18,490 results match your criteria model hippocampal

Inhibition of CB1 receptor alleviates electroconvulsive shock-induced memory impairment by regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity in depressive rats.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 3;300:113917. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for depression, but it can cause cognitive deficit. Unfortunately, effective preventive measures are still lacking. The endocannabinoid system is thought to play a key role in regulation of cognitive process. Read More

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Mechanisms of microRNA‑142 in mitochondrial autophagy and hippocampal damage in a rat model of epilepsy.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Jun 13;47(6). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neurology, The First Hospital of Changsha, Changsha, Hunan 410013, P.R. China.

Researchers have confirmed the microRNA (miRNA/miR)‑epilepsy association in rodent models of human epilepsy via a comprehensive database. However, the mechanisms of miR‑142 in epilepsy have not been extensively studied. In the present study, a rat model of epilepsy was first established by an injection of lithium chloride‑pilocarpine and the successful establishment of the model was verified via electroencephalogram monitoring. Read More

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Flexible modulation of sequence generation in the entorhinal-hippocampal system.

Nat Neurosci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Exploration, consolidation and planning depend on the generation of sequential state representations. However, these algorithms require disparate forms of sampling dynamics for optimal performance. We theorize how the brain should adapt internally generated sequences for particular cognitive functions and propose a neural mechanism by which this may be accomplished within the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit. Read More

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Ascorbate deficiency confers resistance to hippocampal neurodegeneration after asphyxial cardiac arrest in juvenile rats.

Pediatr Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) is a significant cause of death and disability in children. Using juvenile Osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats that, like humans, do not synthesize ascorbate, we tested the effect of ascorbate deficiency on functional and histological outcome after CA.

Methods: Postnatal day 16-18 milk-fed ODS and wild-type Wistar rats underwent 9-min asphyxial CA (n = 8/group) or sham surgery (n = 4/group). Read More

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Changes in concentrations of NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B, Arc and syntaxin-1 in dorsal hippocampus Schaffer collateral synapses in a rat learned helplessness model of depression.

J Comp Neurol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Major depressive disorder involves changes in synaptic structure and function, but the molecular underpinnings of these changes are still not established. In an initial pilot experiment, whole-brain synaptosome screening with quantitative western blotting was performed to identify synaptic proteins that may show concentration changes in a congenital rat learned helplessness model of depression. We found that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits GluN2A/GluN2B, activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) and syntaxin-1 showed significant concentration differences between congenitally learned helpless (LH) and non-learned helpless (NLH) rats. Read More

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20()-protopanaxadiol and oleanolic acid ameliorate cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 16;45(2):325-333. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU), Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), China.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. Enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis by promoting proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy for AD. 20()-protopanaxadiol (PPD) and oleanolic acid (OA) are small, bioactive compounds found in ginseng that can promote NSC proliferation and neural differentiation . Read More

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Female dominance of both spatial cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychiatric symptoms in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Exp Anim 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Immunology and Medicine, St. Marianna University of School of Medicine.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurological disorder affecting memory function in elderly persons. Indeed, AD exhibits abnormality in cognitive behaviors and higher susceptibility to neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Various factors including aging, sex difference and NPS severity, are implicated during in development of AD. Read More

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Anxiety symptoms are the strongest predictor of quality of life in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Seizure 2021 Mar 23;88:78-82. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo Medical School (IPq/HCFMUSP), Brazil.

Purpose: It is established that the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms is associated with poorer quality of life (QOL) in persons with drug-resistant epilepsy. We aimed to verify the presence of subsyndromic depressive episodes (SDEs) and subsyndromic anxiety episodes (SAEs) in persons with temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS) compared to healthy controls and to determine the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms on patients' QOL.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated 35 persons with TLE-HS and 90 healthy controls. Read More

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Exosome Transplantation From Patients With Schizophrenia Causes Schizophrenia-Relevant Behaviors in Mice: An Integrative Multi-omics Data Analysis.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Key Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education, Center on Translational Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, Minzu University of China, Beijing, China.

Exosomes are involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, but the role of exosomes in schizophrenia (SCZ) is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that transplantation of serum exosomes from SCZ patients into mice caused behavioral abnormalities such as deficits in prepulse inhibition and sociability, hyperactivity, and anxiogenesis. A comparative bioinformatics analysis suggested shared and distinct differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and enriched molecular pathways in the brains of SCZ exosome-recipient mice, methylazoxymethanol acetate-treated rats, and SCZ patients, which correlates evidence of altered prefrontal-hippocampal functional coherence in SCZ. Read More

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Hippocampal and Septal 5-HT Receptor Expression in Two Rat Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Neuroscience 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Experimental and clinical data suggest an impact of serotonergic signaling on seizure susceptibility and epilepsy-associated psychiatric comorbidities. Previous µPET studies revealed increased binding of 5-HT receptor ligand [F]MPPF in two rat models with spontaneous recurrent seizures. These findings raised the question whether these alterations are due to altered 5-HT receptor expression or a modification of extracellular serotonin concentrations. Read More

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Modeling the mature CNS: A predictive screening platform for neurodegenerative disease drug discovery.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Apr 6:109180. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Cognition Therapeutics Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, 15203, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Mature primary neuronal cultures are an important model of the nervous system, but limited scalability has been a major challenge in their use for drug discovery of neurodegenerative diseases. This work describes a method for improving scalability through the use of larger format microtiter plates while preserving culture quality.

New Method: Here we describe a method and quality control procedures for growing embryonic day 18 rat hippocampal/cortical neuronal cultures in 384-well microtiter plates for three weeks in vitro. Read More

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CircUBQLN1 Promotes Proliferation but Inhibits Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress of Hippocampal Neurons in Epilepsy via the miR-155-Mediated SOX7 Upregulation.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Changzhou Third People's Hospital, Changzhou, 213000, Jiangsu, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have key roles in a variety of neurological diseases, including epilepsy. This objective of this study was to perform the functional exploration and mechanism investigation of circRNA Ubiquilin1 (circUBQLN1) in epilepsy. Epilepsy cell model was established by the treatment of Mg-free in human neurons-hippocampal (HN-h) cells. Read More

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Therapeutic of Candesartan and Music Therapy in Diabetic Retinopathy with Depression in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 26;2021:5570356. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.

This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of candesartan combined with music therapy on diabetic retinopathy with depression and to assess the molecular mechanisms. Associated animal model of diabetes mellitus and depression was established in rats. Pathological changes in the hippocampus were detected by haematoxylin eosin (H&E) staining. Read More

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Insulin as a potent bidirectional regulator of GABAergic signaling in the hippocampus of an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

Mai Marie Holm

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 Apr 8:e13660. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Due to its fundamental role in balancing neuronal activity in the brain, GABAergic signaling is the target of a broad spectrum of regulations. Still, how the metabolic hormone insulin affects GABAergic signaling in the hippocampus is incompletely understood. In the current issue of Acta Physiologica Hammoud and colleagues , led by Professor Birnir, report a profound and pivotal analysis of the multifaceted roles played by insulin in the regulations of GABAergic signaling at different ages and in the tg-APPSwe mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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Serotonin Transporter Ala276 Mouse: Novel Model to Assess the Neurochemical and Behavioral Impact of Thr276 Phosphorylation In Vivo.

Neurochem Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biomedical Science, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, FL, USA.

The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling and is a major target for antidepressants and psychostimulants. Human SERT coding variants have been identified in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that impact transporter phosphorylation, cell surface trafficking and/or conformational dynamics. Prior to an initial description of a novel mouse line expressing the non-phosphorylatable SERT substitution Thr276Ala, we review efforts made to elucidate the structure and conformational dynamics of SERT with a focus on research implicating phosphorylation at Thr276 as a determinant of SERT conformational dynamics. Read More

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secretions improve anxiety and depression-like behavior following intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid β.

Res Pharm Sci 2020 Dec 27;15(6):571-582. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Neuroscience Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: Venenum Bufonis is a Chinese traditional medicine produced from the glandular secretions of toads that contain biogenic amines, which have anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to examine the effect of secretions (BVS) on anxiety and depression-like behavior and hippocampal senile plaques volume in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Experimental Approach: Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were used. Read More

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December 2020

Robust vestibular self-motion signals in macaque posterior cingulate region.

Elife 2021 Apr 8;10. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Self-motion signals, distributed ubiquitously across parietal-temporal lobes, propagate to limbic hippocampal system for vector-based navigation via hubs including posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Although numerous studies have indicated posterior cingulate areas are involved in spatial tasks, it is unclear how their neurons represent self-motion signals. Providing translation and rotation stimuli to macaques on a 6-degree-of-freedom motion platform, we discovered robust vestibular responses in PCC. Read More

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Baseline cognition is the best predictor of 4-year cognitive change in cognitively intact older adults.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Apr 7;13(1):75. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory for Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, Leuven Brain Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: We examined in cognitively intact older adults the relative weight of cognitive, genetic, structural and amyloid brain imaging variables for predicting cognitive change over a 4-year time course.

Methods: One hundred-eighty community-recruited cognitively intact older adults (mean age 68 years, range 52-80 years, 81 women) belonging to the Flemish Prevent Alzheimer's Disease Cohort KU Leuven (F-PACK) longitudinal observational cohort underwent a baseline evaluation consisting of detailed cognitive assessment, structural MRI and F-flutemetamol PET. At inclusion, subjects were stratified based on Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism according to a factorial design. Read More

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Early NMDA Receptor Ablation in Interneurons Causes an Activity-Dependent E/I Imbalance in vivo in Prefrontal Cortex Pyramidal Neurons of a Mouse Model Useful for the Study of Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Grupo de Neurociencia de Sistemas, Instituto de Fisiología y Biofísica "Bernardo Houssay" (IFIBIO-Houssay), Universidad de Buenos Aires y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Altered Excitatory/Inhibitory (E/I) balance of cortical synaptic inputs has been proposed as a central pathophysiological factor for psychiatric neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ). However, direct measurement of E/I synaptic balance have not been assessed in vivo for any validated SZ animal model. Using a mouse model useful for the study of SZ we show that a selective ablation of NMDA receptors (NMDAr) in cortical and hippocampal interneurons during early postnatal development results in an E/I imbalance in vivo, with synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons shifted towards excitation in the adult mutant medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Read More

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Cation leak underlies neuronal excitability in an HCN1 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.

Brain 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Pathogenic variants in HCN1 are associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. The recurrent de novo HCN1 M305L pathogenic variant is associated with severe developmental impairment and drug-resistant epilepsy. We engineered the homologue Hcn1 M294L heterozygous knock-in (Hcn1M294L) mouse to explore the disease mechanism underlying an HCN1 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. Read More

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Astroglial Knockout of Glucocorticoid Receptor Attenuates Morphine Withdrawal Symptoms, but Not Antinociception and Tolerance in Mice.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Maj Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smetna 12, 31-343, Krakow, Poland.

The development of tolerance and drug dependence limit the clinical application of opioids for the treatment of severe pain. Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are among molecular substrates involved in these processes. Most studies focus on the role of neuronal GR, while the involvement of GR on glial cells is not fully understood. Read More

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Caffeine - treat or trigger? Disparate behavioral and long-term dopaminergic changes in control and schizophrenia-like Wisket rats.

Physiol Behav 2021 Apr 2;236:113410. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary.

The influence of caffeine on behavioral functions in both healthy and schizophrenic subjects is controversial. Here we aimed to reveal the effects of repeated caffeine pre- and post-training treatments on motor and exploratory activities and cognitive functions in a reward-based test (Ambitus) along with a brain region-specific dopamine D receptor profile in control and schizophrenia-like WISKET model rats. In the control animals, pre-treatment caused temporary enhancement in motor activity, while permanent improvement in learning function was detected in the WISKET animals. Read More

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Neurovascular multiparametric MRI defines epileptogenic and seizure propagation regions in experimental mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut Neurosciences, Inserm, U1216, Grenoble 38000, France.

Objective: Improving the identification of the epileptogenic zone and associated seizure-spreading regions represents a significant challenge. Innovative brain-imaging modalities tracking neurovascular dynamics during seizures may provide new disease biomarkers.

Methods: With use of a multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis at 9. Read More

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A Model of Epileptogenesis in Rhinal Cortex-Hippocampus Organotypic Slice Cultures.

J Vis Exp 2021 Mar 18(169). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Instituto de Farmacologia e Neurociências, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa; Instituto de Medicina Molecular João Lobo Antunes, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa.

Organotypic slice cultures have been widely used to model brain disorders and are considered excellent platforms for evaluating a drug's neuroprotective and therapeutic potential. Organotypic slices are prepared from explanted tissue and represent a complex multicellular ex vivo environment. They preserve the three-dimensional cytoarchitecture and local environment of brain cells, maintain the neuronal connectivity and the neuron-glia reciprocal interaction. Read More

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Teriflunomide provides protective properties after oxygen-glucose-deprivation in hippocampal and cerebellar slice cultures.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Nov;16(11):2243-2249

Institute of Anatomy, Department of Cytology, Medical Faculty, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

One of the major challenges in emergency medicine is out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Every year, about 53-62/100 000 people worldwide suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with serious consequences, whereas persistent brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of those surviving a cardiac arrest. Today, only few and insufficient strategies are known to limit neurological damage of ischemia and reperfusion injury. Read More

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November 2021