1,489 results match your criteria mitosis expressing


Clonogenic Assays to Detect Cell Fate in Mitotic Catastrophe.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2267:227-239

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Université de Paris, Equipe 11 Labellisée par la Ligue Contre le Cancer, Paris, France.

Mitotic catastrophe (MC) is a cell death modality induced by DNA damage that involves the activation of cell cycle checkpoints such as the "DNA structure checkpoint" and "spindle assembly checkpoint" (SAC) leading to aberrant mitosis. Depending on the signal, MC can drive the cell to death or to senescence. The suppression of MC favors aneuploidy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The fission yeast S-phase cyclin Cig2 can drive mitosis.

Genetics 2021 Mar;217(1):1-12

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.

Commitment to mitosis is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the major B-type cyclin, Cdc13, is necessary and sufficient to drive mitotic entry. Furthermore, Cdc13 is also sufficient to drive S phase, demonstrating that a single cyclin can regulate alternating rounds of replication and mitosis, and providing the foundation of the quantitative model of CDK function. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

POLArIS, a versatile probe for molecular orientation, revealed actin filaments associated with microtubule asters in early embryos.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Neuroanatomy and Cellular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan;

Biomolecular assemblies govern the physiology of cells. Their function often depends on the changes in molecular arrangements of constituents, both in the positions and orientations. While recent advancements of fluorescence microscopy including super-resolution microscopy have enabled us to determine the positions of fluorophores with unprecedented accuracy, monitoring the orientation of fluorescently labeled molecules within living cells in real time is challenging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cleavable Affinity Purification (Cl-AP): A One-step Procedure to Affinity Purify Protein Complexes.

Bio Protoc 2020 Nov 20;10(22):e3821. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK.

Cleavable Affinity Purification (Cl-AP) uses a tripartite system of Protein-A-Streptavidin beads and nanobodies, coupled with a biotinylated, thiol-cleavable linker, providing one-step affinity purification from lysates of tissues expressing tagged proteins. This technique allows fluorescent versions of mitotic protein complexes to be isolated intact from cells, for use in biophysical and microscopy-based assays, overcoming the traditional limitations of reductionist approaches. We have used this technique successfully to purify both GFP-tagged and mCherry-tagged proteins, and their interacting partners, expressed in embryos. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

The GRAS-type SCL28 transcription factor controls the mitotic cell cycle and division plane orientation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Feb;118(6)

Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario, National Scientific and Technical Research Council and Universidad Nacional de Rosario, 2000 Rosario, Argentina;

Gene expression is reconfigured rapidly during the cell cycle to execute the cellular functions specific to each phase. Studies conducted with synchronized plant cell suspension cultures have identified hundreds of genes with periodic expression patterns across the phases of the cell cycle, but these results may differ from expression occurring in the context of intact organs. Here, we describe the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting to analyze the gene expression profile of G2/M cells in the growing root. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Single-cell analysis of the developing human testis reveals somatic niche cell specification and fetal germline stem cell establishment.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 15;28(4):764-778.e4. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Oncological Sciences and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. Electronic address:

Human testis development in prenatal life involves complex changes in germline and somatic cell identity. To better understand, we profiled and analyzed ∼32,500 single-cell transcriptomes of testicular cells from embryonic, fetal, and infant stages. Our data show that at 6-7 weeks postfertilization, as the testicular cords are established, the Sertoli and interstitial cells originate from a common heterogeneous progenitor pool, which then resolves into fetal Sertoli cells (expressing tube-forming genes) or interstitial cells (including Leydig-lineage cells expressing steroidogenesis genes). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In vitro effects of Trastuzumab Emtansine (T-DM1) and concurrent irradiation on HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

Cancer Radiother 2021 Apr 9;25(2):126-134. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Institut Curie, Bât. 110-112, rue H. Becquerel, centre universitaire, 91405 Orsay, France; Université Paris-Saclay, centre universitaire, 91405 Orsay, France; INSERM U1196/CNRS UMR9187, France.

Background: To determine the effects of concurrent irradiation and T-DM1 on HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines.

Methods: Five human breast cancer cell lines (in vitro study) presenting various levels of HER2 expression were used to determine the potential therapeutic effect of T-DM1 combined with radiation. The toxicity of T-DM1 was assessed using viability assay and cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry after BrdU incorporation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Androgen receptor splicing variant 7(ARV7) inhibits docetaxel sensitivity by inactivating the spindle assembly checkpoint.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 8:100276. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Pathophysiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

The clinical efficacy of docetaxel (DTX) in prostate cancer treatment is barely satisfactory due to diverse responses of the patients, including the development of resistance. Recently, aberrant androgen receptor (AR) signaling, including expression of the constitutively active ARV7, was reported to contribute to DTX resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Chromosomal localization of Ewing sarcoma EWSR1/FLI1 protein promotes the induction of aneuploidy.

J Biol Chem 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, United States.

Ewing sarcoma is a pediatric bone cancer that expresses the chimeric protein EWSR1/FLI1. We previously demonstrated that EWSR1/FLI1 impairs the localization of Aurora B kinase to the midzone (the midline structure located between segregating chromosomes) during anaphase. While localization of Aurora B is essential for faithful cell division, it is unknown whether interference with midzone organization by EWSR1/FLI1 induces aneuploidy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Cell Cycle-Dependence of Autophagic Activity and Inhibition of Autophagosome Formation at M Phase in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 1;21(23). Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan.

Autophagy is ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells and plays an essential role in stress adaptation and development by recycling nutrients and maintaining cellular homeostasis. However, the dynamics and regulatory mechanisms of autophagosome formation during the cell cycle in plant cells remain poorly elucidated. We here analyzed the number of autophagosomes during cell cycle progression in synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells expressing YFP-NtATG8a as a marker for the autophagosomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

A novel Oct4/Pou5f1-like non-coding RNA controls neural maturation and mediates developmental effects of ethanol.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Jan-Feb;83:106943. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, USA; Texas A&M Institute for Neuroscience, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; Women's Health in Neuroscience Program, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in loss of neural stem cells (NSCs) and decreased brain growth. Here, we assessed whether a noncoding RNA (ncRNA) related to the NSC self-renewal factor Oct4/Pou5f1, and transcribed from a processed pseudogene locus on mouse chromosome 9 (mOct4pg9), contributed to the loss of NSCs due to ethanol. Mouse fetal cortical-derived NSCs, cultured ex vivo to mimic the early neurogenic environment of the fetal telencephalon, expressed mOct4pg9 ncRNA at significantly higher levels than the parent Oct4/Pou5f1 mRNA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Essentiality of CENP-A Depends on Its Binding Mode to HJURP.

Cell Rep 2020 Nov;33(7):108388

Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address:

CENP-A incorporation is critical for centromere specification and is mediated by the chaperone HJURP. The CENP-A-targeting domain (CATD) of CENP-A specifically binds to HJURP, and this binding is conserved. However, the binding interface of CENP-A-HJURP is yet to be understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Cell-Cycle-Dependent ERK Signaling Dynamics Direct Fate Specification in the Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo.

Dev Cell 2020 11 21;55(3):328-340.e5. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department Molecular Biology and Genetics, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Department Oncology, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:

Despite the noisy nature of single cells, multicellular organisms robustly generate different cell types from one zygote. This process involves dynamic cross regulation between signaling and gene expression that is difficult to capture with fixed-cell approaches. To study signaling dynamics and fate specification during preimplantation development, we generated a transgenic mouse expressing the ERK kinase translocation reporter and measured ERK activity in single cells of live embryos. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

1-Methylpyrene induces chromosome loss and mitotic apparatus damage in a Chinese hamster V79-derived cell line expressing both human CYP1A2 and sulfotransferase 1A1.

Chem Biol Interact 2020 Dec 6;332:109283. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University (Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research), 1023 S. Shatai Road, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

1-Methylpyrene (1-MP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and rodent carcinogen. Its mutagenic activity depends on sequential activation by various CYP and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes. Previously we have observed induction of micronuclei and mitotic arrest by 1-MP in a Chinese hamster (V79)-derived cell line expressing both human CYP1A2 and SULT1A1 (V79-hCYP1A2-hSULT1A1), however, the mode of chromosome damage and the involvement of mitotic tubulin structures have not been clarified. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Mitosis in Cancer Cell Increases Immune Resistance via High Expression of HLA-G and PD-L1.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Sep 18;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

CAP-Paris Tech., INSERM U1275, Hôpital Lariboisière, 2, rue Ambroise-Paré, 75010 Paris, France.

Cancer is a result of "aggressive" division and uncontrolled proliferation of the abnormal cells that survive attack by immune cells. We investigated the expression of HLA-G and PD-L1 with the different stages of cancer cell division along with their role in the interaction of immune cells in vitro. Ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3) and chronic myeloid leukemia cell line (K-562) are used for this study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

DDIT4 Licenses Only Healthy Cells to Proliferate During Injury-induced Metaplasia.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jan 19;160(1):260-271.e10. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri; Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: In stomach, metaplasia can arise from differentiated chief cells that become mitotic via paligenosis, a stepwise program. In paligenosis, mitosis initiation requires reactivation of the cellular energy hub mTORC1 after initial mTORC1 suppression by DNA damage induced transcript 4 (DDIT4 aka REDD1). Here, we use DDIT4-deficient mice and human cells to study how metaplasia increases tumorigenesis risk. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Cellular thermogenesis compensates environmental temperature fluctuations for maintaining intracellular temperature.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 11 11;533(1):70-76. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Center for Biosciences and Informatics, School of Fundamental Science and Technology Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 223-8522, Japan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, 80708, Taiwan; Waseda Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsucho, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-8480, Japan. Electronic address:

Temperature governs states and dynamics of all biological molecules, and several cellular processes are often heat sources and/or sinks. Technical achievement of intracellular thermometry enables us to measure intracellular temperature, and it can offer novel perspectives in biology and medicine. However, little is known that changes of intracellular temperature throughout the cell-cycle and the manner of which cells regulates their thermogenesis in response to fluctuation of the environmental temperature. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

[Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 Regulates DNA Re-replication Mediated by Human Papillomavirus Subtype 16 E7 in Response to DNA Damage].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2020 Aug;42(4):485-490

To explore the molecular mechanism of human papillomavirus subtype 16(HPV-16)E7 oncogene-induced DNA re-replication in response to DNA damage. Flow cytometry was performed to examine the cell cycle changes in RPE1 E7 cells stably expressing HPV-16 E7 and its control cell RPE1 Vector after DNA damage.Immunoblotting assay was used to evaluate the early mitotic inhibitor 1(Emi1)expression in RPE1 E7 and RPE1 Vector cells with or without DNA damage. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Laser Scissors and Tweezers to Study Chromosomes: A Review.

Authors:
Michael W Berns

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 16;8:721. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Starting in 1969 laser scissors have been used to study and manipulate chromosomes in mitotic animal cells. Key studies demonstrated that using the "hot spot" in the center of a focused Gaussian laser beam it was possible to delete the ribosomal genes (secondary constriction), and this deficiency was maintained in clonal daughter cells. It wasn't until 2020 that it was demonstrated that cells with focal-point damaged chromosomes could replicate due to the cell's DNA damage repair molecular machinery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metastatic Melanoma Negative for 5 Melanocytic Markers, Complete Regressed Primary Cutaneous Melanoma, and Melanoma-Associated Leukoderma in the Same Patient.

Am J Dermatopathol 2020 Dec;42(12):956-960

Dermatology, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, Spain.

Melanomas with complete histological regression have been seen very infrequently. On the other hand, the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma is based on the histopathology and positivity of markers such as S100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 whose sensitivity is 99%, 82%, and 76%, respectively. It is very rare that metastatic melanomas and even more primary melanoma are negative for all of these markers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Microglia enhances proliferation of neural progenitor cells in an model of hypoxic-ischemic injury.

EXCLI J 2020 3;19:950-961. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhonpathom, 73170, Thailand.

Microglial cells are the primary immune cells in the central nervous system. In the mature brain, microglia perform functions that include eliminating pathogens and clearing dead/dying cells and cellular debris through phagocytosis. In the immature brain, microglia perform functions that include synapse development and the regulation of cell production through extensive contact with and phagocytosis of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Construction and analysis of artificial chromosomes with de novo holocentromeres in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Essays Biochem 2020 09;64(2):233-249

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

Artificial chromosomes (ACs), generated in yeast (YACs) and human cells (HACs), have facilitated our understanding of the trans-acting proteins, cis-acting elements, such as the centromere, and epigenetic environments that are necessary to maintain chromosome stability. The centromere is the unique chromosomal region that assembles the kinetochore and connects to microtubules to orchestrate chromosome movement during cell division. While monocentromeres are the most commonly characterized centromere organization found in studied organisms, diffused holocentromeres along the chromosome length are observed in some plants, insects and nematodes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Reduced replication origin licensing selectively kills KRAS-mutant colorectal cancer cells via mitotic catastrophe.

Cell Death Dis 2020 07 1;11(7):499. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute of Pathology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

To unravel vulnerabilities of KRAS-mutant CRC cells, a shRNA-based screen specifically inhibiting MAPK pathway components and targets was performed in CaCo2 cells harboring conditional oncogenic KRAS. The custom-designed shRNA library comprised 121 selected genes, which were previously identified to be strongly regulated in response to MEK inhibition. The screen showed that CaCo2 cells expressing KRAS were sensitive to the suppression of the DNA replication licensing factor minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 (MCM7), whereas KRAS CaCo2 cells were largely resistant to MCM7 suppression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Kinase Activity of Drosophila BubR1 Is Required for Insulin Signaling-Dependent Stem Cell Maintenance.

Cell Rep 2020 06;31(12):107794

Hunan Key Laboratory of Molecular Precision Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, and Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Center for Clinical Biorepositories and Biospecimens, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China. Electronic address:

As a core component of the mitotic checkpoint complex, BubR1 has a modular organization of molecular functions, with KEN box and other motifs at the N terminus inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, and a kinase domain at the C terminus, whose function remains unsettled, especially at organismal levels. We generate knock-in BubR1 mutations in the Drosophila genome to separately disrupt the KEN box and the kinase domain. All of the mutants are homozygously viable and fertile and show no defects in mitotic progression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cancer Stem-Like Cells in a Case of an Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Lung.

Front Oncol 2020 15;10:673. Epub 2020 May 15.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Inflammatory myofibroblast tumor (IMT) is a rare tumor with obscure etiopathogenesis in which different inflammatory cells and myofibroblastic spindle cells are seen histologically. Although the majority of these neoplasms have a benign clinical course, the malignant form has also been reported. The gold standard is surgical treatment for complete removal. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cell cycle-dependent dynamics of a plant intermediate filament motif protein with intracellular localization related to microtubules.

Protoplasma 2020 Sep 1;257(5):1387-1400. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Chemistry & Biology, Graduate School of Science & Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, 790-8577, Japan.

Although intermediate filaments (IFs) are biochemically and immunologically suggested to exist in plant cells, there are few molecular genetic studies related to the proteins that form these structures. In this study, Arabidopsis AT3G05270 was selected as a candidate gene for a protein constituting IF in plant cells. The protein encoded by AT3G05270 has a large α-helix as well as the IF protein motif indispensable for maintaining the structures of IF. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Simple Detection of Primary Cilia by Immunofluorescence.

J Vis Exp 2020 05 15(159). Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Radiobiology, Faculty of Military Health Sciences in Hradec Kralove, University of Defence.

Primary cilia are dynamically regulated during cell cycle progression, specifically during the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle, being resorbed prior to mitosis. Primary cilia can be visualized with highly sophisticated methods, including transmission electron microscopy, 3D imaging, or using software for the automatic detection of primary cilia. However, immunofluorescent staining of primary cilia is needed to perform these methods. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Isolation of stage-specific germ cells using FACS in Drosophila germarium.

Methods Cell Biol 2020 28;158:11-24. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology (CIRB), UMR CNRS 7241/INSERM U1050, Collège de France, PSL University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis is a versatile model system to address many fundamental questions of cell and developmental biology, such as stem cell biology, mitosis, meiosis or cell polarity. Many mutagenesis and powerful genetic tools have contributed massively to identify and dissect in vivo gene functions in a stage and tissue specific manner. However, the small number of germ cells during the early steps of oogenesis have hampered a systematic description of RNA and protein contents at each stage. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2020

MTH1 Inhibitor TH588 Disturbs Mitotic Progression and Induces Mitosis-Dependent Accumulation of Genomic 8-oxodG.

Cancer Res 2020 09 20;80(17):3530-3541. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidize nucleotide triphosphate pools (e.g., 8-oxodGTP), which may kill cells if incorporated into DNA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

CD13 as a new tumor target for antibody-drug conjugates: validation with the conjugate MI130110.

J Hematol Oncol 2020 04 7;13(1):32. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas "Alberto Sols", CSIC-UAM, Madrid, Spain.

Background: In the search for novel antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) with therapeutic potential, it is imperative to identify novel targets to direct the antibody moiety. CD13 seems an attractive ADC target as it shows a differential pattern of expression in a variety of tumors and cell lines and it is internalized upon engagement with a suitable monoclonal antibody. PM050489 is a marine cytotoxic compound tightly binding tubulin and impairing microtubule dynamics which is currently undergoing clinical trials for solid tumors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF