82,962 results match your criteria model plants

Neofunctionalization of a Polyploidization-Activated Cotton Long intergenic non-coding RNA DAN1 During Drought Stress Regulation.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

The genomic shock of whole-genome duplication and hybridization introduces great variation into transcriptomes, for both coding and non-coding genes. An altered transcriptome provides a molecular basis for improving adaptation during the evolution of new species. The allotetraploid cotton, together with the putative diploid ancestor species compose a fine model for study the rapid gene neofunctionalization over the genome shock. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gene body methylation is under selection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Genetics 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Irvine, CA 92697, United States.

In plants, mammals and insects, some genes are methylated in the CG dinucleotide context, a phenomenon called gene body methylation (gbM). It has been controversial whether this phenomenon has any functional role. Here we took advantage of the availability of 876 leaf methylomes in Arabidopsis thaliana to characterize the population frequency of methylation at the gene level and to estimate the site-frequency spectrum of allelic states. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Systematic Approach to Identify Novel Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Molecules from Plants' Extracts and Fractions to Prevent Dental Caries.

J Vis Exp 2021 Mar 31(169). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP);

Natural products provide structurally different substances, with a myriad of biological activities. However, the identification and isolation of active compounds from plants are challenging because of the complex plant matrix and time-consuming isolation and identification procedures. Therefore, a stepwise approach for screening natural compounds from plants, including the isolation and identification of potentially active molecules, is presented. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Robotic integration enables autonomous operation of laboratory scale stirred tank bioreactors with model-driven process analysis.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, IBG-1: Biotechnology, Jülich, Germany.

Given its geometric similarity to large-scale production plants and the excellent possibilities for precise process control and monitoring, the classic stirred tank bioreactor still represents the gold standard for bioprocess development at a laboratory scale. However, compared to microbioreactor technologies bioreactors often suffer from a low degree of process automation and deriving key performance indicators such as specific rates or yields often requires manual sampling and sample processing. A widely used parallelized stirred tank bioreactor setup was automated by connecting it to a liquid handling system and controlling it with a custom-made process control system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of phytochemical composition, toxicity in and effects on antibiotics modulation of Benth extract.

Toxicol Rep 2021 31;8:732-739. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Departamento de Química Biológica, Laboratório de Microbiologia e Biologia Molecular - LMBM, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, Ceará, Brazil.

Bacterial resistance is interfering with the action of antibiotics for clinical use in treating pathologies. The search for new substances capable of combating this resistance is necessary. An alternative to the search for these substances is in the extract of medicinal plants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Classification and Design of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors Based on Machine Learning.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 1;2021:5559338. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Coarse Cereal Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, School of Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Medicinal and Edible Plants Resources Development of Sichuan Education Department, Sichuan Industrial Institute of Antibiotics, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China.

A key enzyme in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle, integrase (IN) aids the integration of viral DNA into the host DNA, which has become an ideal target for the development of anti-HIV drugs. A total of 1785 potential HIV-1 IN inhibitors were collected from the databases of ChEMBL, Binding Database, DrugBank, and PubMed, as well as from 40 references. The database was divided into the training set and test set by random sampling. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

SWEET Transporters and the Potential Functions of These Sequences in Tea ().

Front Genet 2021 31;12:655843. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Preclinical Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China.

Tea () is an important economic beverage crop. Its flowers and leaves could be used as healthcare tea for its medicinal value. SWEET proteins were recently identified in plants as sugar transporters, which participate in diverse physiological processes, including pathogen nutrition, seed filling, nectar secretion, and phloem loading. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes Complexes in Meiosis and Genome Maintenance: Translating Biomedical and Model Plant Research Into Crop Breeding Opportunities.

Front Plant Sci 2021 31;12:659558. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Fabio Baudrit Agricultural Research Station, University of Costa Rica, Alajuela, Costa Rica.

Cohesin is a multi-unit protein complex from the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family, required for holding sister chromatids together during mitosis and meiosis. In yeast, the cohesin complex entraps sister DNAs within tripartite rings created by pairwise interactions between the central ring units SMC1 and SMC3 and subunits such as the α-kleisin SCC1 (REC8/SYN1 in meiosis). The complex is an indispensable regulator of meiotic recombination in eukaryotes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Seed-Specific Expression of Produces Biologically Active Brassinosteroids Such as Castasterone and Brassinolide to Improve Grain Yield and Quality in Seeds of .

Front Plant Sci 2021 1;12:639508. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea.

is a monocotyledonous model plant that contains castasterone (CS) but no brassinolide (BL) as the end product of brassinosteroids (BR) biosynthesis, indicating dysfunction of BL synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of CS to BL. To increase BR activity, () encoding BR 6-oxidase/BL synthase was introduced into with the seed-specific promoters , and . RT-PCR analysis and GUS activity revealed that was only expressed in the seeds of the transgenic plants , and . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Thymidylyltransferase RmlA Is Negatively Regulated by Ser/Thr Protein Kinase PknB.

Front Microbiol 2021 31;12:643951. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Systems Biomedicine (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Ser/Thr phosphorylation by serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs) plays significant roles in molecular regulation, which allows to adapt their cell wall structure in response to the environment changes. Identifying direct targets of STPKs and determining their activities are therefore critical to revealing their function in , for example, in cell wall formation and virulence. Herein, we reported that RmlA, a crucial L-rhamnose biosynthesis enzyme, is a substrate of STPK PknB in (). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessing climate change risks to the geographical distribution of grass species.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Apr 17:1913311. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Ornamental Plants, Research Center for Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

There is extensive evidence showing the impact of climate change on the biology and biogeography of species. Adopting drought-tolerant plants to conserve water is a potential adaptation to reduce the consequences of climate change. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that climate change would not affect potential distributions of drought-tolerant species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transport-coupled ubiquitination of the borate transporter BOR1 for its boron-dependent degradation.

Plant Cell 2021 Apr;33(2):420-438

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, 599-8531, Japan.

Plants take up and translocate nutrients through transporters. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the borate exporter BOR1 acts as a key transporter under boron (B) limitation in the soil. Upon sufficient-B supply, BOR1 undergoes ubiquitination and is transported to the vacuole for degradation, to avoid overaccumulation of B. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Integration of RT-qPCR analysis and grey situation decision-making model for evaluating the effects of plant growth regulators on the gene expression in rice seedlings under thiocyanate exposure.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 27;783:146805. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Thiocyanate (SCN) present in irrigation water can have negative effects on plant growth and crop yields. Addition of plant growth regulators (PGRs) can alleviate toxic stress to plants. In the current study, we established a grey situation decision-making model (GSDM) to integrate the data of RT-qPCR analysis for screening the optimal addition of PGRs to minimise pollution stress. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Proteomics reveals commitment to germination in barley seeds is marked by loss of stress response proteins and mobilisation of nutrient reservoirs.

J Proteomics 2021 Apr 15:104221. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Australia; Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Germination is a critical process in the reproduction and propagation of flowering plants, and is also the key stage of industrial grain malting. Germination commences when seeds are steeped in water, followed by degradation of the endosperm cell walls, enzymatic digestion of starch and proteins to provide nutrients for the growing plant, and emergence of the radicle from the seed. Dormancy is a state where seeds fail to germinate upon steeping, but which prevents inappropriate premature germination of the seeds before harvest from the field. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microbiota, pathogens, and parasites as mediators of tritrophic interactions between insect herbivores, plants, and pollinators.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Apr 15:107589. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, 3050 Maile Way, Gilmore Hall 310, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA. Electronic address:

Insect-associated microbes, including pathogens, parasites, and symbionts, influence the interactions of herbivorous insects and pollinators with their host plants. Moreover, herbivory-induced changes in plant resource allocation and defensive chemistry can influence pollinator behavior. This suggests that the outcomes of interactions between herbivores, their microbes and host plants could have implications for pollinators. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ecological Interactions, Environmental Gradients, and Gene Flow in Local Adaptation.

Trends Plant Sci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Despite long-standing interest in local adaptation of plants to their biotic and abiotic environment, existing theory, and many case studies, little work to date has addressed within-species evolution of concerted strategies and how these might contrast with patterns across species. Here we consider the interactions between pollinators, herbivores, and resource availability in shaping plant local adaptation, how these interactions impact plant phenotypes and gene flow, and the conditions where multiple traits align along major environmental gradients such as latitude and elevation. Continued work in emerging model systems will benefit from the melding of classic experimental approaches with novel population genetic analyses to reveal patterns and processes in plant local adaptation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots cause genotoxicity and oxidative stress in Allium cepa plants.

Mutat Res 2021 May 19;865:503338. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Cell Biology and Genetic Toxicology Laboratory, Center of Advance Study, Department of Botany, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata, 700 019, India. Electronic address:

Quantum Dots (QDs), are considered as promising tools for biomedical applications. They have potential applications in agricultural industries, novel pesticide formulations, use in bio-labels and devices to aid genetic manipulation and post-harvest management. Since interactions with higher plants are of important environmental and ecological concern we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of CdSe QDs in a model plant (Allium cepa) and established relationships between QDs genotoxic activity and oxidative stress. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genome-wide identification of heat shock factors and heat shock proteins in response to UV and high intensity light stress in lettuce.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 17;21(1):185. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

University of Florida, Environmental Horticulture Department, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, USA.

Background: Heat shock factors (Hsfs) and Heat shock proteins (Hsps) belong to an essential group of molecular regulators involved in controlling cellular processes under normal and stress conditions. The role of Hsfs and Hsps is well known in model plant species under diverse stress conditions. While plants Hsfs are vital components of the signal transduction response to maintain cellular homeostasis, Hsps function as chaperones helping to maintain folding of damaged and newly formed proteins during stress conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cell identity specification in plants: lessons from flower development.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Plant Cell and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biology, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Germany.

Multicellular organisms display a fascinating complexity of cellular identities and patterns of diversification. The concept of ''cell type'' aims to describe and categorize this complexity. In this review, we discuss the traditional concept of cell types and highlight the impact of single-cell technologies and spatial omics on the understanding of cellular differentiation in plants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Functional morphology of plants - a key to biomimetic applications.

New Phytol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Plant Biomechanics Group, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Schänzlestraße 1, D-79104, Freiburg, Germany.

Learning from living organisms has emerged from a mainly curiosity-driven examination, where helpful functions of biological structures have been copied, into systematic biomimetic approaches that transfer a targeted function and its underlying principles from the biological model to a technical product. Plant biomimetics is based on functional morphology, which combines the knowledge gained from the morphology, anatomy and mechanics of plants and makes a statement about their form-structure-function relationship. Since the functional morphology of plants has become key to biomimetic applications, we present its central role in deciphering the functional principles that can be applied to engineering solutions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The threshold between life and death in Cistus albidus L. seedlings: mechanisms underlying drought tolerance and resilience.

Tree Physiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Drought can lead to important shifts in populations' dynamics if occurs during seedling establishment. With the aim of elucidating the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance and resilience, here we monitored the survival of seedlings of the Mediterranean shrub Cistus albidus throughout a year growing in the natural Park of the Montserrat Mountains (Spain) and, additionally, we studied the response to severe drought and subsequent recovery after re-watering, of seedlings grown in growth chambers. To find possible mechanisms explaining how seedlings respond to drought, growth and survival together with physiological-related parameters such as chlorophyll contents, vitamin E and stress-related phytohormones were measured. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles with soil: Insights into the chemical and biological properties.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, 344090.

Widespread use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) threatens soil, plants, terrestrial and aquatic animals. Thus, it is essential to explore the fate and behavior of NPs in soil and also its mechanism of interaction with soil microbial biodiversity to maintain soil health and quality to accomplish essential ecosystem services. With this background, the model experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to study the impact of ZnO-NPs on soil taking maize as a test crop. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

vHTS and 3D-QSAR for the Identification of Novel Phyto-inhibitors of Farnesyltransferase: Validation of Ascorbic Acid inhibition of Farnesyltransferase in an Animal Model of Breast Cancer.

Drug Res (Stuttg) 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biochemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Farnesyltransferase (FTase) is a zinc enzyme that has been the subject of attention in anti-cancer research over the past. In this study, phytochemicals from plants were screened for their inhibitory potentials on the human farnesyltransferase. A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model for the inhibition of farnesyltransferase was generated and the inhibition of farnesyltransferase by the hit, ascorbic acid was validated in an animal model of breast cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Detection of chlorpyrifos and carbendazim residues in the cabbage using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 1;257:119759. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China; Key Laboratory of Spectroscopy Sensing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Contamination of agricultural plants and food in the environment caused by pesticide residues has gained great attention of the world. Pesticide residues on vegetables constitute a potential risk to human health. A visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods was employed to quantitatively determine chlorpyrifos and carbendazim residues in the cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How a sticky fluid facilitates prey retention in a carnivorous pitcher plant (Nepenthes rafflesiana).

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, United Kingdom.

Nepenthes pitcher plants live in nutrient-poor soils and produce large pitfall traps to obtain additional nutrients from animal prey. Previous research has shown that the digestive secretion in N. rafflesiana is a sticky viscoelastic fluid that retains insects much more effectively than water, even after significant dilution. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The origin of SPA reveals the divergence and convergence of light signaling in Archaeplastida.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Apr 13:107175. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, 210046 Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Plants have evolved various photoreceptors to adapt to changing light environments, and photoreceptors can inactivate the large CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC/DE-ETIOLATED/FUSCA (COP/DET/FUS) protein complex to release their repression of photoresponsive transcription factors. Here, we tracked the origin and evolution of COP/DET/FUS in Archaeplastida and found that most components of COP/DET/FUS were highly conserved. Intriguingly, the COP1-SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) protein originated in Chlorophyta but subsequently underwent a distinct evolutionary history in Viridiplantae. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RNAi of the N-glycosylation-related genes confirms their importance in insect development and α-1,6-fucosyltransferase plays a role in the ecdysis event for the hemimetabolous pest insect Nilaparvata lugens.

Insect Sci 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, Ghent, 9000, Belgium.

Recently N-glycosylation was found to be required for the postembryonic development and metamorphosis of the holometabolous beetle Tribolium castaneum. However, the role of N-glycosylation in the development of hemimetabolous insects is unknown. To further elucidate the role of N-glycosylation in the development of insects, a functional characterization of the N-glycosylation-related genes (NGRGs) was performed in a model insect for hemimetabolous development, namely the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Lichens' Microbiota, Still a Mystery?

Front Microbiol 2021 30;12:623839. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Institute of Microbiology, University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Lichens represent self-supporting symbioses, which occur in a wide range of terrestrial habitats and which contribute significantly to mineral cycling and energy flow at a global scale. Lichens usually grow much slower than higher plants. Nevertheless, lichens can contribute substantially to biomass production. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antihypertensive Effect of a Novel Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Fluorophenyl Benzimidazole: Contribution of cGMP, Voltage-dependent Calcium Channels, and BK Channels to Vasorelaxant Mechanisms.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:611109. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Bioprospection and Product Development Division, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India.

The current study presents the novel angiotensin II receptor blocker fluorophenyl benzimidazole (FPD) as an antihypertensive agent in the SHR model of hypertension. We investigated the role of cGMP, voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels, and BK channels in the vasorelaxant mechanisms of FPD in the rat superior mesenteric artery. The antihypertensive effect of FPD was examined using an invasive technique measuring blood pressure in SHR animals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Biased cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism via small-molecule ligands binding P450 oxidoreductase.

Nat Commun 2021 04 15;12(1):2260. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Chemistry & Nanoscience Centre, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Metabolic control is mediated by the dynamic assemblies and function of multiple redox enzymes. A key element in these assemblies, the P450 oxidoreductase (POR), donates electrons and selectively activates numerous (>50 in humans and >300 in plants) cytochromes P450 (CYPs) controlling metabolism of drugs, steroids and xenobiotics in humans and natural product biosynthesis in plants. The mechanisms underlying POR-mediated CYP metabolism remain poorly understood and to date no ligand binding has been described to regulate the specificity of POR. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF