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Identifying prognostic factors and developing accurate outcome predictions for in-hospital cardiac arrest by using artificial neural networks.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 17;425:117445. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Clinical Big Data Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Accurate estimation of neurological outcomes after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) provides crucial information for clinical management. This study used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to determine the prognostic factors and develop prediction models for IHCA based on immediate preresuscitation parameters.

Methods: The derived cohort comprised 796 patients with IHCA between 2006 and 2014. Read More

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Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score Calculation Using the Deep Learning-Based Brain Hemisphere Comparison Algorithm.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Apr 17;30(7):105791. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neurology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, Chikami 5-3-1, Minami-ku, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: The Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) is a promising tool for the evaluation of stroke expansion to determine suitability for reperfusion therapy. The aim of this study was to validate deep learning-based ASPECTS calculation software that utilizes a three-dimensional fully convolutional network-based brain hemisphere comparison algorithm (3D-BHCA).

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively collected head non-contrast computed tomography (CT) data from 71 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 80 non-stroke patients. Read More

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Dual blockade of EGFR and CDK4/6 delays head and neck squamous cell carcinoma progression by inducing metabolic rewiring.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, USA; Fred and Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, USA; Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA. Electronic address:

Despite preclinical success, monotherapies targeting EGFR or cyclin D1-CDK4/6 in Head and Neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have shown a limited clinical outcome. Here, we aimed to determine the combined effect of palbociclib (CDK4/6) and afatinib (panEGFR) inhibitors as an effective strategy to target HNSCC. Using the TCGA-HNSCC co-expression analysis, we found that patients with high EGFR and cyclin D1 expression showed enrichment of gene clusters associated with cell-growth, glycolysis, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition processes. Read More

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Intermittent preventive treatment comparing two versus three doses of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in the prevention of anaemia in pregnancy in Ghana: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250350. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Global and International Health, School of Public Health, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

In 2012 the World Health Organisation (WHO) revised the policy on Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulphadoxine Pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) to at least three doses for improved protection against malaria parasitaemia and its associated effects such as anaemia during pregnancy. We assessed the different SP dosage regimen available under the new policy to determine the dose at which women obtained optimal protection against anaemia during pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic at four different health facilities in Ghana. Read More

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The role of recoding in implicit social cognition: Investigating the scope and interpretation of the ReAL model for the implicit association test.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250068. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Social Psychology and Methodology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

The ReAL model is a multinomial processing tree model that quantifies the contribution of three qualitatively distinct processes-recoding, associations, and accuracy-to responses on the implicit association test (IAT), but has only been validated on a modified version of the IAT procedure. The initial goal of the present research was to validate an abbreviated version of the ReAL model (i.e. Read More

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A meta-analysis of optimal medical therapy with or without percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee Department of Cardiology, Gulf Coast Medical center, Alabama University of Osteopathic Medicine, Panama City, Florida Department of Biology, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee Department of Cardiology, University of Tennessee, Jackson, Tennessee Department of Medicine, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs (VA) New England Healthcare System, Boston University Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves clinical outcomes in patients with chronic angina and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) has been a continuing area of investigation for more than two decades. The recently reported results of the International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches, the largest prospective trial of optimal medical therapy (OMT) with or without myocardial revascularization, provides a unique opportunity to determine whether there is an incremental benefit of revascularization in stable CAD patients.

Methods: Scientific databases and websites were searched to find randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Read More

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Nutrient dominance governs the assembly of microbial communities in mixed nutrient environments.

Elife 2021 Apr 20;10. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and Microbial Sciences Institute, Yale University, New Haven, United States.

A major open question in microbial community ecology is whether we can predict how the components of a diet collectively determine the taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Motivated by this challenge, we investigate whether communities assembled in pairs of nutrients can be predicted from those assembled in every single nutrient alone. We find that although the null, naturally additive model generally predicts well the family-level community composition, there exist systematic deviations from the additive predictions that reflect generic patterns of nutrient dominance at the family level. Read More

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The Association Between Testicular Self-Examination and Stages of Testicular Cancer Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Sciences, Testicular Cancer Research Collaborative, College of Health Professions and Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Testicular cancer (TC) is the most prevalent tumor diagnosed in men 15-40 years of age. Survivorship and quality of life dramatically decrease with late-stage diagnosis. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is a diagnostic method used to discover early-stage tumor incidence. Read More

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Transitional care management visits to improve coordination of care.

Am J Manag Care 2021 Apr 1;27(4):e130-e134. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Quality Insights, 557 Cranbury Rd #6, East Brunswick, NJ 08816. Email:

Objectives: This report aimed to determine whether transitional care management (TCM) services, provided by Inspira Care Connect, LLC (ICC), a Track 1 Medicare Shared Savings Program accountable care organization, were effective in reducing 30-day readmission rates, observation stay days, and emergency department visits, along with mortality rates, total costs, and frequency of primary care physician (PCP) visits among Medicare beneficiaries served by ICC.

Study Design: In accordance with TCM programming, ICC contacted the majority of patients telephonically within 48 business hours after discharge from an inpatient setting and scheduled a face-to-face visit with the patient's PCP within 1 to 14 days after discharge from an inpatient setting. The patients were provided with non-face-to-face services as needed throughout the 30-day period. Read More

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A dynamic simulation framework for CT perfusion in stroke assessment built from first principles.

Med Phys 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Departments of Bioengineering and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Purpose: Physicians utilize cerebral perfusion maps (e.g., cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, transit time) to prescribe the plan of care for stroke patients. Read More

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Material properties and effect of preconditioning of human sclera, optic nerve, and optic nerve sheath.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Ophthalmology and Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The optic nerve (ON) is a recently recognized tractional load on the eye during larger horizontal eye rotations. In order to understand the mechanical behavior of the eye during adduction, it is necessary to characterize material properties of the sclera, ON, and in particular its sheath. We performed tensile loading of specimens taken from fresh postmortem human eyes to characterize the range of variation in their biomechanical properties and determine the effect of preconditioning. Read More

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A nomogram to predict the risk of early postoperative ischemic events in patients with spontaneous intracranial hematoma.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, NO.119 Nansihuanxilu, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100160, People's Republic of China.

Spontaneous intracranial hematoma (ICH) is the second leading cause of stroke and has a high risk of postoperative ischemic events (PIEs). But, the evidence on PIEs in ICH patients still lacks. Therefore, a retrospective study was carried out to screen the risk factors for PIEs and construct a visual predictive model. Read More

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Assessing the cone of economy in patients with spinal disease using only a force plate: an observational retrospective cohort study.

Eur Spine J 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Texas Back Institute, 6020 West Parker Road, Plano, TX, 75093, USA.

Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort with multiple regression modeling.

Objective: The aim is to develop a new method for estimating cone of economy (CoE) using a force plate rather than traditional motion capture.

Background: Currently, most spinal deformity surgeons rely on static radiographic parameters for alignment, balance, and outcomes data alongside patient-reported outcome measures. Read More

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Minimally Invasive Necrotic Bone Washing Improves Bone Healing After Femoral Head Ischemic Osteonecrosis: An Experimental Investigation in Immature Pigs.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Center for Excellence in Hip, Scottish Rite for Children, Dallas, Texas.

Background: Ischemic osteonecrosis of the femoral head produces necrotic cell debris and inflammatory molecules in the marrow space, which elicit a chronic inflammatory repair response. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of flushing out the necrotic cell debris and inflammatory proteins on bone repair in a piglet model of ischemic osteonecrosis.

Methods: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head of the right hindlimb was induced in 12 piglets by tying a ligature tightly around the femoral neck. Read More

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Monocyte-to-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Is Independently Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Deceased Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Exp Clin Transplant 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

From the Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Uludag University, Bursa, Turkey.

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of monocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio on all-cause mortality in deceased donor kidney transplant recipients.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective observational study in which all deceased donor kidney transplant recipients were included. Relevant data for analyses included clinical and demographic features, laboratory values, number of HLA matches, occurrence of delayed graft function, cold ischemia time, and survival status. Read More

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EXPRESS: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Combined with Temporal Plasma Analysis of C Molecular Emission for Carbon Analysis in Coal.

Appl Spectrosc 2021 Apr 20:37028211012399. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Applied Mechanics, Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

A benchtop Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is demonstrated to determine the elemental carbon content present in raw coal used for combustion in power plants. The spectral intensities of molecular CN and C2 emission are measured together with the atomic carbon (C) and other inorganic elements (Si, Fe, Mg, Al, Ca, Na, and K) in the LIBS spectrum of coal. The emission persistence time of C2 molecule emission is measured from the coal plasma generated by a nanosecond laser ablation with a wavelength of 266 nm in the Ar atmosphere. Read More

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DECT in Detection of Vertebral Fracture-associated Bone Marrow Edema: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Emphasis on Technical and Imaging Interpretation Parameters.

Radiology 2021 Apr 20:203624. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

From the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, 601 N Caroline St, JHOC 5165, Baltimore, MD 21287 (F.G.S., H.I.S., S.D.); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn (D.S., M.H.J.); Department of Radiology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY (J.F.); and Department of Neuroradiology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany (B.J.S.).

Background Dual-energy CT (DECT) shows promising performance in detecting bone marrow edema (BME) associated with vertebral body fractures. However, the optimal technical and image interpretation parameters are not well described. Purpose To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the diagnostic performance of DECT in detecting BME associated with vertebral fractures (VFs), using different technical and image interpretation parameters, compared with MRI as the reference standard. Read More

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Insight into Bile Duct Reaction to Obstruction from a Three-dimensional Perspective Using ex Vivo Phase-Contrast CT.

Radiology 2021 Apr 20:203967. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

From the School of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin Medical University, No. 22 Qixiangtai Rd, Tianjin 300070, China (W.J.L., X.H.X., L.L.Q., C.H.H.); Liver Research Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (X.Y.Z.); Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine in Liver Cirrhosis and National Clinical Research Center of Digestive Disease, Beijing, China (X.Y.Z.); and the Second Department of Gastroenterology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, China (D.D.H.).

Background Biliary obstruction leads to an increase in biliary pressure within the biliary system, which induces the morphologic adaptation of the biliary tree. Purpose To observe and to quantify the morphologic characteristics of the adaptation in a bile duct ligation rat model and verify it in patients with biliary atresia in a three-dimensional (3D) manner using x-ray phase-contrast CT. Materials and Methods A bile duct ligation model was induced in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into five groups: the control group (no ligation) and groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after bile duct ligation (eight animals in each group). Read More

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A Data-Driven Hydrophobicity Scale for Predicting Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of Proteins.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520, United States.

An accurate model for macroscale disordered assemblies of biological macromolecules such as those formed in so-called membraneless organelles would greatly assist in studying their structure, function, and dynamics. Recent evidence has suggested that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) underlies the formation of membraneless organelles. While the general mechanism of exchange of macromolecule/water for macromolecule/macromolecule interactions is known to be the driving force for LLPS, the specific interactions involved are not well understood. Read More

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Factors That Influence Nurse Staffing Levels in Acute Care Hospital Settings.

J Nurs Scholarsh 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Assistant Professor of Nursing, Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry, Universidad de Sevilla, and Research Group under the Andalusian Research, Development and Innovation Scheme PAIDI-CTS 1050 "Complex Care, Chronic and Health Outcomes", Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.

Purpose: To identify which patient and hospital characteristics are related to nurse staffing levels in acute care hospital settings.

Design: A cross-sectional design was used for this study.

Methods: The sample comprised 1,004 patients across 10 hospitals in the Andalucian Health Care System (southern Spain) in 2015. Read More

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Defining focal brain stimulation targets for PTSD using neuroimaging.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center for PTSD, White River Junction, Vermont, USA.

Introduction: Focal brain stimulation has potential as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this review, we aim to inform selection of focal brain stimulation targets for treating PTSD by examining studies of the functional neuroanatomy of PTSD and treatment response. We first briefly review data on brain stimulation interventions for PTSD. Read More

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Accurate modeling of DNA conformational flexibility by a multivariate Ising model.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Physics Department T38, Technical University of Munich, 85748 Garching, Germany

The sequence-dependent structure and deformability of DNA play a major role for binding of proteins and regulation of gene expression. So far, most efforts to model DNA flexibility are based on unimodal harmonic stiffness models at base-pair resolution. However, multimodal behavior due to distinct conformational substates also contributes significantly to the conformational flexibility of DNA. Read More

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Comparison of Predictive Models and Impact Assessment of Lockdown for COVID-19 over the United States.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, USA.

The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a worldwide threat to community health, social stability, and economic development. Since the first case was recorded on December 29, 2019, in Wuhan of China, the disease has rapidly extended to other nations of the world to claim many lives, especially in the USA, the United Kingdom, and Western Europe. To stay ahead of the curve consequent of the continued increase in case and mortality, predictive tools are needed to guide adequate response. Read More

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February 2021

Impact of structured curriculum with simulation on bronchoscopy.

Respirology 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore.

Background And Objective: Simulation enhances a physician's competency in procedural skills by accelerating ascent of the learning curve. Training programmes are moving away from the Halstedian model of 'see one, do one, teach one', also referred as medical apprenticeship. We aimed to determine if a 3-month structured bronchoscopy curriculum that incorporated simulator training could improve bronchoscopy competency among pulmonary medicine trainees. Read More

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Cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness and the acute blood pressure response to exercise in adolescence.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Objective: Exaggerated exercise blood pressure (BP) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence. Cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity (fatness) are independent contributors to cardiovascular risk, but their interrelated associations with exercise BP are unknown. This study aimed to determine the relationships between fitness, fatness and the acute BP response to exercise in a large birth cohort of adolescents. Read More

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The impact of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder on eating disorder treatment outcomes: Investigating the unified treatment model.

Int J Eat Disord 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The Renfrew Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: Many women with eating disorders (EDs) have comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there have been few studies on how comorbid PTSD may impact ED treatment outcomes.

Method: Participants were 2,809 patients from residential ED treatment facilities who were treated using the Unified Treatment Model (UTM). Read More

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Mucinous Colorectal Cancer is Associated With Expression of the TIM-3 Immune Checkpoint Independently of Microsatellite Instability (MSI) Status.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition has demonstrated success in overcoming tumor-mediated immune suppression in several types of cancer. However, its clinical use is limited to a small subset of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and response is highly variable between CRC subtypes. This study aimed to determine the profile of immune checkpoints and factors associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor response in mucinous CRC. Read More

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Establishment of primary cell culture of Ruditapes decussatus haemocytes for metal toxicity assessment.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Center of Biotechnology of Sfax, Laboratory: Molecular Biotechnology of Eukaryotes, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia.

In ecotoxicology, in vitro testing on cell cultures represents an ideal alternative to in vivo strategies for emerging contaminants. These tests have limited use particularly with marine invertebrates like the clams Ruditapes decussatus. In the present study, a primary culture of R. Read More

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Antimicrobial laser-activated sealants for combating surgical site infections.

Biomater Sci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Chemical Engineering Program, School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. and Biological Design Graduate Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

Surgical-site infections (SSIs) occur in 2-5% of patients undergoing surgery in the US alone, impacting 300 000-500 000 lives each year, and presenting up to 11 times greater risk of death compared to patients without SSIs. The most common cause of SSI is Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is the most common pathogen in community hospitals. Read More

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Electronic structure of polypyrrole composited with a low percentage of graphene nanofiller.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr 26;23(14):8557-8570. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University, Abbottabad Campus, KPK, 22060, Pakistan.

The low concentration of graphene (<5%) in graphene/polypyrrole composites makes it quite challenging to devise a theoretical model for these composites. Thus, herein, we present theoretical calculations to determine the geometric electronic and optical properties of graphene/polypyrrole composites. Ribbon and sheet models of various sizes were considered for graphene. Read More

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