCOS diagnosis, and to stratify patients into different phenotypic groups (clusters) using ML algorithms. Read More

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September 2021

A cross-study analysis of drug response prediction in cancer cell lines.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Argonne National Laboratory.

To enable personalized cancer treatment, machine learning models have been developed to predict drug response as a function of tumor and drug features. However, most algorithm development efforts have relied on cross-validation within a single study to assess model accuracy. While an essential first step, cross-validation within a biological data set typically provides an overly optimistic estimate of the prediction performance on independent test sets. Read More

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September 2021

Deep-Learning-Based Pre-Diagnosis Assessment Module for Retinal Photographs: A Multicenter Study.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 Sep;10(11):16

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Purpose: Artificial intelligence (AI) deep learning (DL) has been shown to have significant potential for eye disease detection and screening on retinal photographs in different clinical settings, particular in primary care. However, an automated pre-diagnosis image assessment is essential to streamline the application of the developed AI-DL algorithms. In this study, we developed and validated a DL-based pre-diagnosis assessment module for retinal photographs, targeting image quality (gradable vs. Read More

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September 2021

The Ethics of Health Professions Education Research: Protecting the Integrity of Science, Research Subjects, and Authorship.

Olle Ten Cate

Acad Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

O. ten Cate is professor of medical education and senior scientist, Utrecht Center for Research and Development of Health Professions Education, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6379-8780.

The author was invited to write a commentary on the ethics of health professions education research. Based on the author's own experiences, published guidelines, and discussions with international colleagues, the author found that research ethics can be roughly grouped into 3 distinct areas, each with their own distinct aims: protecting the integrity of science, protecting the integrity of research subjects, and protecting the integrity of authorship. The focus of this commentary is to provide some guiding thoughts on each of the 3 areas for mentors of emerging health professions education scholars. Read More

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September 2021

Deep Learning for Identification of Alcohol-Related Content on Social Media (Reddit and Twitter): Exploratory Analysis of Alcohol-Related Outcomes.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Sep 15;23(9):e27314. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biomedical Data Science, Dartmouth College, Lebanon, NH, United States.

Background: Many social media studies have explored the ability of thematic structures, such as hashtags and subreddits, to identify information related to a wide variety of mental health disorders. However, studies and models trained on specific themed communities are often difficult to apply to different social media platforms and related outcomes. A deep learning framework using thematic structures from Reddit and Twitter can have distinct advantages for studying alcohol abuse, particularly among the youth in the United States. Read More

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September 2021

Black Mulberry Extract Elicits Hepatoprotective Effects in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Models by Inhibition of Histone Acetylation.

J Med Food 2021 Sep;24(9):978-986

Research Group of Healthcare, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea.

Epigenetic regulation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) is associated with various biological processes and the progression of diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hypolipidemic properties of black mulberry ( Roxb.) fruit extract (BME) contribute toward protection against NAFLD by HAT inhibition. Read More

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September 2021

Protective efficacy of rhesus adenovirus COVID-19 vaccines against mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2.

J Virol 2021 Sep 15:JVI0097421. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The global COVID-19 pandemic has sparked intense interest in the rapid development of vaccines as well as animal models to evaluate vaccine candidates and to define immune correlates of protection. We recently reported a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 virus strain (MA10) with the potential to infect wild-type laboratory mice, driving high levels of viral replication in respiratory tract tissues as well as severe clinical and respiratory symptoms, aspects of COVID-19 disease in humans that are important to capture in model systems. We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of novel rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 (RhAd52) vaccines against MA10 challenge in mice. Read More

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September 2021

An "occlusive thrombosis-on-a-chip" microfluidic device for investigating the effect of anti-thrombotic drugs.

Lab Chip 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1PD, UK.

Cardiovascular disease remains one of the world's leading causes of death. Myocardial infarction (heart attack) is triggered by occlusion of coronary arteries by platelet-rich thrombi (clots). The development of new anti-platelet drugs to prevent myocardial infarction continues to be an active area of research and is dependent on accurately modelling the process of clot formation. Read More

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September 2021

Process design and techno-economic analysis of 2'-fucosyllactose enriched distiller's dried grains with solubles production in dry grind ethanol process using genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Sep 8;341:125919. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States; DOE Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States. Electronic address:

2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) has been linked positively with piglet gut health. Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing 2'-FL can be used in the dry grind process to enrich Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with 2'-FL and supplement swine diets with 2'-FL. The objectives of our study were to modify dry grind ethanol process for 2'-FL enriched DDGS production and evaluate the techno-economic feasibility of the process. Read More

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September 2021

Competitive kinetics of Ni(II)/Co(II) and Cr(VI)/P(V) adsorption and desorption on goethite: A unified thermodynamically based model.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 25;423(Pt A):127028. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Xianlin Ave. 163, Nanjing 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

Predicting the dynamic behavior of coexisting ions on mineral interface is essential to understanding their lability in soil matrix, but a mechanical kinetic model for predicting competitive adsorption is lacking. In this study, the thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption behaviors of Ni(II), Co(II), Cr(VI), and P(V) on goethite under various condition were investigated by batch and stirred-flow experiments, respectively. The equilibrium model CD-MUSIC was developed to describe their equilibrium behavior, followed by the development of a multi-rate kinetic model constrained by the equilibrium model to describe their kinetic behavior. Read More

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A Western diet with alcohol in drinking water model recapitulates features of alcohol-associated liver disease in mice.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas, Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160, U.S.A.

Background: Mouse models of alcohol-associated liver disease vary greatly in their ease of implementation and the pathology they produce. This ranges from steatosis and mild inflammation in Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet, and severe inflammation, fibrosis and pyroptosis seen in the Tsukamoto-French intragastric feeding model. Implementation of all these models is limited by the labor-intensive nature of the protocols and the specialized skills necessary for successful intragastric feeding. Read More

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September 2021

Spatio-temporal hybrid neural networks reduce erroneous human "judgement calls" in the diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Oct 4;40:101115. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States.

Background: We investigate whether deep learning (DL) neural networks can reduce erroneous human "judgment calls" on bedside echocardiograms and help distinguish Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) from anterior wall ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: We developed a single-channel (DCNN[2D SCI]), a multi-channel (DCNN[2D MCI]), and a 3-dimensional (DCNN[2D+]) deep convolution neural network, and a recurrent neural network (RNN) based on 17,280 still-frame images and 540 videos from 2-dimensional echocardiograms in 10 years (1 January 2008 to 1 January 2018) retrospective cohort in University of Iowa (UI) and eight other medical centers. Echocardiograms from 450 UI patients were randomly divided into training and testing sets for internal training, testing, and model construction. Read More

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October 2021

Brain hierarchy score: Which deep neural networks are hierarchically brain-like?

iScience 2021 Sep 21;24(9):103013. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

Achievement of human-level image recognition by deep neural networks (DNNs) has spurred interest in whether and how DNNs are brain-like. Both DNNs and the visual cortex perform hierarchical processing, and correspondence has been shown between hierarchical visual areas and DNN layers in representing visual features. Here, we propose the brain hierarchy (BH) score as a metric to quantify the degree of hierarchical correspondence based on neural decoding and encoding analyses where DNN unit activations and human brain activity are predicted from each other. Read More

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September 2021

Fruits of sweet: toxicity profile, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and quantification of one of its bioactive constituents oleanolic acid.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 2;7(9):e07910. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: Sweet fruit, an under-utilised crop specie of Ghana, has not been validated for its ethnomedical use in managing inflammatory conditions. Therefore, the study sought to investigate its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as well as isolate and quantify one of its active constituents.

Materials And Methods: anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol fruit extract was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced oedema model in chicks. Read More

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September 2021

Systematic review of the venous thromboembolism risk assessment models used in aesthetic plastic surgery.

JPRAS Open 2021 Dec 11;30:116-127. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Royal Free NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Background: A reliable venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment model (RAM) can assist surgeons in identifying patients who would benefit from VTE prophylaxis. This systematic review was aimed at summarising the current available evidence on VTE RAMs used in aesthetic plastic surgery.

Methods: A comprehensive search was performed in the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases to include primary studies describing VTE RAMs in aesthetic plastic surgery from 1946 to February 2019. Read More

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December 2021

Taxonomic and functional diversity covary in rock pool microalgal communities despite their different drivers.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 29;11(17):11852-11873. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Geosciences and Geography University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland.

Local biodiversity has traditionally been estimated with taxonomic diversity metrics such as species richness. Recently, the concept of biodiversity has been extended beyond species identity by ecological traits determining the functional role of a species in a community. This interspecific functional diversity typically responds more strongly to local environmental variation compared with taxonomic diversity, while taxonomic diversity may mirror more strongly dispersal processes compared with functional metrics. Read More

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September 2021

Predicting potentially hazardous chemical reactions using an explainable neural network.

Chem Sci 2021 Aug 13;12(33):11028-11037. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 four), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) Daejeon 34141 Republic of Korea

Predicting potentially dangerous chemical reactions is a critical task for laboratory safety. However, a traditional experimental investigation of reaction conditions for possible hazardous or explosive byproducts entails substantial time and cost, for which machine learning prediction could accelerate the process and help detailed experimental investigations. Several machine learning models have been developed which allow the prediction of major chemical reaction products with reasonable accuracy. Read More

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Automated COVID-19 diagnosis and classification using convolutional neural network with fusion based feature extraction model.

Cogn Neurodyn 2021 Sep 10:1-14. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Science, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, UK.

COVID-19 was first identified in December 2019 at Wuhan, China. At present, the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in severe consequences on both economic and social infrastructures of the developed and developing countries. Several studies have been conducted and ongoing still to design efficient models for diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients. Read More

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September 2021

Risk factors for macular pucker after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 14;11(1):18276. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Hongo 3-1-3, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan.

Macular pucker, also known as an epiretinal membrane, sometimes forms after surgical repair of a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and can decrease visual acuity and cause aniseikonia. However, few reports are evaluating the risk factors of macular pucker using multivariate analysis. To evaluate the risk factors for macular pucker after RRD surgery, 226 patients who underwent RRD surgery and were monitored for greater than 12 months (23. Read More

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September 2021

ECG data dependency for atrial fibrillation detection based on residual networks.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 14;11(1):18256. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Asan Medical Institute of Convergence Science and Technology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an arrhythmia that can cause blood clot and may lead to stroke and heart failure. To detect AF, deep learning-based detection algorithms have recently been developed. However, deep learning models were often trained with limited datasets and were evaluated within the same datasets, which makes their performance generally drops on the external datasets, known as data dependency. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of flow within developing chicken vasculature and biofabricated vascularized tissues using multimodal imaging techniques.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 14;11(1):18251. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Vascularization Lab, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Technical Medical Centre, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, 7500 AE, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Fluid flow shear stresses are strong regulators for directing the organization of vascular networks. Knowledge of structural and flow dynamics information within complex vasculature is essential for tuning the vascular organization within engineered tissues, by manipulating flows. However, reported investigations of vascular organization and their associated flow dynamics within complex vasculature over time are limited, due to limitations in the available physiological pre-clinical models, and the optical inaccessibility and aseptic nature of these models. Read More

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September 2021

Passive immunisation of convalescent human anti-Zika plasma protects against challenge with New World Zika virus in cynomolgus macaques.

NPJ Vaccines 2020 Sep 15;5(1):86. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Division of Infectious Disease Diagnostics, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Herts, EN6 3QG, UK.

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes neurological complications in susceptible individuals, highlighted in the recent South American epidemic. Natural ZIKV infection elicits host responses capable of preventing subsequent re-infection, raising expectations for effective vaccination. Defining protective immune correlates will inform viral intervention strategies, particularly vaccine development. Read More

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September 2020

Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity from young adulthood to middle age and metabolic disease: a 30-year population-based cohort study.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objectives: To determine the association between moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) trajectories (course over age and time) through the adult life course and onset of metabolic disease (diabetes and dyslipidaemia).

Methods: We analysed prospective community-based cohort data of 5115 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, who were black and white men and women aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986) at four urban sites, collected through 30 years of follow-up. Individualised MVPA trajectories were developed for each participant using linear mixed models. Read More

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September 2021

Natriuretic Peptides and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium.

Diabetes Care 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

Objective: Natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations are increased in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but are associated with a lower diabetes risk. We investigated associations of N-terminal pro-B-type NP (NT-proBNP) and midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) with incident type 2 diabetes stratified by the presence of CVD.

Research Design And Methods: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium, we included 45,477 participants with NT-proBNP measurements (1,707 developed type 2 diabetes over 6. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluating risk stratification scoring systems to predict mortality in patients with COVID-19.

BMJ Health Care Inform 2021 Sep;28(1)

Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated efficient and accurate triaging of patients for more effective allocation of resources and treatment.

Objectives: The objectives are to investigate parameters and risk stratification tools that can be applied to predict mortality within 90 days of hospital admission in patients with COVID-19.

Methods: A literature search of original studies assessing systems and parameters predicting mortality of patients with COVID-19 was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Read More

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September 2021