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Investigation on the impact of different proportions of components in formulations on stability of a moisture sensitive drug.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 6:120690. Epub 2021 May 6.

GEA-NUS Pharmaceutical Processing Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543, Singapore. Electronic address:

Physicochemical and mechanical properties of tablets are largely dictated by formulation compositions. Different excipients possess different tableting and moisture sorption behaviors. Therefore, this study was designed to elucidate the relative influence of the proportion of components in formulations on tablet properties. Read More

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Evaluation of two sexual-stage antigens as bivalent transmission-blocking vaccines in rodent malaria.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 7;14(1):241. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, Liaoning, China.

Background: Transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) is a promising strategy for malaria elimination. It is hypothesized that mixing or fusing two antigens targeting different stages of sexual development may provide higher transmission-blocking activity than these antigens used individually.

Methods: A chimeric protein composed of fragments of Pbg37 and PSOP25 was designed and expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami B (DE3). Read More

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Electrodialytic remediation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash as pre-treatment before geopolymerisation with coal fly ash.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 23;412:125220. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark.

Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is classified as hazardous waste and needs to be disposed of according to strict regulations. By disposal, valuable resources in the MSWI fly ash is lost, and other solutions are sought for. The effect of electrodialytic remediation (ED) as a pre-treatment for removing heavy metals from MSWI fly ash before using the treated ash in geopolymerization with coal fly ash was explored. Read More

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Biogas Conversion to Syngas Using Advanced Ni-Promoted Pyrochlore Catalysts: Effect of the CH/CO Ratio.

Front Chem 2021 14;9:672419. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

Biogas is defined as the mixture of CH and CO produced by the anaerobic digestion of biomass. This particular mixture can be transformed in high valuable intermediates such as syngas through a process known as dry reforming (DRM). The reaction involved is highly endothermic, and catalysts capable to endure carbon deposition and metal particle sintering are required. Read More

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Rhamnolipids inhibit aflatoxins production in Aspergillus flavus by causing structural damages in the fungal hyphae and down-regulating the expression of their biosynthetic genes.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Apr 21;348:109207. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

CEB - Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.

Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic and carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites that usually contaminate crops and represent a serious health hazard for humans and animals worldwide. In this work, the effect of rhamnolipids (RLs) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa #112 on the growth and aflatoxins production by Aspergillus flavus MUM 17.14 was studied in vitro. Read More

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Decorating sdAbs with Chelators: Effect of Conjugation on Biodistribution and Functionality.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;14(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Medical Imaging (MIMA), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium.

Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) have proven to be valuable probes for molecular imaging. In order to produce such probes, one strategy is the functionalization of the reactive amine side chain of lysines with a chelator, resulting in a mixture of compounds with a different degree of conjugation. In this study, we implemented anion exchange chromatography (AEX) to separate the different compounds or fractions that were further characterized and evaluated to study the impact of the conjugation degree on pharmacokinetic properties and functionality. Read More

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Cyanobacterial anabaenopeptin-B, microcystins and their mixture cause toxic effects on the behavior of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna (Cladocera).

Toxicon 2021 Apr 26;198:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Hydrobiology and Protection of Ecosystems, Faculty of Environmental Biology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Dobrzańskiego 37, 20-262, Lublin, Poland.

Comparison of the toxic effects caused by the pure cyanobacterial cyclic hexapeptide anabaenopeptin-B (AN-B), the heptapeptides: microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and MC-LF as well as a binary mixture of AN-B with MC-LR on the swimming speed and hopping frequency - essential activities of Daphnia, was experimentally determined. Till now, no information on behavioral effects of AN-B and its mixture with microcystins, commonly produced by cyanobacteria, was available. Also MC-LF effect on aquatic crustaceans was determined for the first time. Read More

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Structural elucidation upon binding of antimicrobial peptides into binary mixed lipid monolayers mimicking bacterial membranes.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 20;598:193-205. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Biological Physics Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Schuster Building, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) kill microorganisms by causing structural damage to bacterial membranes. Different microorganisms often require a different type and concentration of an AMP to achieve full microbial killing. We hypothesise that the difference is caused by different membrane structure and composition. Read More

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Cress seed gum improves rheological, textural and physicochemical properties of native wheat starch-sucrose mixture.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 18;181:945-955. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Food Hydrocolloids Research Center, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, PO Box: 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

In this paper, the impact of different substitution levels of cress seed gum (CSG, 0, 5, 10, and 15%) and sucrose (SUC, 0, 5, and 10%) on the rheological properties, textural attributes, syneresis, FTIR and microstructure of native wheat starch (NWS, 4%) gel was investigated. According to the rheological tests, the NWS-CSG and NWS-CSG-SUC gels showed thixotropic behavior and all the samples exhibited shear-thinning flow behavior. Increasing the CSG substitution level up to 15% elevated the apparent viscosity, consistency coefficient whereas the SUC substitution with NWS reduced these values. Read More

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Effects of Age on Cortical Tracking of Word-Level Features of Continuous Competing Speech.

Front Neurosci 2021 1;15:635126. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Speech-in-noise comprehension difficulties are common among the elderly population, yet traditional objective measures of speech perception are largely insensitive to this deficit, particularly in the absence of clinical hearing loss. In recent years, a growing body of research in young normal-hearing adults has demonstrated that high-level features related to speech semantics and lexical predictability elicit strong centro-parietal negativity in the EEG signal around 400 ms following the word onset. Here we investigate effects of age on cortical tracking of these word-level features within a two-talker speech mixture, and their relationship with self-reported difficulties with speech-in-noise understanding. Read More

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Enhanced dielectric and conductivity properties of carbon-coated SiC nanocomposites in the terahertz frequency range.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 12;32(26):265705. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, People's Republic of China.

C-coated SiC nanocomposites (SiC@C NCs) were one-step synthesized under a mixture atmosphere of Ar and CH using a DC arc-discharge plasma method. The microstructure of the composites could be controlled by varying the volume ratio of Ar and CH. A strong response to the terahertz (THz) field was observed due to the existence of a graphite shell. Read More

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A Self-Assembled Pd(II) Barrel for Binding of Fullerenes and Photosensitization Ability of the Fullerene Encapsulated Barrel.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Indian Institute of Science, Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, INDIA.

Fullerene extracts obtained from fullerene shoot lack their real application due to poor solubility in common solvents and difficulty in purification. Their encapsulation in a suitable host is an important approach to address these issues. We present a new Pd 6 barrel ( 1) , which is composed of three 1,4-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole panels, clipped through six cis -Pd(II) acceptors. Read More

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Variable contributions of seafloor communities to ecosystem metabolism across a gradient of habitat-forming species.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Mar 30;167:105321. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Tvärminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, Hanko, Finland; Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

The contributions of habitat-forming species to the biodiversity and ecosystem processes of marine and terrestrial ecosystems are widely recognized. Aquatic plants are considered foundation species in shallow ecosystems, as they maintain biodiversity and sustain many ecosystem functions such as primary production and respiration. Despite the increasing amount of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments in seagrass habitats, the effects of benthic variability on ecosystem functioning are rarely investigated across spatially variable aquatic plant habitats. Read More

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Localization-delocalization effects of a delocalizing dissipation on disordered XXZ spin chains.

Chaos 2021 Mar;31(3):033133

Science, Mathematics and Technology Cluster, Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Road, 487372 Singapore.

The interplay between interaction, disorder, and dissipation has shown a rich phenomenology. Here, we investigate a disordered XXZ spin chain in contact with a bath which, alone, would drive the system toward a highly delocalized and coherent Dicke state. We show that there exist regimes for which the natural orbitals of the single-particle density matrix of the steady state are all localized in the presence of strong disorders, for either weak interaction or strong interaction. Read More

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A congener-specific and mixture analysis of plasma polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and incident breast cancer.

Epidemiology 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; UCSD Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA, USA Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Division of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA;

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a diverse class of chemicals, are hypothesized mammary carcinogens. We examined plasma levels of 17 PCBs as individual congeners and as a mixture in association with breast cancer using a novel approach based on quantile g-computation.

Methods: This study included 845 White and 562 Black women who participated in the population-based, case-control Carolina Breast Cancer Study Phase I. Read More

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Eightfold Electrophilic Methylation of Octacyanotungstate [W(CN)]: Preparation of Homoleptic, Eight-Coordinate Methyl Isocyanide Complexes [W(CNMe)].

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 28;60(8):5917-5924. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Chemie und Biochemie-Anorganische Chemie Fabeckstraße 34-36, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

Homoleptic eightfold coordinated methyl isocyanide complexes of W(IV) and W(V) have been prepared for the first time. The reaction of [NBu][W(CN)] with methyl triflate (MeOTf) gives [W(CNMe)][OTf]. The even stronger methylating mixture of methyl fluoride (MeF) and arsenic pentafluoride (AsF) in liquid sulfur dioxide (SO) is able to fully alkylate both [NBu][W(CN)] and [NBu][W(CN)]. Read More

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Subgroups of comorbid PTSD and AUD in U.S. military veterans predict differential responsiveness to two integrated treatments: A latent class analysis.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 May 13;137:342-350. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA, 92161, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA; National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 163 Veterans Drive, White River Junction, VT, 05009, USA.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur. Integrated treatments are effective, but not all patients respond and predicting outcome remains difficult. In this study, latent class analysis (LCA) identified symptom-based subgroups of comorbid PTSD/AUD among 119 veterans with PTSD/AUD from a randomized controlled trial of integrated exposure therapy (I-PE) versus integrated coping skills therapy (I-CS). Read More

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Assembly processes and source tracking of planktonic and benthic bacterial communities in the Yellow River estuary.

Environ Microbiol 2021 May 2;23(5):2578-2591. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Institute of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China.

Estuaries connect rivers with the ocean and are considered transition regions due to the continuous inputs from rivers. Microbiota from different sources converge and undergo succession in these transition regions, but their assembly mechanisms along environmental gradients remain unclear. Here, we found that salinity had a stronger effect on planktonic than on benthic microbial communities, and the dominant planktonic bacteria changed more distinctly than the dominant benthic bacteria with changes in salinity. Read More

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Enhancer pleiotropy, gene expression, and the architecture of human enhancer-gene interactions.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Enhancers are often studied as noncoding regulatory elements that modulate the precise spatiotemporal expression of genes in a highly tissue-specific manner. This paradigm has been challenged by recent evidence of individual enhancers acting in multiple tissues or developmental contexts. However, the frequency of these enhancers with high degrees of 'pleiotropy' out of all putative enhancers is not well understood. Read More

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Highly Selective Separation Intermediate-Size Anionic Pollutants from Smaller and Larger Analogs via Thermodynamically and Kinetically Cooperative-Controlled Crystallization.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Mar 1;8(6):2003243. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

School of Materials Science & Engineering Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 P. R. China.

Selective separation of organic species, particularly that of intermediate-size ones from their analogs, remains challenging because of their similar structures and properties. Here, a novel strategy is presented, cooperatively (thermodynamically and kinetically) controlled crystallization for the highly selective separation of intermediate-size anionic pollutants from their analogs in water through one-pot construction of cationic metal-organic frameworks (CMOFs) with higher stabilities and faster crystallization, which are based on the target anions as charge-balancing anions. 4,4'-azo-triazole and Cu are chosen as suitable ligand and metal ion for CMOF construction because they can form stronger intermolecular interaction with -toluenesulfonate anion (Ts-) compared to its analogs. Read More

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Enhanced dielectric and conductivity of carbon-coated SiC nanocomposites in the terahertz frequency range.

Nanotechnology 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, School of Electronic Science and Technology, A1228 Chuanxinyuan Building, No 2 Linggong Road, Gangjinz District, Dailan 116024CHINA, Dalian, CHINA.

Carbon-coated SiC nanocomposites (SiC@C NCs) were one-step synthesized under a mixture atmosphere of Ar and CH4 using a DC arc-discharge plasma method. The microstructure of the composites can be controlled by varying the volume ratio of Ar and CH4. A strong response to terahertz (THz) field was observed due to the existence of a graphite shell. Read More

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An online target and rapid screening method for α-glucosidase inhibitors based on capillary electrophoresis.

Electrophoresis 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Chemistry of Northwestern Plant Resources, Key Laboratory for Natural Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, P. R. China.

Screening enzymatic active compounds is one of the important fields in drug research. α-Glucosidase can hydrolyze carbohydrates to monosaccharides after meals and lead to the rise of blood glucose levels in human body. Thus, the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity is an effective approach for the diabetes treatment. Read More

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A novel beamformer-based imaging of phase-amplitude coupling (BIPAC) unveiling the inter-regional connectivity of emotional prosody processing in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

J Neural Eng 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu, 300, TAIWAN.

Objective Neural communication or the interactions of brain regions play a key role in the formation of functional neural networks. A type of neural communication can be measured in the form of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), which is the coupling between the phase of low-frequency oscillations and the amplitude of high-frequency oscillations. This paper presents a beamformer-based imaging method, beamformer-based imaging of phase-amplitude coupling (BIPAC), to quantify the strength of PAC between a seed region and other brain regions. Read More

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Correlated Ni, Cu, and Zn Sensitivities of 8 Freshwater Algal Species and Consequences for Low-Level Metal Mixture Effects.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Division of Soil and Water Management, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.

Predicting metal sensitivities and metal mixture interactions for species within each trophic level is essential to understand the effects of metals at the ecosystem level. The present study was set up to explore the correlations of metal sensitivities among species and if these sensitivities or metal mixture interactions are related to growth or morphological traits. The toxicity of Ni, Cu, and Zn on algal growth was tested for 8 freshwater algal species when dosed singly and in combinations in phosphorus-limiting static systems. Read More

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Economic Stressors, COVID-19 Attitudes, Worry, and Behaviors among U.S. Working Adults: A Mixture Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 27;18(5). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Psychology, Washington State University Vancouver, Vancouver, WA 98686, USA.

Since the unfolding of the novel coronavirus global pandemic, public health research has increasingly suggested that certain groups of individuals may be more exposed to the virus. The aim of this contribution was to investigate whether workers grouped into several latent classes, based on two perceived economic stressors, would report different levels of enactment of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended behaviors to prevent the spread of such virus. We also tested propositions regarding the potential differential predictors of compliance behavior, differentiating between cognitive (i. Read More

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February 2021

Conserved and reproducible bacterial communities associate with extraradical hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

ISME J 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Extraradical hyphae (ERH) of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) extend from plant roots into the soil environment and interact with soil microbial communities. Evidence of positive and negative interactions between AMF and soil bacteria point to functionally important ERH-associated communities. To characterize communities associated with ERH and test controls on their establishment and composition, we utilized an in-growth core system containing a live soil-sand mixture that allowed manual extraction of ERH for 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling. Read More

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How to use statistics to claim antagonism and synergism from binary mixture experiments.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Feb 28. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA.

We review statistical approaches applicable for the analysis of data from binary mixture experiments, which are commonly used in pesticide science for evaluating antagonistic or synergistic effects. Specifically, two different situations are reviewed, one where every pesticide is only available at a single dose level and a mixture simply combines these doses, and one where the pesticides and their mixture are used at increasing doses. The former corresponds to using factorial designs whereas the latter corresponds to fixed-ratio designs. Read More

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February 2021

Aqueous two-phase emulsions-templated tailorable porous alginate beads for 3D cell culture.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Apr 28;258:117702. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

School of Life Sciences and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610031, PR China. Electronic address:

A facile method was developed to produce porous alginate beads (PABs) with a controllable interconnected porous structure with aqueous two phase (ATPS) emulsions as template for 3D cell culture. ATPS emulsions, containing two biocompatible immiscible aqueous phases of cell/dextran (Dex) mixture and alginate (Alg)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture and stabilized by mPEG-BSA particles, were introduced to form PABs. The pore size of PABs could be controlled by changing the emulsification frequency and the volume ratio between the ATPS emulsions and PEG-Alg solution. Read More

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Inversion reflectance by apple tree canopy ground and unmanned aerial vehicle integrated remote sensing data.

J Plant Res 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing, 100097, China.

To obtain accurate spatially continuous reflectance from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing, UAV data needs to be integrated with the data on the ground. Here, we tested accuracy of two methods to inverse reflectance, Ground-UAV-Linear Spectral Mixture Model (G-UAV-LSMM) and Minimum Noise Fraction-Pixel Purity Index-Linear Spectral Mixture Model (MNF-PPI-LSMM). At wavelengths of 550, 660, 735 and 790 nm, which were obtained by UAV multispectral observations, we calculated the canopy abundance based on the two methods to acquire the inversion reflectance. Read More

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February 2021

Strong Tracking PHD Filter Based on Variational Bayesian with Inaccurate Process and Measurement Noise Covariance.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

School of Computer and Information Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.

Assuming that the measurement and process noise covariances are known, the probability hypothesis density (PHD) filter is effective in real-time multi-target tracking; however, noise covariance is often unknown and time-varying for an actual scene. To solve this problem, a strong tracking PHD filter based on Variational Bayes (VB) approximation is proposed in this paper. The measurement noise covariance is described in the linear system by the inverse Wishart (IW) distribution. Read More

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February 2021