155 results match your criteria mitochondrion sink

The function of glutaredoxin GRXS15 is required for lipoyl-dependent dehydrogenases in mitochondria.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES) - Chemical Signalling, University of Bonn, 53113 Bonn, Germany.

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors in all life and are used in a wide array of diverse biological processes, including electron transfer chains and several metabolic pathways. Biosynthesis machineries for Fe-S clusters exist in plastids, the cytosol and mitochondria. A single monothiol glutaredoxin (GRX) is involved in Fe-S cluster assembly in mitochondria of yeast and mammals. Read More

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The flexibility of metabolic interactions between chloroplasts and mitochondria in Nicotiana tabacum leaf.

Plant J 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C1A4, Canada.

To examine the effect of mitochondrial function on photosynthesis, wild-type and transgenic Nicotiana tabacum with varying amounts of alternative oxidase (AOX) were treated with different respiratory inhibitors. Initially, each inhibitor increased the reduction state of the chloroplast electron transport chain, most severely in AOX knockdowns and least severely in AOX overexpressors. This indicated that the mitochondrion was a necessary sink for photo-generated reductant, contributing to the 'P700 oxidation capacity' of photosystem I. Read More

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The cellular and functional complexity of thermogenic fat.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 Jun 23;22(6):393-409. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Brown and beige adipocytes are mitochondria-enriched cells capable of dissipating energy in the form of heat. These thermogenic fat cells were originally considered to function solely in heat generation through the action of the mitochondrial protein uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). In recent years, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the ontogeny, bioenergetics and physiological functions of thermogenic fat. Read More

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Deceptology in cancer and vaccine sciences: Seeds of immune destruction-mini electric shocks in mitochondria: Neuroplasticity-electrobiology of response profiles and increased induced diseases in four generations - A hypothesis.

Mahin Khatami

Clin Transl Med 2020 Dec;10(8):e215

Inflammation, Aging and Cancer, National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (Retired), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

From Rockefeller's support of patent medicine to Gates' patent vaccines, medical establishment invested a great deal in intellectual ignorance. Through the control over medical education and research it has created a public illusion to prop up corporate profit and encouraged the lust for money and power. An overview of data on cancer and vaccine sciences, the status of Americans' health, a survey of repeated failed projects, economic toxicity, and heavy drug consumption or addiction among young and old provide compelling evidence that in the twentieth century nearly all classic disease categories (congenital, inheritance, neonatal, or induced) shifted to increase induced diseases. Read More

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December 2020

Genome-Wide Functional Screen for Calcium Transients in Escherichia coli Identifies Increased Membrane Potential Adaptation to Persistent DNA Damage.

J Bacteriol 2021 01 11;203(3). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Molecular Cellular Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA

Calcium plays numerous critical roles in signaling and homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Far less is known about calcium signaling in bacteria than in eukaryotic cells, and few genes controlling influx and efflux have been identified. Previous work in showed that calcium influx was induced by voltage depolarization, which was enhanced by mechanical stimulation, which suggested a role in bacterial mechanosensation. Read More

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January 2021

Multi-analysis of sheath senescence provides new insights into bamboo shoot development at the fast growth stage.

Tree Physiol 2021 03;41(3):491-507

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210037, China.

Sheath senescence is an important part of bamboo shoot development during the fast growth stage. However, no information has been reported about this distinctive process until now. Using multiple approaches, we found that sheath senescence is a complex process that occurs sequentially with chloroplast corruption, chlorophyll degradation and water loss. Read More

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Sensing the Generation of Intracellular Free Electrons Using the Inactive Catalytic Subunit of Cytochrome P450s as a Sink.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 21;20(14). Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Leicester School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK.

Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) abstracts electrons from Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate H (NADPH), transferring them to an active Cytochrome P450 (CYP) site to provide a functional CYP. In the present study, a yeast strain was genetically engineered to delete the endogenous CPR gene. A human CYP expressed in a CPR-null (yRD) strain was inactive. Read More

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Mitochondria-Associated Pyruvate Kinase Complexes Regulate Grain Filling in Rice.

Plant Physiol 2020 07 6;183(3):1073-1087. Epub 2020 May 6.

Rice Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, People's Republic of China

Grain filling is a complex agronomic trait that directly determines grain weight and quality in rice (). Nevertheless, key factors affecting grain filling remain poorly understood. Here, we identified a grain filling gene, , encoding a pyruvate kinase (PK). Read More

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Efficient Photosynthetic Functioning of Through Electron Dissipation in Chloroplasts and Electron Export to Mitochondria Under Ammonium Nutrition.

Front Plant Sci 2020 26;11:103. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Institute of Experimental Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

An improvement in photosynthetic rate promotes the growth of crop plants. The sink-regulation of photosynthesis is crucial in optimizing nitrogen fixation and integrating it with carbon balance. Studies on these processes are essential in understanding growth inhibition in plants with ammonium ( ) syndrome. Read More

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February 2020

Matrix Redox Physiology Governs the Regulation of Plant Mitochondrial Metabolism through Posttranslational Protein Modifications.

Plant Cell 2020 03 6;32(3):573-594. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Münster, DE-48143 Münster, Germany.

Mitochondria function as hubs of plant metabolism. Oxidative phosphorylation produces ATP, but it is also a central high-capacity electron sink required by many metabolic pathways that must be flexibly coordinated and integrated. Here, we review the crucial roles of redox-associated posttranslational protein modifications (PTMs) in mitochondrial metabolic regulation. Read More

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Bioenergetic consequences from xenotopic expression of a tunicate AOX in mouse mitochondria: Switch from RET and ROS to FET.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2020 02 9;1861(2):148137. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Biochemistry & Biomedicine, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer BN19QG, Brighton, UK.

Electron transfer from all respiratory chain dehydrogenases of the electron transport chain (ETC) converges at the level of the quinone (Q) pool. The Q redox state is thus a function of electron input (reduction) and output (oxidation) and closely reflects the mitochondrial respiratory state. Disruption of electron flux at the level of the cytochrome bc complex (cIII) or cytochrome c oxidase (cIV) shifts the Q redox poise to a more reduced state which is generally sensed as respiratory stress. Read More

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February 2020

The transfer of specific mitochondrial lipids and proteins to lipid droplets contributes to proteostasis upon stress and aging in the eukaryotic model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Geroscience 2020 02 1;42(1):19-38. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Biosciences, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Originally Lipid droplets (LDs) were considered as being droplets for lipid storage only. Increasing evidence, however, demonstrates that LDs fulfill a pleiotropy of additional functions. Among them is the modulation of protein as well as lipid homeostasis. Read More

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February 2020

The Evolutionary Origin of C Photosynthesis in the Grass Subtribe Neurachninae.

Plant Physiol 2020 01 14;182(1):566-583. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 3B2

The Australian grass subtribe Neurachninae contains closely related species that use C, C, and C photosynthesis. To gain insight into the evolution of C photosynthesis in grasses, we examined leaf gas exchange, anatomy and ultrastructure, and tissue localization of Gly decarboxylase subunit P (GLDP) in nine Neurachninae species. We identified previously unrecognized variation in leaf structure and physiology within that represents varying degrees of C-C intermediacy in the Neurachninae. Read More

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January 2020

NAL8 encodes a prohibitin that contributes to leaf and spikelet development by regulating mitochondria and chloroplasts stability in rice.

BMC Plant Biol 2019 Sep 11;19(1):395. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, CAS Centre for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics & Development, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Leaf morphology and spikelet number are two important traits associated with grain yield. To understand how genes coordinating with sink and sources of cereal crops is important for grain yield improvement guidance. Although many researches focus on leaf morphology or grain number in rice, the regulating molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Read More

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September 2019

Proline oxidation fuels mitochondrial respiration during dark-induced leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

J Exp Bot 2019 11;70(21):6203-6214

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, IRD 242, INRA, PARIS 7, UPEC, Institut d'Ecologie et des Sciences de l'Environnement de Paris, iEES, Paris, France.

Leaf senescence is a form of developmentally programmed cell death that allows the remobilization of nutrients and cellular materials from leaves to sink tissues and organs. Among the catabolic reactions that occur upon senescence, little is known about the role of proline catabolism. In this study, the involvement in dark-induced senescence of proline dehydrogenases (ProDHs), which catalyse the first and rate-limiting step of proline oxidation in mitochondria, was investigated using prodh single- and double-mutants with the help of biochemical, proteomic, and metabolomic approaches. Read More

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November 2019

Hyperoxia but not AOX expression mitigates pathological cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

Sci Rep 2019 09 4;9(1):12741. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Constitutive expression of the chemokine Mcp1 in mouse cardiomyocytes creates a model of inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with death from heart failure at age 7-8 months. A critical pathogenic role has previously been proposed for induced oxidative stress, involving NADPH oxidase activation. To test this idea, we exposed the mice to elevated oxygen levels. Read More

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September 2019

Elevated UCP1 levels are sufficient to improve glucose uptake in human white adipocytes.

Redox Biol 2019 09 27;26:101286. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been considered beneficial for metabolic health by participating in the regulation of glucose homoeostasis. The browning factors that improve glucose uptake beyond normal levels are still unknown but glucose uptake is not affected in UCP1 knockout mice. Here, we demonstrate in human white adipocytes that basal/resting glucose uptake is improved by solely elevating UCP1 protein levels. Read More

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September 2019

Redox regulation of development and regeneration.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2019 08 11;57:9-15. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Oxygen is essential to contemporary life, providing the major electron sink underlying cellular energy metabolism. In addition to providing energy, largely involving redox reactions within mitochondria, oxidative metabolism produces reactive byproducts that are damaging to cellular components. Eukaryotic organisms have evolved multiple physiological mechanisms and signaling pathways to deal with fluctuating levels of oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and many of these are used in animals to regulate developmental processes. Read More

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An Overview of Sucrose Synthases in Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2019 8;10:95. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel.

Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a glycosyl transferase enzyme that plays a key role in sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues. SuSy catalyzes the reversible cleavage of sucrose into fructose and either uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-G) or adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADP-G). Read More

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February 2019

Porin Associates with Tom22 to Regulate the Mitochondrial Protein Gate Assembly.

Mol Cell 2019 03 6;73(5):1044-1055.e8. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo-motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan; Institute for Protein Dynamics, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo-motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan. Electronic address:

Mitochondria import nearly all of their resident proteins from the cytosol, and the TOM complex functions as their entry gate. The TOM complex undergoes a dynamic conversion between the majority population of a three-channel gateway ("trimer") and the minor population that lacks Tom22 and has only two Tom40 channels ("dimer"). Here, we found that the porin Por1 acts as a sink to bind newly imported Tom22. Read More

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The temporal sequence of improved mitochondrial function on the dynamics of respiration, mobility, and cognition in aged Drosophila.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 10 14;70:140-147. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

University College London, Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK. Electronic address:

Aging is associated with mitochondrial decline and reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production leading to cellular dysfunction, but this is improved by long-wavelength light absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase, increasing cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP production and improving metabolism, sensory motor function, and cognition. Yet, the sequence of these events is unknown. We give old flies a single 90-minute 670-nm pulse and measure temporal sequences of changes in respiration, ATP, motor, and cognitive ability. Read More

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October 2018

Peroxisomes: role in cellular ageing and age related disorders.

Biogerontology 2018 10 2;19(5):303-324. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, 781039, Assam, India.

Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles essential for optimum functioning of a eukaryotic cell. Biogenesis of these organelles and the diverse functions performed by them have been extensively studied in the past decade. Their ability to perform functions depending on the cell type and growth conditions is unique and remarkable. Read More

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October 2018

In Vivo Detection of Human Brown Adipose Tissue During Cold and Exercise by PET/CT.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2019 ;251:283-298

Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in non-shivering thermogenesis is well established in animals. BAT is activated following cold exposure, resulting in non-shivering thermogenesis, to ensure a constant body temperature. In mitochondria of brown adipocytes, glucose and fatty acids are used as substrate for uncoupling resulting in heat production. Read More

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A highly specific and ultrasensitive near-infrared fluorescent probe for imaging basal hypochlorite in the mitochondria of living cells.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Jun 9;107:218-223. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Shandong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center for Ecological Carbon Sink and Capture Utilization, Jinan 250022, PR China.

The development of highly specific and ultrasensitive fluorescent probes for tracking basal mitochondrial hypochlorite is very important to unravel its diverse cellular functions in the mitochondria of living cells. In this paper, we have developed a water-soluble, mitochondria-targeted near-infrared fluorescent probe NB-OCl for selectively measuring OCl in the presence of higher concentration (500 μM) other biologically important substances. Surprisingly, the obtained results demonstrated that probe NB-OCl could sensitively determine OCl in the range of 0-200 pM with the detection limit of 10. Read More

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Improved chloroplast energy balance during water deficit enhances plant growth: more crop per drop.

J Exp Bot 2018 02;69(5):1183-1197

Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The non-energy-conserving alternative oxidase (AOX) respiration of plant mitochondria is known to interact with chloroplast photosynthesis. This may have consequences for growth, particularly under sub-optimal conditions when energy imbalances can impede photosynthesis. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the metabolism and growth of wild-type Nicotiana tabacum with that of AOX knockdown and overexpression lines during a prolonged steady-state mild to moderate water deficit. Read More

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February 2018

Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 1 Overexpression Increases Yield in under Drought Stress by Improving Source and Sink Metabolism.

Front Plant Sci 2017 1;8:1836. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.

Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) sustain mitochondrial respiration independent of intracellular ATP concentration. Uncoupled respiration is particularly beneficial under stress conditions, during which both photosynthesis and respiration may be impaired. Sustaining carbon fixation during the reproductive phase is essential for plants to develop viable pollen grains and for seed setting. Read More

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November 2017

Mitochondria Alkylation and Cellular Trafficking Mapped with a Lipophilic BODIPY-Acrolein Fluorogenic Probe.

J Am Chem Soc 2017 11 13;139(45):16273-16281. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Chemistry and Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures (CSACS-CRMAA), McGill University , 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8, Canada.

Protein and DNA alkylation by endogenously produced electrophiles is associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, to epigenetic alterations and to cell signaling and redox regulation. With the goal of visualizing, in real-time, the spatiotemporal response of the cell milieu to electrophiles, we have designed a fluorogenic BODIPY-acrolein probe, AcroB, that undergoes a >350-fold fluorescence intensity enhancement concomitant with protein adduct formation. AcroB enables a direct quantification of single post-translational modifications occurring on cellular proteins via recording fluorescence bursts in live-cell imaging studies. Read More

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November 2017

Design, optimization and characterization of coenzyme Q10- and D-panthenyl triacetate-loaded liposomes.

Int J Nanomedicine 2017 7;12:4869-4878. Epub 2017 Jul 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble molecule found naturally in many eukaryotic cells and is essential for electron transport chain and energy generation in mitochondria. D-Panthenyl triacetate (PTA) is an oil-soluble derivative of D-panthenol, which is essential for coenzyme A synthesis in the epithelium. Liposomal formulations that encapsulate both ingredients were prepared and optimized by applying response surface methodology for increased stability and skin penetration. Read More

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February 2018

Compartment-Specific Importance of Ascorbate During Environmental Stress in Plants.

Bernd Zechmann

Antioxid Redox Signal 2018 11 10;29(15):1488-1501. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Center for Microscopy and Imaging, Baylor University , Waco, Texas.

Significance: Ascorbate is an essential antioxidant in plants. Total contents and its redox state in organelles are crucial to fight and signal oxidative stress. Recent Advances: With quantitative immunoelectron microscopy and biochemical methods, highest ascorbate contents have recently been measured in peroxisomes (23 mM) and the cytosol (22 mM), lowest ones in vacuoles (2 mM), and intermediate concentrations (4-16 mM) in all other organelles. Read More

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November 2018

Impaired Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Disrupts the Stromal Redox Poise in .

Plant Physiol 2017 Jul 12;174(3):1399-1419. Epub 2017 May 12.

Bielefeld University, Faculty of Biology, Center for Biotechnology, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany

In photosynthetic eukaryotes, the metabolite exchange between chloroplast and mitochondria ensures efficient photosynthesis under saturating light conditions. The mutant is devoid of the mitochondrial transcription termination factor MOC1 and aberrantly expresses the mitochondrial genome, resulting in enhanced photosynthetic hydrogen production and diminished light tolerance. We analyzed the modulation of mitochondrial and chlororespiration during the acclimation of and the -complemented strain to excess light. Read More

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