15,765 results match your criteria model scenario


Portuguese Version of COVID-19 Perceived Risk Scale and COVID-19 Phobia Scale: Psychometric Properties.

Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ 2021 Sep 11;11(3):1044-1060. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Research Center in Business and Economics (CICEE), Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, Rua Sta. Marta 47, 5° Andar, 1150-293 Lisboa, Portugal.

The COVID-19 pandemic scenario has a psychological impact on individuals and society. A higher level of perceived risk concerning COVID-19 has been found when compared to other potential health threats. A misperception of risk in contrast with the real risk may lead people to develop disruptive cognitive, affective, or behavioral responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, namely, coronaphobia. Read More

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September 2021

Temperature, humidity and outdoor air quality indicators influence COVID-19 spread rate and mortality in major cities of Saudi Arabia.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 22:112071. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Lancaster University, United Kingdom.

There is an increasing evidence that meteorological (temperature, humidity, dew) and air quality indicators (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO) are affecting the COVID-19 transmission rate and the number of deaths in many countries around the globe. However, there are contradictory results due to limited observations of these parameters and absence of conclusive evidence on such relationships in cold or hot arid tropical and subtropical desert climate of Gulf region. Read More

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September 2021

Does seniority always correlate with simulated intubation performance? Comparing endotracheal intubation performance across medical students, residents, and physicians using a high-fidelity simulator.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(9):e0257969. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Chang Gung Medical Education Research Center (CGMERC), Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan.

Background: Endotracheal intubation is crucial in emergency medical care and anaesthesia. Our study employed a high-fidelity simulator to explore differences in intubation success rate and other skills between junior and senior physicians.

Methods: We examined the performance of 50 subjects, including undergraduate students (UGY), postgraduate trainees (PGY), residents (R), and attending physicians (VS). Read More

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September 2021

Synergistic effect of drought and rainfall events of different patterns on watershed systems.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 23;11(1):18957. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, People's Republic of China.

The increase in extreme climate events such as flooding and droughts predicted by the general circulation models (GCMs) is expected to significantly affect hydrological processes, erosive dynamics, and their associated nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, resulting in a major challenge to water availability for human life and ecosystems. Using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran model, we evaluated the synergistic effects of droughts and rainfall events on hydrology and water quality in an upstream catchment of the Miyun Reservoir based on the outputs of five GCMs. It showed substantial increases in air temperature, precipitation intensity, frequency of heavy rains and rainstorms, and drought duration, as well as sediment and nutrient loads in the RCP 8. Read More

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September 2021

Soft gamma rays from low accreting supermassive black holes and connection to energetic neutrinos.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 23;12(1):5615. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

The Universe is filled with a diffuse background of MeV gamma-rays and PeV neutrinos, whose origins are unknown. Here, we propose a scenario that can account for both backgrounds simultaneously. Low-luminosity active galactic nuclei have hot accretion flows where thermal electrons naturally emit soft gamma rays via Comptonization of their synchrotron photons. Read More

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September 2021

Agricultural ammonia emissions and its impact on PM concentrations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2000 to 2018.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 11;291:118162. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

College of Environmental & Energy Engineering, Key Laboratory of Beijing on Regional Air Pollution Control, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China. Electronic address:

Ammonia (NH) discharged from agricultural activities to the atmosphere plays a crucial role in the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. This study analyzed the temporal-spatial development of agricultural NH emissions from 2000 to 2018 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region and assessed the effects of reducing PM by removing agricultural NH using an air quality model. The results showed that the interannual agricultural NH emissions in the BTH region exhibited a stairs trend from 2000 to 2018, with an average of 971. Read More

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September 2021

Se-[(2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl] 4-Chlorobenzoselenolate Attenuates Inflammatory Response, Nociception, and Affective Disorders Related to Rheumatoid Arthritis in Mice.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Farmacologia Bioquímica, CCQFA, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, UFPel, Pelotas 96010-900, Brazil.

Despite major advances, not all patients achieve rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remission, thus highlighting a pressing need for new therapeutic treatments. Given this scenario, this study sought to evaluate Se-[(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl] 4-chlorobenzoselenolate (Se-DMC) potential on a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced unilateral arthritis model. The effects of Se-DMC (5 mg/kg; oral dose) and meloxicam (5 mg/kg; oral dose), both administered to animals daily for 14 days, on paw edema, mechanical sensitivity, neurobehavioral deficits (anxiogenic- and depressive-like behaviors), Na/K-ATPase activity, oxidative stress, and inflammation were evaluated in male Swiss mice exposed to CFA (intraplantar injection of 0. Read More

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September 2021

A pig model of tunneled dialysis catheter (TDC) infection and dysfunction: Opportunities for therapeutic innovation.

J Vasc Access 2021 Sep 23:11297298211046751. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

UNC Kidney Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Although tunneled dialysis catheters (TDC) are far from ideal, they still represent the main form of vascular access for most patients beginning dialysis. Catheters are easy to place and allow patients instant access to dialysis, but regardless of these benefits, catheters are associated with a high incidence of significant complications like bloodstream infections, central venous stenosis, thrombosis, and dysfunction. In the present study, we aim to describe and characterize a swine model of catheter dysfunction and bloodstream infection, that recreates the clinical scenario, to help to serve as a platform to develop therapeutic innovations for this important clinical problem. Read More

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September 2021

How severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 aerosol propagates through the age-specific upper airways.

Phys Fluids (1994) 2021 Aug 19;33(8):081911. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4000, Australia.

The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 causes significant respirational health problems, including high mortality rates worldwide. The deadly corona virus-containing aerosol enters the atmospheric air through sneezing, exhalation, or talking, assembling with the particulate matter, and subsequently transferring to the respiratory system. This recent outbreak illustrates that the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 is deadlier for aged people than for other age groups. Read More

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Genome-wide estimation of recombination, mutation and positive selection enlightens diversification drivers of Mycobacterium bovis.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 22;11(1):18789. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, C2, Room 2.4.11, 1749-016, Lisbon, Portugal.

Genome sequencing has reinvigorated the infectious disease research field, shedding light on disease epidemiology, pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions and also evolutionary processes exerted upon pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), enclosing M. bovis as one of its animal-adapted members causing tuberculosis (TB) in terrestrial mammals, is a paradigmatic model of bacterial evolution. Read More

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September 2021

The impact of prioritisation and dosing intervals on the effects of COVID-19 vaccination in Europe: an agent-based cohort model.

Sci Rep 2021 09 22;11(1):18812. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences (NDORMS), University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Different strategies have been used to maximise the effect of COVID-19 vaccination campaigns in Europe. We modelled the impact of different prioritisation choices and dose intervals on infections, hospitalisations, mortality, and public health restrictions. An agent-based model was built to quantify the impact of different vaccination strategies over 6 months. Read More

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September 2021

Trial-to-trial variability of spiking delay activity in prefrontal cortex constrains burst-coding models of working memory.

J Neurosci 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Physics, Yale University, 217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA

A hallmark neuronal correlate of working memory (WM) is stimulus-selective spiking activity of neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC) during mnemonic delays. These observations have motivated an influential computational modeling framework in which WM is supported by persistent activity. Recently this framework has been challenged by arguments that observed persistent activity may be an artifact of trial-averaging, which potentially masks high variability of delay activity at the single-trial level. Read More

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September 2021

Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis and Network Meta-Analysis.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2345:279-298

Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Meta-analyses are often conducted using trial-level summary data. However, when individual patient data (IPD ) is available, there is greater flexibility in the analysis and a wider range of statistical models that can be fitted. There are two approaches to fitting IPD models. Read More

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January 2022

An "onion-like" model of protein unfolding: collective versus site specific approaches.

Chemphyschem 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

University of Naples Federico II, Dept. of Chemistry, via Cinthia, I-80126, Naples, ITALY.

Approximating protein unfolding by an all-or-none cooperative event is a convenient assumption that can provide precious global information on protein stability. It is however quickly emerging that the scenario is far more complex and that global denaturation curves often hide a rich heterogeneity of states that are largely probe dependent. In this review, we revisit the importance of gaining site-specific information on the unfolding process. Read More

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September 2021

Origin of pyrite nodules at the top of the nantuo diamictites, Southern China.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 21;11(1):18696. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA, USA.

Pyrite nodules up to 20 cm in diameter are found at the top of the Marinoan (~ 635 Ma) Nantuo glacial diamictite as well as in the cap dolostones and shale/siltstones in the lower Doushantuo Formation in eastern Guizhou, southern China. Field occurrences, petrography, and stable sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrite nodules were studied from a section at Taoying, eastern Guizhou, China. Pyrite δS values from different nodules varied from 7. Read More

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September 2021

Stress cardiac magnetic resonance for mortality prediction and decision-making: registry of 2496 elderly patients with chronic coronary syndrome.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico de Valencia (INCLIVA), Valencia, Spain; Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction And Objectives: The management of elderly patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) is challenging. We explored the prognostic value and usefulness for decision-making of ischemic burden determined by vasodilator stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in elderly patients with known or suspected CCS.

Methods: The study group comprised 2496 patients older than 70 years who underwent vasodilator stress CMR for known or suspected CCS. Read More

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September 2021

Cortical network and connectivity underlying hedonic olfactory perception.

J Neural Eng 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Centro di Ricerca "E. Piaggio", University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, 1, Pisa, Pisa, PI, 56122, ITALY.

Objective: The emotional response to olfactory stimuli implies the activation of a complex cascade of events triggered by structures lying in the limbic system. However, little is known about how this activation is projected up to cerebral cortex and how different cortical areas dynamically interact each other.

Approach: In this study, we acquired EEG from human participants performing a passive odor-perception task with odorants conveying positive, neutral and negative valence. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of different Danish food consumption patterns on Water ScarcityFootprint.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 20;300:113713. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Research Group on EcoIndustrial System Analysis, Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, Postboks 358, DK-4000, Roskilde, Denmark; Aarhus University Centre for Circular Bioeconomy, Denmark; European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate Growth and Innovation, Circular Economy and Industrial Leadership Unit, Seville, Spain.

Food production and consumption have been recognized as a major source of environmental impacts. To ensure food security and a sustainable food system, dietary changes have been identified as one of the valuable strategies to reduce impacts on the environment while promoting human health. The vast majority of scientific literature has been focused on the effects of food consumption on climate change while neglecting to assess the degree of water scarcity impacts due to water consumption embodied in food. Read More

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September 2021

Human leishmaniasis vaccines: Use cases, target population and potential global demand.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Sep 21;15(9):e0009742. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

York Biomedical Research Institute, Hull York Medical School, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom.

The development of vaccines against one or all forms of human leishmaniasis remains hampered by a paucity of investment, at least in part resulting from the lack of well-evidenced and agreed estimates of vaccine demand. Starting from the definition of 4 main use cases (prevention of visceral leishmaniasis, prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis, prevention of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis and treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis), we have estimated the size of each target population, focusing on those endemic countries where incidence levels are sufficiently high to justify decisions to adopt a vaccine. We assumed a dual vaccine delivery strategy, including a wide age-range catch-up campaign before the start of routine immunisation. Read More

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September 2021

A Vaccination Simulator for COVID-19: Effective and Sterilizing Immunization Cases.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Sep 21;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Accurate modeling provides a means by which a complex problem can be examined for informed decision-making. We present a particle-based SEIR epidemic simulator as a tool to assess the impact of vaccination strategies on viral propagation and to model both sterilizing and effective immunization outcomes. The simulator includes modules to support contact tracing of the interactions amongst individuals as well as epidemiological testing of the general population. Read More

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September 2021

Benchmarking Various Radiomic Toolkit Features While Applying the Image Biomarker Standardization Initiative toward Clinical Translation of Radiomic Analysis.

J Digit Imaging 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, 1500 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

The image biomarkers standardization initiative (IBSI) was formed to address the standardization of extraction of quantifiable imaging metrics. Despite its effort, there remains a lack of consensus or established guidelines regarding radiomic feature terminology, the underlying mathematics and their implementation across various software programs. This creates a scenario where features extracted using different toolboxes cannot be used to build or validate the same model leading to a non-generalization of radiomic results. Read More

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September 2021

A comparison of acute mouse hindlimb injuries between tourniquet- and femoral artery ligation-induced ischemia-reperfusion.

Injury 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5850, USA; Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA. Electronic address:

The tourniquet or femoral artery ligation is widely used to stop extremity hemorrhage or create a bloodless operating field in the combat scenario and civilian setting. However, these procedures with subsequent reperfusion also induce ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injuries. To fully evaluate animal models of limb IR injuries, we compared tourniquet- and femoral artery ligation-induced IR injuries in the hindlimb of mice. Read More

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September 2021

Genomic prediction for fusiform rust disease incidence in a large cloned population of Pinus taeda.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep;11(9)

Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8002, USA.

In this study, 723 Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) clonal varieties genotyped with 16920 SNP markers were used to evaluate genomic selection for fusiform rust disease caused by the fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient uncertainty quantification for Monte Carlo dose calculations using importance (re-)weighting.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, GERMANY.

To present an efficient uncertainty quantification method for range and set-up errors in Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. Further, we show that uncertainty induced by interplay and other dynamic influences may be approximated using suitable error correlation models.We introduce an importance (re-)weighting method in MC history scoring to concurrently construct estimates for error scenarios, the expected dose and its variance from a single set of MC simulated particle histories. Read More

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September 2021

Cost-effectiveness analysis of domiciliary topical sevoflurane for painful leg ulcers.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(9):e0257494. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Albacete, Spain.

Objectives: The general anesthetic sevoflurane is being repurposed as a topical analgesic for painful chronic wounds. We conducted a Bayesian cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) comparing the addition of domiciliary topical sevoflurane to conventional analgesics (SEVOFLURANE, n = 38) versus conventional analgesics alone (CONVENTIONAL, n = 26) for the treatment of nonrevascularizable painful leg ulcers in an outpatient Pain Clinic of a Spanish tertiary hospital.

Methods: We used real-world data collected from charts to conduct this CEA from a public healthcare perspective and with a one-year time horizon. Read More

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September 2021

WaveICA 2.0: a novel batch effect removal method for untargeted metabolomics data without using batch information.

Metabolomics 2021 Sep 20;17(10):87. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, and Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Untargeted metabolomics based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is inevitably affected by batch effects that are caused by non-biological systematic bias. Previously, we developed a novel method called WaveICA to remove batch effects for untargeted metabolomics data. To detect batch effect information, the method relies on a batch label. Read More

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September 2021

Establishing a Multidisciplinary Cavernous Carotid Injury Simulation to Train Neurosurgical, Otolaryngology, and Anesthesia Residents.

J Vis Exp 2021 Sep 3(175). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Oregon Health & Science University;

Carotid artery injuries are serious complications of endoscopic endonasal surgery. As these occur rarely, simulation training offers an avenue for technique and algorithm development in resident learners. This study develops a realistic cadaveric model for the training of crisis resource management in the setting of cavernous carotid artery injury. Read More

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September 2021

Patient-Provider Communication Training Models for Interactive Speech Devices.

Digit Hum Model Appl Health Saf Ergon Risk Manag (2021) 2021 ;12777:250-268

School of Biomedical Informatics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Patient-provider communication plays a major role in healthcare with its main goal being to improve the patient's health and build a trustworthy relationship between the patient and the doctor. Provider's efficiency and effectiveness in communication can be improved through training in order to meet the essential elements of communication that are relevant during medical encounters. We surmised that speech-enabled conversational agents could be used as a training tool. Read More

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January 2021

A Food System Approach for Sustainable Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: An Exploratory Scenario Study on Dutch Animal Food Products.

Front Nutr 2021 1;8:712970. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.

This study explores interconnections between food consumption and production of animal (by-)products in different food system scenarios within the scope of Dutch Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG). For this scenario study, a Microsoft Excel model was created that include seven scenarios with different quantities of eggs, milk, cheese, beef cattle, broilers, and pigs as input. Number of animals, intake of energy, animal protein, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), trans-fatty acids (TFAs), salt, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs), and land use (LU) were calculated and compared with current consumption and reference values. Read More

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September 2021

Pupils returning to primary schools in England during 2020: rapid estimations of punctual COVID-19 infection rates.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Sep 15;8(9):202218. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.

Drawing on risk methods from volcano crises, we developed a rapid COVID-19 infection model for the partial return of pupils to primary schools in England in June and July 2020, and a full return in September 2020. The model handles uncertainties in key parameters, using a stochastic re-sampling technique, allowing us to evaluate infection levels as a function of COVID-19 prevalence and projected pupil and staff headcounts. Assuming average national adult prevalence, for the first scenario (as at 1 June 2020) we found that between 178 and 924 [90% CI] schools would have at least one infected individual, out of 16 769 primary schools in total. Read More

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September 2021