Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jul 14:104207. Epub 2021 Jul 14.
Guangdong Provincial Water Environment and Aquatic Products Security Engineering Technology Research Center, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases and Waterfowl Breeding, College of Animal Sciences and Technology, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510222, China. Electronic address:
Infectious bacterial and viral diseases that cause hemolysis are considered life-threatening to grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), which is a species used in aquaculture worldwide. After heme and hemeproteins (Hb) are released as a result of hemolysis, the effect of excess Hb and heme on tissues remains to be characterized. To decipher the mechanisms, after incubation with Hb, we showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Hb, and heme increased the cytotoxicity and secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in vitro, which was due to stimulation of the expression of innate immune receptors, such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD2), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR 4, and TLR3. Read More