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In vitro evaluation of the anti-pathogenic activity of Okoubaka aubrevillei on the human gastrointestinal tract.

Z Gastroenterol 2021 May 12;59(5):423-437. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Integrative Medicine, University of Witten/Herdecke, Germany.

Background:   is used in traditional West African medicine and in homeopathy for treatment and prevention of several gastrointestinal problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated doses of two products (10 % ethanolic tincture, mother tincture (MT); 3 decimal potency, 3X) on the microbial activity of physiological human colon microbiota using a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) and to investigate any preventive effect against infections with diarrhea-causing pathogens.

Methods:  Upon inoculation with fecal microbiota from a healthy donor, 4 parallel proximal colon compartments of the SHIME were treated either with MT, 3X, ethanol control or blank control for 7 days. Read More

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Synthesis of Novel Esters of Mefenamic Acid with Pronounced Anti-nociceptive Effects and a Proposed Activity on GABA Opioid and Glutamate Receptors.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 May 9:105865. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Mefenamic acid (MFA), a commonly prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses a greater risk of dose-related central nervous system (CNS) toxicity than other NSAIDs. In this study, α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol acetate were selected as prodrug moieties for MFA in an attempt to reduce the CNS toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficacy.

Method: α-tocopherol monoester of MFA (TMMA) and α-tocopherol di-ester of MFA (TDMA) were synthesized by esterification reaction and were subjected to various in vivo characterizations. Read More

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Safety assessment of titanium dioxide (E171) as a food additive.

EFSA J 2021 May 6;19(5):e06585. Epub 2021 May 6.

The present opinion deals with an updated safety assessment of the food additive titanium dioxide (E 171) based on new relevant scientific evidence considered by the Panel to be reliable, including data obtained with TiO nanoparticles (NPs) and data from an extended one-generation reproductive toxicity (EOGRT) study. Less than 50% of constituent particles by number in E 171 have a minimum external dimension < 100 nm. In addition, the Panel noted that constituent particles < 30 nm amounted to less than 1% of particles by number. Read More

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CircRNAs: role in human diseases and potential use as biomarkers.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 11;12(5):468. Epub 2021 May 11.

Unit of Oncogenomic and Epigenetic, Department of Research, Advanced Diagnostic, and Technological Innovation, IRCCS, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of endogenous RNAs characterized by a covalent loop structure. In comparison to other types of RNAs, the abundance of circRNAs is relatively low but due to the circular configuration, their stability is very high. In addition, circRNAs display high degree of tissue specificity. Read More

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Therapeutic administration of etoposide coincides with reduced systemic HMGB1 levels in macrophage activation syndrome.

Mol Med 2021 May 11;27(1):48. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute at Karolinska University Hospital, 17176, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of systemic inflammation. HMGB1 is a nuclear protein released extracellularly during proinflammatory lytic cell death or secreted by activated macrophages, NK cells, and additional cell types during infection or sterile injury. Extracellular HMGB1 orchestrates central events in inflammation as a prototype alarmin. Read More

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A dual mode of ethylene actions contributes to the optimization of hypocotyl growth under fluctuating temperature environments.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 May 11:1926131. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

The gaseous phytohormone ethylene plays versatile roles in sustaining plant growth and fitness in response to environmental changes, such as light illumination, flooding, and mechanical pressure. Interestingly, it is well known that the effects of ethylene on plant growth vary profoundly, depending on external conditions. For example, light/dark conditions alter the directionality of ethylene action on hypocotyl growth. Read More

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Mapping the molecular and structural specialization of the skin basement membrane for inter-tissue interactions.

Nat Commun 2021 May 10;12(1):2577. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratory for Tissue Microenvironment, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), Kobe, Japan.

Inter-tissue interaction is fundamental to multicellularity. Although the basement membrane (BM) is located at tissue interfaces, its mode of action in inter-tissue interactions remains poorly understood, mainly because the molecular and structural details of the BM at distinct inter-tissue interfaces remain unclear. By combining quantitative transcriptomics and immunohistochemistry, we systematically identify the cellular origin, molecular identity and tissue distribution of extracellular matrix molecules in mouse hair follicles, and reveal that BM composition and architecture are exquisitely specialized for distinct inter-tissue interactions, including epithelial-fibroblast, epithelial-muscle and epithelial-nerve interactions. Read More

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Biological and biochemical evaluation of isatin-isoniazid hybrids as bactericidal candidates against .

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 9004, Institut de Recherche en Infectiologie de Montpellier (IRIM), Université de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, 34293, Montpellier, France.

Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases worldwide, prompting the need to discover new drugs to fight this disease. We report herein, the design, synthesis and anti-mycobacterial activity of isatin-mono/bis-isoniazid hybrids. Most of the compounds exhibited very high activity against with minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 0. Read More

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Synergistic mechanism of GH11 xylanases with different action modes from Aspergillus niger An76.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 May 10;14(1):118. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Institute of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, Shandong, China.

Background: Xylan is the most abundant hemicellulose polysaccharide in nature, which can be converted into high value-added products. However, its recalcitrance to breakdown requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes. Aspergillus niger, possessing numerous xylan degrading isozyme-encoding genes, are highly effective xylan degraders in xylan-rich habitats. Read More

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Overview of the latest developments in the role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in shrimp aquaculture.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, 316021, China. Electronic address:

With the growing world population, the demand for food has increased, leading to excessive and intensive breeding and cultivation of fisheries, simultaneously exacerbating the risk of disease. Recently, shrimp producers have faced major losses of stocks due to the prevalence of periodical diseases and inappropriate use of antibiotics for disease prevention and treatment, leading to bacterial resistance in shrimp, along with imposing health hazards on human consumers. Strict regulations have been placed to ban or reduce the use of prophylactic antibiotics to lessen their detrimental effects on aquatic life. Read More

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Changes in the mesocorticolimbic pathway after low dose reserpine-treatment in Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR): implications for cognitive deficits in a progressive animal model for Parkinson's Disease.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 7:113349. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Reserpine (RES) is an irreversible inhibitor of VMAT2 used to study Parkinson's disease (PD) and screening for antiparkinsonian treatments in rodents. Recently, the repeated treatment with a low dose of reserpine was proposed as a model capable of emulating progressive neurochemical, motor and non-motor impairments in PD. Conversely, compared to Wistar rats, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) are resistant to motor changes induced by repeated treatment with a low dose of RES. Read More

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Posttranslational modifications & lithium's therapeutic effect - potential biomarkers for clinical responses in psychiatric & neurodegenerative disorders.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Montreal Neurological Institute, Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

Several neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders display aberrant posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of one, or many, proteins. Lithium treatment has been used for mood stabilization for many decades, and is highly effective for large subsets of patients with diverse neurological conditions. However, the differential effectiveness and mode of action are not fully understood. Read More

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Venom chemistry underlying the painful stings of velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae).

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) are a family of solitary parasitoid wasps that are renowned for their painful stings. We explored the chemistry underlying the stings of mutillid wasps of the genus Dasymutilla Ashmead. Detailed analyses of the venom composition of five species revealed that they are composed primarily of peptides. Read More

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Tele Otology in India: Last 10 Years-A Scopic Review.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 May 1:1-13. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of General Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Deoghar, India.

Hearing loss is the commonest sensory deficit among humans, affecting 466 million people worldwide. Early detection is the key to hearing rehabilitation, as speech and language develops early in the childhood. Scarcity of human resources and infrastructure in developing countries like India leads to difficulty in implementation of hearing screening programmes. Read More

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Role of probiotics in prevention and treatment of enteric infections: a comprehensive review.

3 Biotech 2021 May 27;11(5):242. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Faculty of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences, Solan, Himachal Pradesh India.

Microorganisms that inhabits human digestive tract affect global health and enteric disorders. Previous studies have documented the effectiveness and mode of action of probiotics and classified as human-friendly biota and a competitor to enteric pathogens. Statistical studies reported more than 1. Read More

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Kinetics of γH2AX and phospho-histone H3 following pulse treatment of TK6 cells provides insights into clastogenic activity.

Mutagenesis 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Litron Laboratories, Rochester, NY, USA.

The desire for in vitro genotoxicity assays to provide higher information content, especially regarding chemicals' predominant genotoxic mode of action, has led to the development of a novel multiplexed assay available under the tradename MultiFlow ®. We report here on an experimental design variation that provides further insight into clastogens' genotoxic activity. First, the standard MultiFlow DNA Damage Assay - p53, γH2AX, Phospho-histone H3 was used with human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells that were exposed for 24 continuous hr to each of 50 reference clastogens. Read More

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Antileishmanial activity evaluation of a natural amide and its synthetic analogs against Leishmania (V.) braziliensis: an integrated approach in vitro and in silico.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Federal University of Rondônia - UNIR, Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil.

Leishmaniasis is considered a neglected disease, which makes it an unattractive market for the pharmaceutical industry; hence, efforts in the search for biologically active substances are hampered by this lack of financial motivation. Thus, in the present study, we report the leishmanicidal activity and the possible mechanisms of action of compounds with promising activity against the species Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, the causative agent of the skin disease leishmaniasis. Read More

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Delayed KCNQ1/KCNE1 assembly on the cell surface helps I fulfill its function as a repolarization reserve in the heart.

J Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 23298, United States.

Key Points: In adult ventricular myocytes, the I channels are distributed on the surface sarcolemma, not t-tubules. In adult ventricular myocytes, KCNQ1 and KCNE1 have distinct cell surface and cytoplasmic pools. KCNQ1 and KCNE1 traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to plasma membrane by separate routes, and assemble into I channels on the cell surface. Read More

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Evaluation of metal-based antimicrobial compounds for the treatment of bacterial pathogens.

J Med Microbiol 2021 May;70(5)

SSPC Pharma Research Centre, Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Co. Kildare, Ireland.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the greatest global health challenges of modern times and its prevalence is rising worldwide. AMR within bacteria reduces the efficacy of antibiotics and increases both the morbidity and the mortality associated with bacterial infections. Despite this growing risk, few antibiotics with a novel mode of action are being produced, leading to a lack of antibiotics that can effectively treat bacterial infections with AMR. Read More

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Immunological resilience and biodiversity for prevention of allergic diseases and asthma.

Allergy 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Increase of allergic conditions has occurred at the same pace with the Great Accleration, which stands for the rapid growth rate of human activities upon Earth from 1950s. Changes of environment and lifestyle along with escalating urbanization, are acknowledged as the main underlying causes. Secondary (tertiary) preventionfor better disease control hasadvanced considerably with innovations for oral immunotherapy and effective treatment of inflammation with corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors and biologic medications. Read More

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Concentration-dependent duality of bFGF in regulation of barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Multiple paracrine factors regulate the barrier properties of human brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). Understanding the precise mode of action of these factors remains a challenging task, because of the limited availability of functionally competent BCECs and the use of serum-containing medium. In the present study, we employed a defined protocol for producing BCECs from human inducible pluripotent stem cells. Read More

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Enhanced siRNA Delivery and Selective Apoptosis Induction in H1299 Cancer Cells by Layer-by-Layer-Assembled Se Nanocomplexes: Toward More Efficient Cancer Therapy.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:639184. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of General Biochemistry and Physical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Nanotechnology has made an important contribution to oncology in recent years, especially for drug delivery. While many different nano-delivery systems have been suggested for cancer therapy, selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are particularly promising anticancer drug carriers as their core material offers interesting synergistic effects to cancer cells. Se compounds can exert cytotoxic effects by acting as pro-oxidants that alter cellular redox homeostasis, eventually leading to apoptosis induction in many kinds of cancer cells. Read More

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's Strategies and Effector Mechanisms for Host Cell Transformation: From Invasion to Immortalization.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:662805. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Animal Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

One of the first events that follows invasion of leukocytes by sporozoites is the destruction of the surrounding host cell membrane and the rapid association of the intracellular parasite with host microtubules. This is essential for the parasite to establish its niche within the cytoplasm of the invaded leukocyte and sets spp. apart from other members of the apicomplexan phylum such as and spp. Read More

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Hypomethylating agents (HMA) for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes: mechanisms of resistance and novel HMA-based therapies.

Leukemia 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Medicine I, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Aberrant DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in tumor development and progression. DNA hypomethylating agents (HMA) constitute a class of drugs which are able to reverse DNA methylation, thereby triggering the re-programming of tumor cells. The first-generation HMA azacitidine and decitabine have now been in standard clinical use for some time, offering a valuable alternative to previous treatments in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, so far particularly in older, medically non-fit patients. Read More

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Natural products targeting the synthesis of β(1,3)-D-glucan and chitin of the fungal cell wall. Existing drugs and recent findings.

Phytomedicine 2021 Mar 27:153556. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Instituto de Biología Funcional y Genómica and Departamento de Microbiología y Genética, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)/Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: During the last three decades systemic fungal infections associated to immunosuppressive therapies have become a serious healthcare problem. Clinical development of new antifungals is an urgent requirement. Since fungal but not mammalian cells are encased in a carbohydrate-containing cell wall, which is required for the growth and viability of fungi, the inhibition of cell wall synthesizing machinery, such as β(1,3)-D-glucan synthases (GS) and chitin synthases (CS) that catalyze the synthesis of β(1-3)-D-glucan and chitin, respectively, represent an ideal mode of action of antifungal agents. Read More

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Time to say good-bye? Homeopathy, skeptics and thoughts on how to proceed.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

homöopathie-pannek, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Although homeopathy is frequently used by many health professionals, there are ongoing debates concerning its effectiveness. Currently no unifying explanation how homeopathy works exists. Homeopaths are frequently challenged by skeptics, and in public opinion, the swan song for homeopathy is frequently sung. Read More

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Comparing verbal and aided single sentence productions in Malayalam-speaking adults with aphasia: a preliminary investigation.

Clin Linguist Phon 2020 Dec 2:1-24. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Speech-Language Pathology, All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.

The primary aim of the study was to investigate the semantic and syntactic aspects of verbal and aided single sentence productions in adults with aphasia and neurotypical adults to determine which mode allowed the exchange of information more effectively. The participants of this study included 20 adults with aphasia and 20 neurotypical adults who were native speakers of Malayalam, an Indo-Dravidian language spoken in the south-western state of Kerala in India. Thirteen action picture stimuli were constructed to elicit single sentences. Read More

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December 2020

Genome-wide Screening of Genes Associated with Momilactone B Sensitivity in the Fission Yeast.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Agro-Biotechnology Research Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

Momilactone B is a natural product with dual biological activities, including antimicrobial and allelopathic properties, and play a major role in plant chemical defense against competitive plants and pathogens. The pharmacological effects of momilactone B on mammalian cells have also been reported. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying its broad bioactivity. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of drug interactions at the P2Y receptor between selatogrel and oral P2Y antagonists.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Clinical Pharmacology, Allschwil, Switzerland.

Selatogrel is a potent and reversible P2Y receptor antagonist developed for subcutaneous self-administration by patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. After single-dose emergency treatment with selatogrel, patients are switched to long-term treatment with oral P2Y receptor antagonists. Selatogrel shows rapid onset and offset of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) to overcome the critical initial time after acute myocardial infarction. Read More

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