26,439 results match your criteria mitochondrial ros

Pristimerin synergistically sensitizes conditionally reprogrammed patient derived-primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells to sorafenib through endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS generation by modulating Akt/FoxO1/p27 signaling pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 Apr 4;86:153563. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 510080 Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Sorafenib (SORA), as a first-line therapeutic drug, has been used to treat HCC, but resistance poses a major limitation on the efficacy of SORA chemotherapy. Pristimerin (PRIS), a natural bioactive component isolated from various plant species in the Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae families, has been reported to exhibit outstanding antitumor effects in several types of cells in vitro. Read More

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Zinc attenuates ferroptosis and promotes functional recovery in contusion spinal cord injury by activating Nrf2/GPX4 defense pathway.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China.

Aim: Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves multiple pathological processes. Ferroptosis has been shown to play a critical role in the injury process. We wanted to explore whether zinc can inhibit ferroptosis, reduce inflammation, and then exert a neuroprotective effect. Read More

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Mitochondrial abnormalities: a hub in metabolic syndrome-related cardiac dysfunction caused by oxidative stress.

Heart Fail Rev 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Liaoning, China.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a group of cardiovascular risk elements comprising insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, increased glucose intolerance, and increased blood pressure. Individually, all the MetS components can lead to cardiac dysfunction, while their combination generates additional risks of morbidity and mortality. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress, a dominant event in cellular damage and impairment, plays an indispensable role in cardiac dysfunction in MetS. Read More

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Self-delivery nanomedicine to overcome drug resistance for synergistic chemotherapy.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3445-3452

Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology and the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences & the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 511436, P. R. China.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the prime reasons for the failure of cancer chemotherapy, which continues to be a great challenge to be solved. In this work, α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS) and doxorubicin (DOX)-based self-delivery nanomedicine (designated as α-TD) is prepared to combat drug resistance for cancer synergistic chemotherapy. Carrier-free α-TD possesses a fairly high drug loading rate and improves the cellular uptake via the endocytosis pathway. Read More

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Mitochondria-targeted high-load sound-sensitive micelles for sonodynamic therapy to treat triple-negative breast cancer and inhibit metastasis.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 25;124:112054. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Life Science, Institute of Engineering Medicine, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, of which 10-20% accounts for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC is more aggressive, lacks an effective treatment target, and has a higher metastasis rate compared to other types of breast cancers. These characteristics result in poor therapeutic and prognostic outcomes in patients with TNBC. Read More

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Biosynthetic gold nanoparticles of Hibiscus syriacus L. callus potentiates anti-inflammation efficacy via an autophagy-dependent mechanism.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 11;124:112035. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 17104, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Biological applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have potentially explored an efficient agent attributed to their biocompatibility and high efficiency in drug delivery. Our study applied an extract of Hibiscus syriacus L. callus (HCE) with a pioneer implementation on the induction of mass production. Read More

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The Multifaceted Roles of Zinc in Neuronal Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 29;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurobiology and Pittsburgh Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Zinc is a highly abundant cation in the brain, essential for cellular functions, including transcription, enzymatic activity, and cell signaling. However, zinc can also trigger injurious cascades in neurons, contributing to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria, critical for meeting the high energy demands of the central nervous system (CNS), are a principal target of the deleterious actions of zinc. Read More

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ROS-Mediated Anti-Tumor Effect of Coptidis Rhizoma against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hep3B Cells and Xenografts.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 30;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Anti-Aging Research Center, Dongeui University, Busan 47340, Korea.

Coptidis Rhizoma is the dried rhizome from the Franch. that has been shown to have a number of beneficial pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of Coptidis Rhizoma on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Read More

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Mitochondria: Insights into Crucial Features to Overcome Cancer Chemoresistance.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 30;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

Mitochondria are key regulators of cell survival and are involved in a plethora of mechanisms, such as metabolism, Ca signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitophagy and mitochondrial transfer, fusion, and fission (known as mitochondrial dynamics). The tuning of these processes in pathophysiological conditions is fundamental to the balance between cell death and survival. Indeed, ROS overproduction and mitochondrial Ca overload are linked to the induction of apoptosis, while the impairment of mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism can have a double-faceted role in the decision between cell survival and death. Read More

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Aconitine induces mitochondrial energy metabolism dysfunction through inhibition of AMPK signaling and interference with mitochondrial dynamics in SH-SY5Y cells.

Toxicol Lett 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Pharmacy and School of Public Health, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Aconitine, a highly toxic alkaloid derived from Aconitum L., affects the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. However, the underlying mechanism of aconitine-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. Read More

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How the brain fights fatty acids' toxicity.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 1:105050. Epub 2021 May 1.

Institut für Inflammation und Neurodegeneration (Neurobiochemie), Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Leipziger Straße 44, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Neurons spurn hydrogen-rich fatty acids for energizing oxidative ATP synthesis, contrary to other cells. This feature has been mainly attributed to a lower yield of ATP per reduced oxygen, as compared to glucose, and the use of fatty acids as hydrogen donor is accompanied by severe β-oxidation-associated ROS generation. Neurons are especially susceptible to detrimental activities of ROS due to their poor antioxidative equipment. Read More

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Receptor-mediated mitophagy regulates EPO production and protects against renal anemia.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Erythropoietin (EPO) drives erythropoiesis and is secreted mainly by the kidney upon hypoxic or anemic stress. The paucity of EPO production in renal EPO-producing cells (REPs) causes renal anemia, one of the most common complications of chronic nephropathies. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is commonly observed in several renal and hematopoietic disorders, the mechanism by which mitochondrial quality control impacts renal anemia remains elusive. Read More

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Reduction in hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced myocardial mitochondrial damage with exogenous methane.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Surgical Research, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Albeit previous experiments suggest potential anti-inflammatory effect of exogenous methane (CH ) in various organs, the mechanism of its bioactivity is not entirely understood. We aimed to investigate the potential mitochondrial effects and the underlying mechanisms of CH in rat cardiomyocytes and mitochondria under simulated ischaemia/reperfusion (sI/R) conditions. Three-day-old cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with 2. Read More

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MiR-939-5p suppresses PM-induced endothelial injury targeting HIF-1α in HAECs.

Nanotoxicology 2021 May 3:1-15. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, PR China.

Ambient air pollution is a leading cause of non-communicable disease in the world. PM has the potential to change the miRNAs profiles, which in turn causes cardiovascular effects. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Read More

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CaMK II -induced Drp1 phosphorylation contributes to blue light-induced AIF-mediated necroptosis in retinal R28 cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 30;559:113-120. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Eye Center of Xiangya Hospital and Hunan Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan Province, China. Electronic address:

Retinal damage caused by blue light has become an important public health concern. Mitochondria have been found to play a key role in light-induced retinal cell death. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanism involved in mitochondrion-related retinal cell damage caused by blue light, the major component of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Read More

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A new synthetic antitumor naphthoquinone induces ROS-mediated apoptosis with activation of the JNK and p38 signaling pathways.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Apr 30:109444. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Biological Activity, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Amazonas - UFAM, Manaus, Amazonas, 69077-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

Quinones are plant-derived secondary metabolites that present diverse pharmacological properties, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and anticancer activities. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of a new naphthoquinone 6b,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan-5,6(9aH)-dione) (CNFD) in different tumor cell lines. CNFD displayed cytotoxic activity against different tumor cell lines, especially in MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, which showed IC values of 3. Read More

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Metallothionein Attenuated Arsenic-Induced Cytotoxicity: The Underlying Mechanism Reflected by Metabolomics and Lipidomics.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Academy of Food Interdisciplinary Sciecne, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Qinggongyuan 1, Ganjingzi District, Dalian, 116034 Liaoning, China.

Arsenic ions (As) have been recognized as a hazard that threatens the health of humans. Metallothionein (MT) rich in cysteine may provide favorable binding sites for chelation of As. However, the influence of MT on As-induced toxicity and the underlying mechanism are poorly understood, especially at the metabolic level. Read More

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Mitochondria Targeted O Economizer to Alleviate Tumor Hypoxia for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 3:e2100198. Epub 2021 May 3.

The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology and the State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 511436, P. R. China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) often suffers from the exacerbated tumor hypoxia and the heterogeneous distribution of photosensitizers, leading to an inefficient ROS productivity and availability. In this work, a mitochondria targeted O economizer (designated as Mito-OxE) is developed to improve PDT efficiency by alleviating tumor hypoxia and enhancing the subcellular localization of photosensitizers. Specifically, the photosensitizer of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is modified with the hydrophilic polyethylene glycol and the lipophilic cation of triphenylphosphine (TPP) to fabricate the biocompatible mitochondria targeted photosensitizers (designated as Mito-PSs). Read More

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Thymoquinone reduces mitochondrial damage and death of cardiomyocytes induced by clozapine.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Traditional Medicine and Hydrotherapy Research Center, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

The generation of a reactive nitrenium ion by microsomal/mitochondrial cytochrome P450 (CYPs) from clozapine (CLZ) has been suggested as the main cause of cardiotoxicity by this drug. Previous studies indicated that thymoquinone (TQ) as an active constituent of Nigella sativa has pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and inhibitory effect on CYPs enzymes. Therefore, we hypothesized that TQ with these pharmacological effects can reduce CLZ-induced toxicity in isolated cardiomyocytes and mitochondria. Read More

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Knockdown of Gastrin Promotes Apoptosis of Gastric Cancer Cells by Decreasing ROS Generation.

Biomed Res Int 2021 14;2021:5590037. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Immunology Department, School of Medicine, Qinghai University, Qinghai 810000, China.

Overexpressed gastrin is reported to promote oncogenesis and development of gastric cancer by inhibiting apoptosis of cancer cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our study is aimed at revealing the mechanism underlying the effect of gastrin on apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Gastrin-interfering cell line was constructed by stably transfecting gastrin-specific pshRNA plasmid to gastric cancer cell line BGC-823. Read More

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Mitochondrial Chaperones and Proteases in Cardiomyocytes and Heart Failure.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 15;8:630332. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Oncogenomics, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China.

Heart failure is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In cardiomyocytes, mitochondria are not only essential organelles providing more than 90% of the ATP necessary for contraction, but they also play critical roles in regulating intracellular Ca signaling, lipid metabolism, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. Because mitochondrial DNA only encodes 13 proteins, most mitochondrial proteins are nuclear DNA-encoded, synthesized, and transported from the cytoplasm, refolded in the matrix to function alone or as a part of a complex, and degraded if damaged or incorrectly folded. Read More

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Acetate Induces Growth Arrest in Colon Cancer Cells Through Modulation of Mitochondrial Function.

Front Nutr 2021 15;8:588466. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Centre of Optimal Health, School of Life Sciences, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom.

Acetate is one of the main short chain fatty acids produced in the colon when fermentable carbohydrates are digested. It has been shown to affect normal metabolism, modulating mitochondrial function, and fatty acid oxidation. Currently, there is no clear consensus regarding the effects of acetate on tumorigenesis and cancer metabolism. Read More

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Genetic Manipulation of Sirtuin 3 Causes Alterations of Key Metabolic Regulators in Melanoma.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:676077. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States.

The mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT3 plays key roles in cellular metabolism and energy production, which makes it an obvious target for the management of cancer, including melanoma. Previously, we have demonstrated that SIRT3 was constitutively upregulated in human melanoma and its inhibition resulted in anti-proliferative effects in human melanoma cells and in human melanoma xenografts. In this study, we expanded our data employing knockdown and overexpression strategies in cell culture and mouse xenografts to further validate and establish the pro-proliferative function of SIRT3 in melanocytic cells, and its associated potential mechanisms, especially focusing on the metabolic regulation. Read More

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LCT-3d Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by Upregulating Death Receptor 5 in Gastric Cancer Cells.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:658608. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Drug Preparation, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Gastric cancer is a global health problem. In this study, we investigate the role of a novel Indole derivative, named LCT-3d, in inhibiting the growth of gastric cancer cells by MTT assay. The Western blotting results showed that LCT-3d modulated the mitochondrial-related proteins and Cleaved-Caspases 3/9, to induce cell apoptosis. Read More

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Differential ROS-Mediated Phosphorylation of Drp1 in Mitochondrial Fragmentation Induced by Distinct Cell Death Conditions in Cerebellar Granule Neurons.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 13;2021:8832863. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

División de Neurociencias, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal, 70-253 Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been associated with neuronal death. ROS are also involved in mitochondrial fission, which is mediated by Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). The regulation of mitochondrial fragmentation mediated by Drp1 and its relationship to mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) in neuronal death have not been completely clarified. Read More

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Qiangji Jianli Decoction Alleviates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction via Regulating Mitochondrial Dynamics and Biogenesis in L6 Myoblasts.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 13;2021:6660616. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Pi-Wei, Science and Technology Innovation Center, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, China.

Oxidative stress can cause the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has various adverse effects on muscular mitochondria. Qiangji Jianli decoction (QJJLD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that is widely applied to improve muscle weakness, and it has active constituents that prevent mitochondrial dysfunction. To investigate the protective mechanism of QJJLD against hydrogen peroxide- (HO-) mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in L6 myoblasts. Read More

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Potential Association of Reactive Oxygen Species With Male Sterility in Peach.

Front Plant Sci 2021 14;12:653256. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, The Innovative Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Male sterility is an important agronomic trait for hybrid vigor utilization and hybrid seed production, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be uncovered. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of male sterility in peach using a combined cytology, physiology, and molecular approach. Cytological features of male sterility include deformed microspores and tapetum cells along with absence of pollen grains. Read More

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Vitamin D Promotes Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Mitochondrial Health.

Front Physiol 2021 14;12:660498. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Athletic Training and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for the maintenance of skeletal muscle and bone health. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in muscle, as is CYP27B1, the enzyme that hydroxylates 25(OH)D to its active form, 1,25(OH)D. Furthermore, mounting evidence suggests that vitamin D may play an important role during muscle damage and regeneration. Read More

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Neutrophil Elastase Induces Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Facilitates the Occurrence of Osteoarthritis Caspase Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:666162. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Orthopedics, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common and prevalent chronic joint disorders in the elderly population across the globe, resulting in severe disability and impairment of quality of life. Existing treatment can only alleviate the symptoms and delay the progression of OA. Therefore, novel and effective therapeutics strategies for OA need to be developed. Read More

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IR-61 Improves Voiding Function Mitochondrial Protection in Diabetic Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:608637. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital (Gener Hospital) of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Diabetic bladder dysfunction (DBD) afflicts nearly half of diabetic patients, but effective treatment is lacking. In this study, IR-61, a novel heptamethine cyanine dye with potential antioxidant effects, was investigated to determine whether it can alleviate DBD. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with IR-61 or vehicle after diabetes was induced with streptozotocin. Read More

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