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Pilates improves physical performance and decreases risk of falls in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Physiotherapy 2021 Jun 7;112:163-177. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Health and Social Research Center, Cuenca, Spain; Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Talca, Chile.

Background: Falls are the leading cause of injury-related deaths in older adults. Physical exercise is a suitable strategy to reduce the risk of falls, but there is little research on the effectiveness of specific exercise modalities.

Objectives: To estimate the effectiveness of Pilates compared to habitual or non-exercise on physical performance and the risk of falls in older adults. Read More

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A calcium phosphate drug carrier loading with 5-fluorouracil achieving a synergistic effect for pancreatic cancer therapy.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 20;605:263-273. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

The Seventh Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China. Electronic address:

Calcium based biomaterials were widely used for drug delivery application due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and high drug loading capacity. Herein, amino-capped polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was applied as a macromolecular template to form amino-modified calcium phosphate hollow sphere (CaPO-NH). After loading with 5-fluorouracil (5Fu), this system performed synergistic cancer chemotherapy. Read More

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A clinical-in silico study on the effectiveness of multipoint bicathodic and cathodic-anodal pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jul 22;136:104661. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Cardiologia 1, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria "Maggiore Della Carità", Novara, Italy; Dipartimento di Medicina Traslazionale, Università Del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy.

Up to one-third of patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are nonresponders. Multipoint bicathodic and cathodic-anodal left ventricle (LV) stimulations could overcome this clinical challenge, but their effectiveness remains controversial. Here we evaluate the performance of such stimulations through both in vivo and in silico experiments, the latter based on computer electromechanical modeling. Read More

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DeepCervix: A deep learning-based framework for the classification of cervical cells using hybrid deep feature fusion techniques.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jul 20;136:104649. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Hospital and Institute, Shenyang, 110042, China.

Cervical cancer, one of the most common fatal cancers among women, can be prevented by regular screening to detect any precancerous lesions at early stages and treat them. Pap smear test is a widely performed screening technique for early detection of cervical cancer, whereas this manual screening method suffers from high false-positive results because of human errors. To improve the manual screening practice, machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) based computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems have been investigated widely to classify cervical Pap cells. Read More

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Accelerated theta burst stimulation for the treatment of depression: A randomised controlled trial.

Brain Stimul 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Epworth Centre for Innovation in Mental Health, Epworth Healthcare and Department of Psychiatry, Monash University, Camberwell, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Theta burst pattern repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) is increasingly applied to treat depression. TBS's brevity is well-suited to application in accelerated schedules. Sizeable trials of accelerated TBS are lacking; and optimal TBS parameters such as stimulation intensity are not established. Read More

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Direct Reprogramming Induces Vascular Regeneration Post Muscle Ischemic Injury.

Mol Ther 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Cardiovascular Research Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA, 10029; Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA, 10029; Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA, 10029. Electronic address:

Reprogramming non-cardiomyocytes (non-CMs) into cardiomyocyte (CM)-like cells is a promising strategy for cardiac regeneration in conditions such as ischemic heart disease. Here, we used a modified mRNA (modRNA) gene delivery platform to deliver a cocktail of four cardiac-reprogramming genes (Gata4 (G), Mef2c (M), Tbx5 (T) and Hand2 (H)) together with three reprogramming-helper genes (Dominant Negative (DN)-TGFβ, DN-Wnt8a and Acid ceramidase (AC)), termed 7G-modRNA, to induce CM-like cells. We showed that 7G-modRNA reprogrammed 57% of CM-like cells in vitro. Read More

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Impact of metformin use on risk and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma in diabetes mellitus.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 28:101781. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Oncology Biotherapy, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Naval Medical University, 201805, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: The views regarding the associations between metformin use and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are divisive. Thus we summarized all available published studies evaluating the relationship between metformin therapy and HCC survival and risk, and aim to conduct an updated meta-analysis study to more accurately clarify the association.

Methods: We searched for articles regarding impact of metformin use on risk and mortality of HCC in DM and published before April 2021 in databases (PubMed and Web of Science). Read More

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Standard therapy of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease shows limited efficacy in an open source hollow fiber system that simulates human plasma and epithelial lining fluid pharmacokinetics.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Radboudumc Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Objectives: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria can cause chronic pulmonary disease (PD). Current treatment regimens of azithromycin, ethambutol and rifampicin have culture conversion rates of around 65%. Dynamic, pre-clinical models to assess the efficacy of treatment regimens are important to guide clinical trial development. Read More

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Biomechanical Consequences of Compromised Elastic Fiber Integrity and Matrix Cross-Linking on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysmal Enlargement.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT; Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized histopathologically by compromised elastic fiber integrity, lost smooth muscle cells or their function, and remodeled collagen. We used a recently introduced mouse model of AAAs that combines enzymatic degradation of elastic fibers and blocking of lysyl oxidase, and thus matrix cross-linking, to study progressive dilatation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, including development of intraluminal thrombus. We quantified changes in biomaterial properties and biomechanical functionality within the aneurysmal segment as a function of time of enlargement and degree of thrombosis. Read More

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4,4'-Dimethoxychalcone regulates redox homeostasis by targeting riboflavin metabolism in Parkinson's disease therapy.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Neuroscience and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Key Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Channelopathies of Guangdong Province and the Ministry of Education of China, Guangzhou, 510260, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress damage plays a pivotal role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Previously, we developed a blood brain barrier-penetrating peptide-based "Trojan Horse" strategy to deliver 4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (DMC) for PD therapy and revealed neuroprotective properties of DMC in a PD model; however, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Here, we report that DMC attenuated motor impairment, degeneration of DA neurons and α-synuclein aggregation in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and exogenous human α-synuclein-induced PD mouse models. Read More

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A comparative study on chemical compositions and biological activities of four essential oils: Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Cinnamomum cassia (L.) Presl, Salvia japonica Thunb. and Rosa rugosa Thumb.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 28:114472. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Essential oils (EOs) are important active ingredients in Chinese herbal medicine. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Cinnamomum cassia (L. Read More

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Anti-atopic effect of Viola yedoensis ethanol extract against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin dysfunction.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 28:114474. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine- Hakka Medical Resources Branch, School of Pharmacy, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, 341000, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Viola yedoensis Makiho (VY, Violaceae) is a well-known medicinal herb in Chinese medicine, which is traditionally used to treat inflammation-related disorders, including allergic skin reactions. Although studies have uncovered its anti-inflammatory effects and corresponding bioactive constituents, the exact mechanism of action is still unclear in treating allergic skin reactions.

Objective: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe pruritus, dry, edema and inflamed skin. Read More

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Impact of treatment duration on recurrence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.

J Infect 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.. Electronic address:

Objectives: Limited data exist on the optimal treatment duration for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). We investigated the treatment outcome and recurrence rate according to treatment duration in CPA patients.

Methods: A total of 196 patients who completed at least 6 months of antifungal therapy (99% oral itraconazole) and achieved favorable treatment responses were analyzed. Read More

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Combined therapy of adenovirus vector mediated IGF-1 gene with anti-CD20 mAbs exerts potential beneficial role on type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 28:119853. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medical College, Shenzhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: To assess the protective effects of combined treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and adenovirus mediated mouse insulin-like growth factor 1 (Adv-mIGF-1) gene on type 1 diabetes (T1D) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice at early stage.

Methods: To simultaneously restore the proportion of Th cells and block the interaction of B cells, NOD model mice were assigned to four groups which received PBS, Adv-mIGF-1 gene and anti-CD20 mAbs alone or combination, respectively. After 16 weeks of therapeutic intervention, blood samples and pancreatic tissues of mice were measured via the methods of ELISA, RT-PCR, western blotting, H&E staining, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry assays. Read More

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Definitive evidence for Club cells as progenitors for mutant Kras/Trp53-deficient lung cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute of Translational Immunology (TIM), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany.

Accumulating evidence suggests that both the nature of oncogenic lesions and the cell-of-origin can strongly influence cancer histopathology, tumor aggressiveness and response to therapy. However and although oncogenic Kras expression and loss of Trp53 tumor suppressor gene function have been demonstrated to initiate murine lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) in alveolar type II (AT2) cells, clear evidence that Club cells, representing the second major subset of lung epithelial cells, can also act as cells-of-origin for LUAD is lacking. Equally, the exact anatomic location of Club cells that are susceptible to Kras transformation and the resulting tumor histotype remain to be established. Read More

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Single-dose immunisation with a multimerised SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) induces an enhanced and protective response in mice.

FEBS Lett 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, has triggered a worldwide health emergency. Here, we show that ferritin-like Dps from hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus islandicus, covalently coupled with SARS-CoV-2 antigens via the SpyCatcher system, forms stable multivalent dodecameric vaccine nanoparticles that remain intact even after lyophilisation. Immunisation experiments in mice demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) coupled to Dps (RBD-S-Dps) elicited a higher antibody titre and an enhanced neutralising antibody response compared to monomeric RBD. Read More

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Implementation of the Australian Computer-Assisted Theragnostics (AusCAT) network for radiation oncology data extraction, reporting and distributed learning.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: There is significant potential to analyse and model routinely collected data for radiotherapy patients to provide evidence to support clinical decisions, particularly where clinical trials evidence is limited or non-existent. However, in practice there are administrative, ethical, technical, logistical and legislative barriers to having coordinated data analysis platforms across radiation oncology centres.

Methods: A distributed learning network of computer systems is presented, with software tools to extract and report on oncology data and to enable statistical model development. Read More

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Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic performance of CT imaging for assessing resectability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant therapy: importance of CT criteria.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To assess the CT diagnostic performance for evaluating resectability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) after neoadjuvant therapy and identify the factor(s) that affect(s) diagnostic performance.

Methods: Databases were searched to identify studies published from January 1, 2000, to November 5, 2019 that evaluated the CT diagnostic performance for assessing resectability of post-neoadjuvant PDAC. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the study quality. Read More

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A Novel Stimuli-Responsive Injectable Antibacterial Hydrogel to Achieve Synergetic Photothermal/Gene-Targeted Therapy towards Uveal Melanoma.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 31:e2004721. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, P. R. China.

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most prevalent primary intraocular malignant tumor with a high lethal rate. Patients who undergo conventional enucleation treatments consistently suffer permanent blindness, facial defects, and mental disorders, therefore, novel therapeutic modalities are urgently required. Herein, an injectable and stimuli-responsive drug delivery antibacterial hydrogel ([email protected]@DC_AC50) is constructed via a facile grinding method that is inspired by the preparation process of traditional Chinese medicine. Read More

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Do non-pharmacological sleep interventions affect anxiety symptoms? A meta-analysis.

J Sleep Res 2021 Jul 30:e13451. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Research indicates a bidirectional relationship between sleep and anxiety, with findings suggesting anxiety can precede poor sleep and vice versa. Evidence suggests sleep-related thought processes associated with anxiety are involved in the maintenance of insomnia. Previous meta-analyses provide some evidence to suggest cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia moderately improves anxiety, yet little research has investigated the effect of other sleep interventions on anxiety symptoms. Read More

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Nanomedicine-based combination of dexamethasone palmitate and MCL-1 siRNA for synergistic therapeutic efficacy against rheumatoid arthritis.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai, 264000, Shandong, China.

The main aim of this research was to design a MCL-1 siRNA and dexamethasone (DEX)-loaded folate modified poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based polymeric micelles with an eventual goal to improve the therapeutic outcome in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Polymeric micelles encapsulating the MCL-1 siRNA and DEX was successfully developed and observed to be stable. Physicochemical characteristics such as particle size and particle morphology were ideal for the systemic administration. Read More

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Experimental and theoretical study of a new CDI device for the treatment of desulfurization wastewater.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Hebei Key Lab of Power Plant Flue Gas Multi-Pollutants Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding, 071003, People's Republic of China.

According to the characteristics of desulfurization wastewater, A new capacitive deionization (CDI) device was designed to study the desalination characteristics of desulfurization wastewater in this paper. The experiments investigated the desalination efficiency under different conditions which find that the best desalination efficiency is achieved at a voltage of 1.2V, pH=11 and 50°C. Read More

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Spared Nerve Injury Causes Sexually Dimorphic Mechanical Allodynia and Differential Gene Expression in Spinal Cords and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Rats.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8 (Biomedicum 1), 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Neuropathic pain is more prevalent in women. However, females are under-represented in animal experiments, and the mechanisms of sex differences remain inadequately understood. We used the spared nerve injury (SNI) model in rats to characterize sex differences in pain behaviour, unbiased RNA-Seq and proteomics to study the mechanisms. Read More

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[email protected]: A New Manualized Intervention to Improve Job Tenure in Psychosis Based on Scoping Review and Logic Model.

J Occup Rehabil 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Centre de Recherche de L'Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal, 7331 Hochelaga, Montreal, QC, H1N 3V2, Canada.

Introduction A significant proportion of people experiencing psychosis are unemployed, despite a strong desire to work. Current supported employment programs appear effective in helping them obtain employment, yet job tenure remains an arduous challenge. The objective of this study was to review the literature and model the results to inform the development of a new manualized group psychosocial intervention-'[email protected]'-aimed specifically at improving job tenure in psychosis. Read More

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Optimal Control Strategies and Sensitivity Analysis of an HIV/AIDS-Resistant Model with Behavior Change.

Acta Biotheor 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Despite several research on HIV/AIDS, it is still incumbent to investigate more effective control measures to mitigate its infection level. Therefore, we introduce an HIV/AIDS-resistant model with behavior change and study its basic properties. In order to determine the most sensitive parameters that are responsible for disease transmission with respect to the basic reproduction number and those responsible for disease prevalence with respect to the endemic equilibrium, the sensitivity analysis was established and it was confirmed that the influx rate of people into the infected population and total abstinence from all risk practices and endemic areas are some of the most sensitive parameters for disease spread and disease eradication, respectively. Read More

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AML1/ETO and its function as a regulator of gene transcription via epigenetic mechanisms.

Oncogene 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Freiburg Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany.

The chromosomal translocation t(8;21) and the resulting oncofusion gene AML1/ETO have long served as a prototypical genetic lesion to model and understand leukemogenesis. In this review, we describe the wide-ranging role of AML1/ETO in AML leukemogenesis, with a particular focus on the aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene transcription driven by this AML-defining mutation. We begin by analyzing how structural changes secondary to distinct genomic breakpoints and splice changes, as well as posttranscriptional modifications, influence AML1/ETO protein function. Read More

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Validation of nasospheroids to assay CFTR functionality and modulator responses in cystic fibrosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15511. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Medicine Genetics Group, Vall D'Hebron Research Institute, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.

The availability of a simple, robust and non-invasive in vitro airway model would be useful to study the functionality of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein and to personalize modulator therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Our aim was to validate a CFTR functional study using nasospheroids, a patient-derived nasal cell 3D-culture. We performed live-cell experiments in nasospheroids obtained from wild-type individuals and CF patients with different genotypes and phenotypes. Read More

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Hippo-YAP/MCP-1 mediated tubular maladaptive repair promote inflammation in renal failed recovery after ischemic AKI.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jul 30;12(8):754. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with significant morbidity and its chronic inflammation contributes to subsequent chronic kidney disease (CKD) development. Yes-associated protein (YAP), the major transcriptional coactivator of the Hippo pathway, has been shown associated with chronic inflammation, but its role and mechanism in AKI-CKD transition remain unclear. Here we aimed to investigate the role of YAP in AKI-induced chronic inflammation. Read More

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The consistency of prior movements shapes locomotor use-dependent learning.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Physical Therapy Department, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19713, United States.

Repetition is an indispensable component of motor skill acquisition. However, it is unknown how consistent repeated movement patterns must be to engage an implicit 'use-dependent' learning mechanism. In this Registered Report, we tackled this question through a combination of computational modeling, simulations, and behavioral experiments involving visually-guided treadmill walking. Read More

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Physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with spinal cord injury: Mitigation strategies during COVID-19 on behalf of ACSM-EIM and HL-PIVOT.

Disabil Health J 2021 Jul 24:101177. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL - PIVOT) Network, Chicago, IL, USA.

People with spinal cord injury (SCI) face unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, including greater risk of poor COVID-19-related outcomes, increased social isolation, and restricted access to important services. Furthermore, COVID-19 related restrictions have decreased already low levels of physical activity (PA) in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this commentary is to: 1) address the impact of COVID-19 on PA and sedentary behavior (SB) in people with SCI; 2) provide potential SB reduction strategies to guide future research; and 3) provide recommendations to increase PA and reduce SB on behalf of the American College of Sports Medicine Exercise is Medicine (ACSM-EIM) and Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL-PIVOT) using a social-ecological model targeting the individual-, social environment-, physical environment-, and policy-level determinants of behavior in people with SCI. Read More

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