34,479 results match your criteria mitochondrial translocation

Spatiotemporal AMPKα2 deletion in mice induces cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis and cardiolipin remodeling associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in males only.

Biol Sex Differ 2021 Sep 17;12(1):52. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Faculté de Pharmacie, UMR-S1180, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, 5 rue J-B Clément, 92296, Châtenay-Malabry, France.

Background: The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major regulator of cellular energetics which plays key role in acute metabolic response and in long-term adaptation to stress. Recent works have also suggested non-metabolic effects.

Methods: To decipher AMPK roles in the heart, we generated a cardio-specific inducible model of gene deletion of the main cardiac catalytic subunit of AMPK (Ampkα2) in mice. Read More

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September 2021

iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of rice formyl tetrahydrofolate deformylase in salt response.

Planta 2021 Sep 17;254(4):76. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 311121, China.

Main Conclusion: A new molecular mechanism of tetrahydrofolate deformylase involved in the salt response presumably affects mitochondrial and chloroplast function by regulating energy metabolism and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. High salinity severely restrains plant growth and development, consequently leading to a reduction in grain yield. It is therefore critical to identify the components involved in plant salt resistance. Read More

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September 2021

Mitochondrial ROS Induced Lysosomal Dysfunction and Autophagy Impairment in an Animal Model of Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Sep;62(12):15

Vision Science Program, School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

Purpose: The Slc4a11 knock out (KO) mouse model recapitulates the human disease phenotype associated with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED). Increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the Slc4a11 KO mouse model is a major cause of edema and endothelial cell loss. Here, we asked if autophagy was activated by ROS in the KO mice. Read More

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September 2021

Differential Abundance of Brain Mitochondrial Proteins in Yak and Cattle: A Proteomics-Based Study.

Front Vet Sci 2021 31;8:663031. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Animal Science Department, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

The plateau adaptability and stress resistance of yaks are widely known based on their capacity to survive under severe habitat conditions. However, a few studies on brain mitochondria have characterized these adaptations at the protein level. We identified and quantified the brain mitochondrial proteins using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and Proteomics. Read More

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Unraveling the Genetic Basis of Fertility Restoration for Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line Originated From in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 31;12:721980. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Crosses that lead to heterosis have been widely used in the rapeseed ( L.) industry. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/restorer-of-fertility () systems represent one of the most useful tools for rapeseed production. Read More

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Tacrine induces endoplasmic reticulum-stressed apoptosis via disrupting the proper assembly of oligomeric acetylcholinesterase in cultured neuronal cells.

Mol Pharmacol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), the most developed treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD), will be used in clinic for, at least, the next decades. Their side effects are in highly variable from drug to drug whose mechanism remain to be fully established. The withdrawal of tacrine (Cognex®) in the market makes it as an interesting case study. Read More

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September 2021

The Protective Effects of AT2R Agonist, CGP42112A, Against Angiotensin II-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Astrocytes: Role of AT2R/PP2A/NFκB/ROS Signaling.

Neurotox Res 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Division of Pharmacology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, 226031, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT2R) agonists have been known to promote neuroprotection by limiting ischemic insult, neuronal proliferation, and differentiation. Further, AT2R agonists have also been associated with the suppression of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Of note, brain astrocytes play a critical role in these neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. Read More

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September 2021

Genetic Association in the Maintenance of the Mitochondrial Microenvironment and Sperm Capacity.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 4;2021:5561395. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

School of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Sperm motility is one of the major determinants of male fertility. Since sperm need a great deal of energy to support their fast movement by active metabolism, they are thus extremely vulnerable to oxidative damage by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other free radicals generated as byproducts in the electron transport chain. The present study is aimed at understanding the impact of a mitochondrial oxidizing/reducing microenvironment in the etiopathology of male infertility. Read More

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September 2021

Depletion of a Toxoplasma porin leads to defects in mitochondrial morphology and contacts with the ER.

J Cell Sci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Parasitology, University of Glasgow, UK.

The Voltage Dependent Anion channel (VDAC) is a ubiquitous channel in the outer membrane of the mitochondrion with multiple roles in protein, metabolite and small molecule transport. In mammalian cells, VDAC, as part of a larger complex including the inositol triphosphate receptor, has been shown to have a role in mediating contacts between the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We identify VDAC of the pathogenic apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii and demonstrate its importance for parasite growth. Read More

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September 2021

Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Synaptic Damage in Huntington's Disease: a Focus on Defective Mitophagy and Mitochondria-Targeted Therapeutics.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal and pure genetic disease with a progressive loss of medium spiny neurons (MSN). HD is caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the exon 1 of HD gene. Clinically, HD is characterized by chorea, seizures, involuntary movements, dystonia, cognitive decline, intellectual impairment, and emotional disturbances. Read More

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September 2021

Protective effect of MitoQ on oxidative stress-mediated senescence of canine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, 211 Huimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

The destruction of biological activity such as senescence and apoptosis caused by oxidative stress could play a pivotal role in the poor therapeutic efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation. Mitoquinone (MitoQ) has a highly effective mitochondrial antioxidant effect, and has been widely used in many oxidative damage models. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of MitoQ on the oxidative stress-mediated senescence of canine BMSCs and the underlying mechanism. Read More

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September 2021

Trypanosoma brucei Tim50 Possesses PAP Activity and Plays a Critical Role in Cell Cycle Regulation and Parasite Infectivity.

mBio 2021 Sep 14:e0159221. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Physiology, School of Medicine, Meharry Medical Collegegrid.259870.1, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Trypanosoma brucei, the infective agent for African trypanosomiasis, possesses a homologue of the translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane 50 (TbTim50). It has a pair of characteristic phosphatase signature motifs, DXDX(T/V). Here, we demonstrated that, besides its protein phosphatase activity, the recombinant TbTim50 binds and hydrolyzes phosphatidic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. Read More

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September 2021

Dietary Protein From Different Sources Exerted a Great Impact on Lipid Metabolism and Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation in Rat Liver.

Front Nutr 2021 26;8:719144. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control MOE, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Associations between meat diets and human health have been widely considered. In this study, we focused on long-term effects of different sources of meat protein on liver metabolic enzymes. For 90 days, rats were fed with semisynthetic diets that differed only with protein source. Read More

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Controlled lipid β-oxidation and carnitine biosynthesis by a vitamin D metabolite.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan; Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (WPI-iCeMS), Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Lactone-vitamin D3 is a major metabolite of vitamin D3, a lipophilic vitamin biosynthesized in numerous life forms by sunlight exposure. Although lactone-vitamin D3 was discovered 40 years ago, its biological role remains largely unknown. Chemical biological analysis of its photoaffinity probe identified the hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase trifunctional multienzyme complex subunit alpha (HADHA), a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, as its selective binding protein. Read More

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September 2021

Chirality and asymmetry increase the potency of candidate ADRM1/RPN13 inhibitors.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0256937. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Bortezomib and the other licensed 20S proteasome inhibitors show robust activity against liquid tumors like multiple myeloma, but have disappointed against solid tumors including ovarian cancer. Consequently, interest is mounting in alternative non-peptide based drugs targeting the proteasome's 19S regulatory particle subunit, including its ubiquitin receptor RPN13. RA183 and RA375 are more potent analogs of the prototypic inhibitor of RPN13 (iRPN13) called RA190, and they show promise for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Read More

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September 2021

Pyruvate-Driven Oxidative Phosphorylation is Downregulated in Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Study Of Mitochondrial Proteome.

Shock 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Translational Research Program, Department of Anesthesiology & Center for Shock, Trauma and Anesthesiology Research, Baltimore, MD, USA The Department of Physiology and Center for Biomedical Engineering and Technology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) is a major contributing factor for morbidity and mortality in sepsis. Accumulative evidence has suggested that cardiac mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is attenuated in sepsis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood.

Methods: Adult male mice of 9-12 weeks old were subjected to sham or cecal ligation and puncture procedure. Read More

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September 2021

Activation of the M3AChR and Notch1/HSF1 Signaling Pathway by Choline Alleviates Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 30;2021:9979706. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, 710004 Shaanxi Province, China.

Angiotensin II- (Ang II-) induced cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis are major characteristics of early-stage heart failure. Choline exerts cardioprotective effects; however, its effects on Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis are unclear. In this study, the role and underlying mechanism of choline in regulating Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis were investigated using a model of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which was induced by exposing neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to Ang II (10 M, 48 h). Read More

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ORP1L mediated PI(4)P signaling at ER-lysosome-mitochondrion three-way contact contributes to mitochondrial division.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 9;12(1):5354. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Cell Biology Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Mitochondrial division is not an autonomous event but involves multiple organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lysosomes. Whereas the ER drives the constriction of mitochondrial membranes, the role of lysosomes in mitochondrial division is not known. Here, using super-resolution live-cell imaging, we investigate the recruitment of lysosomes to the site of mitochondrial division. Read More

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September 2021

RNA Granules in the Mitochondria and Their Organization under Mitochondrial Stresses.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 1;22(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

The human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) regulates its transcription products in specialised and distinct ways as compared to nuclear transcription. Thanks to its mtDNA mitochondria possess their own set of tRNAs, rRNAs and mRNAs that encode a subset of the protein subunits of the electron transport chain complexes. The RNA regulation within mitochondria is organised within specialised, membraneless, compartments of RNA-protein complexes, called the Mitochondrial RNA Granules (MRGs). Read More

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September 2021

AMPK Phosphorylation Is Controlled by Glucose Transport Rate in a PKA-Independent Manner.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 31;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy.

To achieve growth, microbial organisms must cope with stresses and adapt to the environment, exploiting the available nutrients with the highest efficiency. In , Ras/PKA and Snf1/AMPK pathways regulate cellular metabolism according to the supply of glucose, alternatively supporting fermentation or mitochondrial respiration. Many reports have highlighted crosstalk between these two pathways, even without providing a comprehensive mechanism of regulation. Read More

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Phosphorylation of SARS-CoV-2 Orf9b Regulates Its Targeting to Two Binding Sites in TOM70 and Recruitment of Hsp90.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 26;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Institute for Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany.

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is the causative agent of the COVID19 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes for a small accessory protein termed Orf9b, which targets the mitochondrial outer membrane protein TOM70 in infected cells. TOM70 is involved in a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to the induction of type I interferons (IFN-I). Read More

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Trehalose, a natural disaccharide, reduces stroke occurrence in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Sep 6:105875. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy; Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy. Electronic address:

Cerebrovascular disease, a frequent complication of hypertension, is a major public health issue for which novel therapeutic and preventive approaches are needed. Autophagy activation is emerging as a potential therapeutic and preventive strategy toward stroke. Among usual activators of autophagy, the natural disaccharide trehalose (TRE) has been reported to be beneficial in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Read More

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September 2021

The Mitochondrial Ca Uniporter is a Central Regulator of Interorganellar Ca Transfer and NFAT Activation.

J Biol Chem 2021 Sep 6:101174. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology; Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 1526, USA. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial Ca uptake tailors the strength of stimulation of plasma membrane phospholipase C-coupled receptors to that of cellular bioenergetics. However, how Ca uptake by the mitochondrial Ca uniporter (MCU) shapes receptor-evoked inter-organellar Ca signaling is unknown. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene knockout, sub-cellular Ca imaging and mathematical modeling to show that MCU is a universal regulator of intracellular Ca signaling across mammalian cell types. Read More

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September 2021

Mitochondrial Targeting of the Ammonia-Sensitive Uncoupler SLC4A11 by the Chaperone-Mediated Carrier Pathway in Corneal Endothelium.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 09;62(12)

Vision Science Program, Indiana University, School of Optometry, Bloomington, Indiana, United States.

Purpose: SLC4A11, an electrogenic H+ transporter, is found in the plasma membrane and mitochondria of corneal endothelium. However, the underlying mechanism of SLC4A11 targeting to mitochondria is unknown.

Methods: The presence of mitochondrial targeting sequences was examined using in silico mitochondrial proteomic analyses. Read More

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September 2021

Paeonol alleviates lipopolysaccharide‑induced hepatocytes injury through alteration of mitochondrial function and NF‑κB translocation.

Mol Med Rep 2021 11 9;24(5). Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Clinical Medical College of Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Rehabilitation, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, P.R. China.

Sepsis is a severe disease, with high mortality. Permanent organ damage caused by sepsis reduces the quality of life of surviving patients. The liver is an easily damaged organ in sepsis and sepsis‑associated liver injury foretells a poor prognosis. Read More

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November 2021

The subfamily Myoxocephalinae of cottid fishes (Cottidae): Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships.

J Fish Biol 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Magadan, Russia.

A comprehensive study based on molecular marker and karyotype analyses has provided evidence for the monophyly of the subfamily Myoxocephalinae which includes the genera Myoxocephalus, Megalocottus, Microcottus, Porocottus, Enophrys, and Argyrocottus. In addition, the karyotype of the threadfoot sculpin Argyrocottus zanderi Herzenstein 1892 has been studied for the first time. Marker traits of karyotypes identified 13 species among six cottid genera. Read More

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September 2021

ACBD3 modulates KDEL receptor interaction with PKA for its trafficking via tubulovesicular carrier.

BMC Biol 2021 Sep 7;19(1):194. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Pudong, Shanghai, China.

Background: KDEL receptor helps establish cellular equilibrium in the early secretory pathway by recycling leaked ER-chaperones to the ER during secretion of newly synthesized proteins. Studies have also shown that KDEL receptor may function as a signaling protein that orchestrates membrane flux through the secretory pathway. We have recently shown that KDEL receptor is also a cell surface receptor, which undergoes highly complex itinerary between trans-Golgi network and the plasma membranes via clathrin-mediated transport carriers. Read More

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September 2021

Pb induced mitochondrial fission of fibroblast cells via ATM activation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 23;416:126177. Epub 2021 May 23.

Gansu Key Laboratory of Biomonitoring and Bioremediation for Environmental Pollution, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address:

Previous study showed that lead (Pb) could induce ATM-dependent mitophagy. However, whether Pb has any impact on mitochondrial fusion and fission, the upstream events of mitophagy, and how ATM connects to these processes remain unclear. In this study, we found that Pb can disrupt mitochondrial network morphology as indicated by increased percentage of shortened mitochondria and by decreased mitochondrial footprints. Read More

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Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived mitochondria (PN-101) attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory responses by inhibiting NFκB signaling pathway.

BMB Rep 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Paean Biotechnology Inc., Seoul 04552, Korea.

Inflammation is one of the body's natural responses to injury and illness as part of the healing process. However, persistent inflammation can lead to chronic inflammatory diseases and multi-organ failure. Altered mitochondrial function has been implicated in several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases by inducing an abnormal inflammatory response. Read More

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September 2021

Angelica Polysaccharide Antagonizes 5-FU-Induced Oxidative Stress Injury to Reduce Apoptosis in the Liver Through Nrf2 Pathway.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:720620. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Laboratory of Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Oxidative stress induced by chemotherapeutic agents causes hepatotoxicity. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has been found to have a variety of side effects, but its toxic effect on the liver and the mechanism are still unclear. Angelica polysaccharide (ASP), the main active ingredient of Dang Gui, has antioxidative stress effects. Read More

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