573 results match your criteria mixtures mimic

Differential interactions of the antimicrobial peptide, RQ18, with phospholipids and cholesterol modulate its selectivity for microorganism membranes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 May 27;1865(9):129937. Epub 2021 May 27.

Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules with potential application for the treatment of microorganism infections. We, herein, describe the structure, activity, and mechanism of action of RQ18, an α-helical AMP that displays antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts from the Candida genus.

Methods: A physicochemical-guided design assisted by computer tools was used to obtain our lead peptide candidate, named RQ18. Read More

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Transcriptome responses in polar cod (Boreogadus saida) liver slice culture exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and ethynylestradiol: insights into anti-estrogenic effects.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 May 17;75:105193. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:

Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is a key species in the arctic marine ecosystem vulnerable to effects of pollution, particularly from petroleum related activities. To facilitate studying the effects of those pollutants, we adapted a precision-cut liver slice culture protocol for this species. Using this system on board a research vessel, we studied gene expression in liver slice after exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ethynylestradiol (EE2), and their mixtures, to map their molecular targets and examine possible anti-estrogenic effects of BaP. Read More

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Peptoids as a Chiral Stationary Phase for Liquid Chromatography: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Jun 19;22(6):2573-2581. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Industrial Chemistry ≪ Toso Montanari ≫, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, 40136 Bologna, Italy.

Peptoids are peptide regioisomers with attractive structural tunability in terms of sequence and three-dimensional arrangement. Peptoids are foreseen to have a great potential for many diverse applications, including their utilization as a chiral stationary phase in chromatography. To achieve chiral recognition, a chiral side chain is required to allow specific interactions with a given enantiomer from a racemic mixture. Read More

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Mutagenicity risk prediction of PAH and derivative mixtures by in silico simulations oriented from CYP compound I-mediated metabolic activation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 7;787:147596. Epub 2021 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166, PR China; School of Nursing, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166, PR China. Electronic address:

PAHs and their derivatives are the main sources of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in airborne particular matter and cause serious public health and environmental problems. Risk assessment is challenging due to the mixed nature and deficiency of toxicity data of most PAHs and their derivatives. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play important roles in PAH-induced carcinogenicity via metabolic activation, and CYP conformations with compound I structures strongly influence metabolic sites and metabolite species. Read More

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September 2021

Structural elucidation upon binding of antimicrobial peptides into binary mixed lipid monolayers mimicking bacterial membranes.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 20;598:193-205. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Biological Physics Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Schuster Building, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) kill microorganisms by causing structural damage to bacterial membranes. Different microorganisms often require a different type and concentration of an AMP to achieve full microbial killing. We hypothesise that the difference is caused by different membrane structure and composition. Read More

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September 2021

Single and combined toxicity of amino-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles with potassium dichromate and copper sulfate on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratório de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento (LABID), Departamento de Biologia Molecular (DBM), Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB, Campus I), Cidade Universitária s/n, Castelo Branco, CEP, João Pessoa, PB, 58051-900, Brazil.

The increasing use and disposal of plastics has become a persistent problem in the marine environment, calling for studies that refer to realistic scenarios to understand their effects on biota. Particularly, the understanding about the effects of co-exposure with nanoplastic particles and metals on aquatic organisms is still limited. The present work aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of amino-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NH; 50 nm) as proxy for nanoplastics on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae under different culture conditions and at different stages of development, as well as the combined effect with two reference toxicants - potassium dichromate (KCrO) and copper sulfate (CuSO). Read More

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Spotting isomer mixtures in forensic illicit drug casework with GC-VUV using automated coelution detection and spectral deconvolution.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Mar 29;1173:122675. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94157, Amsterdam 1090 GD, the Netherlands; Co van Ledden Hulsebosch Center (CLHC), Amsterdam Center for Forensic Science and Medicine, PO Box 94157, Amsterdam 1090 GD, the Netherlands.

Analysis of isomeric mixtures is a significant analytical challenge. In the forensic field, for example, over 1000 new psychoactive substances (NPSs), comprising of many closely related and often isomeric varieties, entered the drugs-of-abuse market within the last decade. Unambiguous identification of the isomeric form requires advanced spectroscopic techniques, such as GC-Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (GC-VUV). Read More

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Development of biodegradable webs of PLA/PCL blends prepared via electrospinning: Morphological, chemical, and thermal characterization.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Textile Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Biodegradable polymers have a mean role to mimic native tissues and allow cells to penetrate, grow, and proliferate with their advanced features in tissue engineering applications. The physiological, chemical, mechanical, and biological qualities of the surfaces, which are presented from biodegradable polymers, affect the final properties of the scaffolds. In this study, it is aimed to produce fibrous webs by electrospinning method for tissue engineering applications using two different biopolymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL). Read More

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In-vitro Immunomodulatory activity of Azadirachta indica A.Juss. Ethanol: water mixture against HIV associated chronic CD4 T-cell activation/ exhaustion.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Apr 9;21(1):114. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Makerere University, Walter Reed Project, P.O Box 16524, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa, herbal therapy continues to be utilized for HIV-1 disease management. However, the therapeutic benefits of these substances remain ambiguous. To date, little is known about the effects of these plant extracts on chronic CD4 + T-cell activation and exhaustion which is partly driven by HIV-1 associated microbial translocation. Read More

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Cohousing-mediated microbiota transfer from milk bioactive components-dosed mice ameliorate colitis by remodeling colonic mucus barrier and lamina propria macrophages.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-23

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) are highly abundant in breast milk, and have been shown to exhibit potent immunomodulatory effects. Yet, their role in the gut microbiota modulation in relation to colitis remains understudied. Since the mixtures of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) perfectly mimic the properties and functions of HMOs, the combination of MFGM, FOS, and GOS (CMFG) has therefore been developed and used in this study. Read More

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Interactions Between Iron Sulfide Minerals and Organic Carbon: Implications for Biosignature Preservation and Detection.

Astrobiology 2021 05 29;21(5):587-604. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Microbe-mineral interactions can produce unique composite materials, which can preserve biosignatures. Geological evidence suggests that iron sulfide (Fe-S) minerals are abundant in the subsurface of Mars. On Earth, the formation of Fe-S minerals is driven by sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) that produce reactive sulfide. Read More

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pH dependent electrical properties of the inner- and outer- leaflets of biomimetic cell membranes.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 10;594:279-289. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA.

Composition and asymmetry of lipid membranes provide a means for regulation of trans-membrane permeability of ions and small molecules. The pH dependence of these processes plays an important role in the functioning and survival of cells. In this work, we study the pH dependence of membrane electrical resistance and capacitance using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements of biomimetic tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs). Read More

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Removal of Pharmaceutical Residues from Water and Wastewater Using Dielectric Barrier Discharge Methods-A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 10;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Environmental Nano Science Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa.

Persistent pharmaceutical pollutants (PPPs) have been identified as potential endocrine disruptors that mimic growth hormones when consumed at nanogram per litre to microgram per litre concentrations. Their occurrence in potable water remains a great threat to human health. Different conventional technologies developed for their removal from wastewater have failed to achieve complete mineralisation. Read More

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February 2021

Lipid domain formation and non-lamellar structures associated with varied lysylphosphatidylglycerol analogue content in a model Staphylococcal plasma membrane.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 May 6;1863(5):183571. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Dipalmitoyl-3-aza-dehydroxy-lysylphosphatidylglycerol (DP3adLPG), is a chemically stable synthetic analogue of the bacterial lipid lysylphosphatidylglycerol (LPG), designed as a substitute for the notoriously labile native lipid in biophysical investigations. In Staphylococcus aureus, LPG is known to play a role in resistance to antibiotics by altering membrane charge properties in response to environmental stress, but little is known about how LPG influences other bilayer physicochemical properties or lateral organisation, through the formation of complexes with lipids such as phosphatidylglycerol (PG). In this study we have investigated the different phases formed by biomimetic mixtures of 3adLPG and PG in different thermotropic states, using neutron diffraction and electron microscopy. Read More

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Classification of polymorphic forms of fluconazole in pharmaceuticals by FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Mar 26;196:113922. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Bio-Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Analysis Research Team, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Mohammed V, Rabat, Morocco.

The main goal of this work was to test the ability of vibrational spectroscopy techniques to differentiate between different polymorphic forms of fluconazole in pharmaceutical products. These are mostly manufactured with fluconazole as polymorphic form II and form III. These crystalline forms may undergo polymorphic transition during the manufacturing process or storage conditions. Read More

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Biomimetic phantom with anatomical accuracy for evaluating brain volumetric measurements with magnetic resonance imaging.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 Jan 29;8(1):013503. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

University of São Paulo, Department of Computing and Mathematics, Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Languages, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Brain image volumetric measurements (BVM) methods have been used to quantify brain tissue volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when investigating abnormalities. Although BVM methods are widely used, they need to be evaluated to quantify their reliability. Currently, the gold-standard reference to evaluate a BVM is usually manual labeling measurement. Read More

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January 2021

Evidence for multi-copy Mega-NUMTs in the human genome.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 02;49(3):1517-1531

Institute of Legal Medicine, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck 6020, Austria.

The maternal mode of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance is central to human genetics. Recently, evidence for bi-parental inheritance of mtDNA was claimed for individuals of three pedigrees that suffered mitochondrial disorders. We sequenced mtDNA using both direct Sanger and Massively Parallel Sequencing in several tissues of eleven maternally related and other affiliated healthy individuals of a family pedigree and observed mixed mitotypes in eight individuals. Read More

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February 2021

Facile fabrication of self-reporting micellar and vesicular structures based on an etching-ion exchange strategy of photonic composite spheres of poly(ionic liquid).

Nanoscale 2021 Jan;13(3):1927-1937

Department of Chemistry, Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, the Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Micellar and vesicular structures capable of sensing and reporting the chemical environment as well as facilely introducing user-defined functions make a vital contribution to constructing versatile compartmentalized systems. Herein, by combining poly(ionic liquid)-based photonic spheres and an etching-ion exchange strategy we fabricate micellar and vesicular photonic compartments that can not only mimic the structure and function of conventional micelles and vesicles, but also sense and report the chemical environment as well as introducing user-defined functions. Photonic composite spheres composed of a SiO2 template and poly(ionic liquid) are employed to selectively etch outer-shell SiO2 followed by ion exchange and removal of the residual SiO2 to afford micellar photonic compartments (MPCs). Read More

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January 2021

Molecular and biophysical mechanisms behind the enhancement of lung surfactant function during controlled therapeutic hypothermia.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):728. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Research Institute "Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12), Faculty of Biology, Complutense University, Jose Antonio Novais 12, Madrid, Spain.

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) enhances pulmonary surfactant performance in vivo by molecular mechanisms still unknown. Here, the interfacial structure and the composition of lung surfactant films have been analysed in vitro under TH as well as the molecular basis of its improved performance both under physiological and inhibitory conditions. The biophysical activity of a purified porcine surfactant was tested under slow and breathing-like dynamics by constrained drop surfactometry (CDS) and in the captive bubble surfactometer (CBS) at both 33 and 37 °C. Read More

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January 2021

Synergic antioxidant activity of γ-terpinene with phenols and polyphenols enabled by hydroperoxyl radicals.

Food Chem 2021 May 26;345:128468. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

University of Bologna, Department of Chemistry "G. Ciamician", Via S. Giacomo 11, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Antioxidant interactions of γ-terpinene with α-tocopherol mimic 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMHC) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), used as models, respectively, of mono- and poly-phenols were demonstrated by differential oximetry during the inhibited autoxidation of model substrates: stripped sunflower oil, squalene, and styrene. With all substrates, γ-terpinene acts synergistically regenerating the chain-breaking antioxidants PMHC and CAPE from their radicals, via the formation of hydroperoxyl radicals. The inhibition duration for mixtures PMHC/γ-terpinene and CAPE/γ-terpinene increased with γ-terpinene concentration, while rate constants for radical-trapping were unchanged by γ-terpinene, being 3. Read More

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Marvellous Muscodor spp.: Update on Their Biology and Applications.

Microb Ecol 2020 Nov 24. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, 59717, USA.

Nearly 20 years ago, the first report appeared on the discovery of a novel genus-Muscodor. This organism was isolated as an endophyte from a cinnamon tree that had been introduced to Honduras from Sri Lanka in the early part of the last century. Characteristically, the original Muscodor albus, and all of its species isolated since that time are non-spore producers and each one exudes a characteristic spectrum of volatile bioactive compounds. Read More

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November 2020

Disruption of small molecule transporter systems by Transporter-Interfering Chemicals (TICs).

FEBS Lett 2020 12 9;594(23):4158-4185. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Small molecule transporters (SMTs) in the ABC and SLC families are important players in disposition of diverse endo- and xenobiotics. Interactions of environmental chemicals with these transporters were first postulated in the 1990s, and since validated in numerous in vitro and in vivo scenarios. Recent results on the co-crystal structure of ABCB1 with the flame-retardant BDE-100 demonstrate that a diverse range of man-made and natural toxic molecules, hereafter termed transporter-interfering chemicals (TICs), can directly bind to SMTs and interfere with their function. Read More

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December 2020

Evaporation retardation by model tear-lipid films: The roles of film aging, compositions and interfacial rheological properties.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jan 9;197:111392. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Clinical Research Center, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-2020, United States; Vision Science Group, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-2020, United States. Electronic address:

A novel methodology for assessing evaporation (up to 48 h) through lipid-nanofilms in vitro was developed. The influence of lipid-mixture compositions on evaporation rates was studied. The evaporative fluxes and rheology of lipid-nanofilms were compared with those of human tear-lipid nanofilms in vitro. Read More

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January 2021

Identification and quantification of chloramines, bromamines and bromochloramine by Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 11;751:142303. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia. Electronic address:

A Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry (MIMS) method was developed to differentiate and quantify the different chlorinated and brominated-amines, present in drinking water during chloramination. The representative mass to charge ratios (m/z) of 53, 85, 97, 175 and 131 corresponding to the mass of the parent compounds were selected to monitor NHCl, NHCl, NHBr, NHBr and NHBrCl and the detection limits were found to be 0.034, 0. Read More

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January 2021

Impact of dietary fibers in infant formulas on gut microbiota and the intestinal immune barrier.

Food Funct 2020 Nov;11(11):9445-9467

Immunoendocrinology, Division of Medical Biology, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Human milk (HM) is the gold standard for the nutrition of infants. An important component of HM is human milk oligosaccharides (hMOs), which play an important role in gut microbiota colonization and gut immune barrier establishment, and thereby contribute to the maturation of the immune system in early life. Guiding these processes is important as disturbances have life-long health effects and can lead to the development of allergic diseases. Read More

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November 2020

Structural Changes in Films of Pulmonary Surfactant Induced by Surfactant Vesicles.

Langmuir 2020 11 20;36(45):13439-13447. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Physics, Center for Molecular Study of Condensed Soft Matter (μCoSM), Pritzker Institute of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616, United States.

When compressed by the shrinking alveolar surface area during exhalation, films of pulmonary surfactant reduce surface tension to levels at which surfactant monolayers collapse from the surface . Vesicles of pulmonary surfactant added below these monolayers slow collapse. X-ray scattering here determined the structural changes induced by the added vesicles. Read More

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November 2020

Magnetically Responsive Polymeric Microparticles for the Triggered Delivery of a Complex Mixture of Human Placental Proteins.

Macromol Biosci 2021 01 4;21(1):e2000249. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

Bone loss through traumatic injury is a significant clinical issue. Researchers have created many scaffold types to mimic an extracellular matrix to provide structural support for the formation of new bone, however functional regeneration of larger scaffolds has not been fully achieved. Newer scaffolds aim to deliver bioactive molecules to improve tissue regeneration. Read More

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January 2021

Peritectic phase transition of benzene and acetonitrile into a cocrystal relevant to Titan, Saturn's moon.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Nov 25;56(88):13520-13523. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, USA.

Benzene and acetonitrile are two of the most commonly used solvents found in almost every chemical laboratory. Titan is one other place in the solar system that has large amounts of these compounds. On Titan, organic molecules are produced in the atmosphere and carried to the surface where they can mineralize. Read More

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November 2020

Assessment of marine macroalgae potential for gadolinium removal from contaminated aquatic systems.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 5;749:141488. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

LAQV-REQUIMTE - Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

Gadolinium (Gd) is a rare earth associated with hospital and urban wastewaters due to its application as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. In this work, the uptake of Gd from contaminated seawater by three living marine macroalgae, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Fucus spiralis (Phaeophyta) and Gracilaria sp. (Rhodophyta) was studied along 72 h. Read More

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December 2020

Encoding the Odor of Cigarette Smoke.

J Neurosci 2020 09 12;40(37):7043-7053. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242.

The encoding of odors is believed to begin as a combinatorial code consisting of distinct patterns of responses from odorant receptors (ORs), trace-amine associated receptors (TAARs), or both. To determine how specific response patterns arise requires detecting patterns and understanding how the components of an odor, which are nearly always mixtures of odorants, give rise to parts of the pattern. Cigarette smoke, a common and clinically relevant odor consisting of >400 odorants, evokes responses from 144 ORs and 3 TAARs in freely behaving male and female mice, the first example of responses of both ORs and TAARs to an odor. Read More

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September 2020