22,152 results match your criteria mitochondrial respiration

Cistrome analysis of YY1 uncovers a regulatory axis of YY1:BRD2/4-PFKP during tumorigenesis of advanced prostate cancer.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a terminal disease and the molecular underpinnings of CRPC development need to be better understood in order to improve its treatment. Here, we report that a transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is significantly overexpressed during prostate cancer progression. Functional and cistrome studies of YY1 uncover its roles in promoting prostate oncogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as sustaining tumor metabolism including the Warburg effect and mitochondria respiration. Read More

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FDA-approved 5-HT receptor agonist lasmiditan induces mitochondrial biogenesis and enhances locomotor and blood-spinal cord barrier recovery after spinal cord injury.

Exp Neurol 2021 Apr 10:113720. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States of America; Department of Neurosciences, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States of America; College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States of America; Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, United States of America; Southwest Environmental Health Science Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States of America; Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States of America. Electronic address:

Vascular and mitochondrial dysfunction are well-established consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidence suggests mitigating these dysfunctions may be an effective approach in treating SCI. The goal of this study was to elucidate if mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) induction with a new, selective and FDA-approved 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1F (5-HT) receptor agonist, lasmiditan, can stimulate locomotor recovery and restoration of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after SCI. Read More

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Progesterone Modulates Mitochondrial Functions in Human Glioblastoma Cells.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Brain Research Laboratory, Department of Emergency Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Whitehead Biomedical Research Building, Room 655A, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

A substantial literature supports the notion that cancer is a metabolic disease. Mitochondria are sexually dimorphic, and progesterone (P4) plays a key regulatory role in mitochondrial functions. We investigated the effect of P4 on mitochondrial functions in three human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines. Read More

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A necessary role of DNMT3A in endurance exercise by suppressing ALDH1L1-mediated oxidative stress.

EMBO J 2021 Apr 13:e106491. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Exercise can alter the skeletal muscle DNA methylome, yet little is known about the role of the DNA methylation machinery in exercise capacity. Here, we show that DNMT3A expression in oxidative red muscle increases greatly following a bout of endurance exercise. Muscle-specific Dnmt3a knockout mice have reduced tolerance to endurance exercise, accompanied by reduction in oxidative capacity and mitochondrial respiration. Read More

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Nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor, attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress by activating sirtuin 1 in alcohol-stimulated macrophages.

Lab Invest 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

Macrophages play an essential role in alcohol-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a natural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) precursor, on alcohol-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in macrophages. NR significantly decreased ethanol-induced inflammatory gene expression, with a concomitant decrease in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB p65 in RAW 264. Read More

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Blind spot in sepsis management - Tissue level changes in microcirculation.

Physiol Int 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

3Department of Emergency Medicine, Clinical Centre, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

In sepsis cytokine-mediated inflammation, clotting cascade activation and glycocalyx shedding impair both function and structure of the microcirculation, compromising adequate tissue oxygenation/perfusion. Such mismatch results in "dysoxia", an imbalance in mitochondrial respiration.Microvessel injuries can be grouped into four types: cytotoxic oedema, micro-vessel heterogeneity, sluggish/absent flow, and focal anaemia. Read More

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Absent Exercise-Induced Improvements in Fat Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome After High-Intensity Interval Training.

Front Physiol 2021 24;12:649794. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic inflexibility are linked to insulin resistance, and women with PCOS appear to be metabolic inflexible in the rested, insulin-stimulated state. Exercise training is a primary lifestyle intervention in PCOS. Exercise training improves whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in healthy women, yet little is known about the effect on this outcome in women with PCOS. Read More

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Microalgal photosynthesis induces alkalization of aquatic environment as a result of H uptake independently from CO concentration - New perspectives for environmental applications.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 8;289:112546. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biology, University of Crete, Voutes University Campus, GR-70013, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Electronic address:

The photosynthetic process in microalgae and the extracellular proton environment interact with each other. The photosynthetic process in microalgae induces a pH increase in the aquatic environment as a result of cellular protons uptake rather than as an effect of CO consumption. The photosynthetic water photolysis and the reduction/oxidation cycle of the plastoquinone pool provide lumen with protons. Read More

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Evaluating the mitochondrial activity and inflammatory state of dimethyl sulfoxide differentiated PLB-985 cells.

Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 7;135:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB, Canada; New Brunswick Center for Precision Medicine, Moncton, NB, Canada. Electronic address:

Neutrophils play a key role in the innate immunity with their ability to generate and release inflammatory mediators that promote the inflammatory response and consequently restore the hemostasis. As active participants in several steps of the normal inflammatory response, neutrophils are also involved in chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. Given their dual role in the modulation of inflammation, regulating the inflammatory response of neutrophils has been suggested as an important therapeutic approach by numerous researchers. Read More

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Ethylmalonic acid impairs bioenergetics by disturbing succinate and glutamate oxidation and induces mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in rat cerebellum.

J Neurochem 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2600-Anexo, CEP 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) are found in ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE), an inherited disorder associated with cerebral and cerebellar atrophy whose pathogenesis is poorly established. The in vitro and in vivo effects of EMA on bioenergetics and redox homeostasis were investigated in rat cerebellum. For the in vitro studies cerebellum preparations were exposed to EMA, whereas intracerebellar injection of EMA was used for the in vivo evaluation. Read More

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MICOS and the mitochondrial inner membrane morphology - when things get out of shape.

FEBS Lett 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Cellular Biochemistry, University Medical Center Göttingen, Humboldtallee 23, 37073, Göttingen, Germany.

Mitochondria play a key role in cellular signalling, metabolism and energetics. Proper architecture and remodelling of the inner mitochondrial membrane are essential for efficient respiration, apoptosis and quality control in the cell. Several protein complexes including mitochondrial contact site and cristae organising system (MICOS), F F -ATP synthase, and Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1), facilitate formation, maintenance and stability of cristae membranes. Read More

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Age-dependent impairment of disease tolerance is associated with a robust transcriptional response following RNA virus infection in Drosophila.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, 300, Hackberry lane, Tuscaloosa, AL-35487, USA.

Advanced age in humans is associated with greater susceptibility to and higher mortality rates from infections, including infections with some RNA viruses. The underlying innate immune mechanisms, which represent the first line of defense against pathogens, remain incompletely understood. Drosophila melanogaster is able to mount potent and evolutionarily conserved innate immune defenses against a variety of microorganisms including viruses and serves as an excellent model organism for studying host-pathogen interactions. Read More

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In-frame deletion in canine PITRM1 is associated with a severe early-onset epilepsy, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

Hum Genet 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

We investigated the clinical, genetic, and pathological characteristics of a previously unknown severe juvenile brain disorder in several litters of Parson Russel Terriers. The disease started with epileptic seizures at 6-12 weeks of age and progressed rapidly to status epilepticus and death or euthanasia. Histopathological changes at autopsy were restricted to the brain. Read More

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Exploiting pyocyanin to treat mitochondrial disease due to respiratory complex III dysfunction.

Nat Commun 2021 04 8;12(1):2103. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Mitochondrial diseases impair oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, while effective treatment is still lacking. Defective complex III is associated with a highly variable clinical spectrum. We show that pyocyanin, a bacterial redox cycler, can replace the redox functions of complex III, acting as an electron shunt. Read More

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Krüppel-like factor 1 is a core cardiomyogenic trigger in zebrafish.

Science 2021 04;372(6538):201-205

Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia.

Cardiac regeneration requires dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature cardiomyocytes, but the mechanisms underlying this plasticity remain unclear. Here, we identify a potent cardiomyogenic role for Krüppel-like factor 1 (Klf1/Eklf), which is induced in adult zebrafish myocardium upon injury. Myocardial inhibition of Klf1 function does not affect heart development, but it severely impairs regeneration. Read More

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Crucial role of fatty acid oxidation in asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle remodelling.

Eur Respir J 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre de Recherche Cardio-thoracique de Bordeaux, U1045, MRGM, Functional Genomics Center (CGFB), CIC 1401, CELLOMET, Univ-Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

Background: Bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) remodelling in asthma is related to an increased mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced BSM cell proliferation in asthma. Since (i) mitochondria produce the highest levels of cellular energy and (ii) fatty acid beta-oxidation is the most powerful way to produce ATP, we hypothesized that, in asthmatic BSM cells, energetic metabolism is shifted towards the beta-oxidation of fatty acids.

Objectives: We aimed to characterize BSM cell metabolism in asthma both and to identify a novel target for reducing BSM cell proliferation. Read More

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Environmentally Relevant Developmental Methylmercury Exposures Alter Neuronal Differentiation in a Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Model.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 5:112178. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Developmental methylmercury (MeHg) exposure selectively targets the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, as seen by disruption of cytoarchitecture and glutamatergic (GLUergic) neuron hypoplasia. To begin to understand the mechanisms of this loss of GLUergic neurons, we aimed to develop a model of developmental MeHg neurotoxicity in human-induced pluripotent stem cells differentiating into cortical GLUergic neurons. Three dosing paradigms at 0. Read More

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Avian red blood cell mitochondria produce more heat in winter than in autumn.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21490

Institute for Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, Graham Kerr Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Endotherms in cold regions improve heat-producing capacity when preparing for winter. We know comparatively little about how this change is fueled by seasonal adaptation in cellular respiration. Thus, we studied the changes of mitochondrial function in red blood cells in sympatric Coal (Periparus ater), Blue (Cyanistes caeruleus), and Great (Parus major) tits between autumn and winter. Read More

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Gut-Derived Metabolite Indole-3-Propionic Acid Modulates Mitochondrial Function in Cardiomyocytes and Alters Cardiac Function.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 22;8:648259. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Internal Medicine 1, University Hospital Aachen, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

The gut microbiome has been linked to the onset of cardiometabolic diseases, in part facilitated through gut microbiota-dependent metabolites such as trimethylamine--oxide. However, molecular pathways associated to heart failure mediated by microbial metabolites remain largely elusive. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in cellular energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated to heart failure pathogenesis. Read More

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Quality Matters? The Involvement of Mitochondrial Quality Control in Cardiovascular Disease.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 22;9:636295. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Center for Mitochondrial Research and Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death and global health problems worldwide. Multiple factors are known to affect the cardiovascular system from lifestyles, genes, underlying comorbidities, and age. Requiring high workload, metabolism of the heart is largely dependent on continuous power supply via mitochondria through effective oxidative respiration. Read More

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Kv1.3 voltage-gated potassium channels link cellular respiration to proliferation through a non-conducting mechanism.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 7;12(4):372. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Cellular energy metabolism is fundamental for all biological functions. Cellular proliferation requires extensive metabolic reprogramming and has a high energy demand. The Kv1. Read More

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Neural stem cells traffic functional mitochondria via extracellular vesicles.

PLoS Biol 2021 Apr 7;19(4):e3001166. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation induces recovery in animal models of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Although the replacement of lost endogenous cells was originally proposed as the primary healing mechanism of NSC grafts, it is now clear that transplanted NSCs operate via multiple mechanisms, including the horizontal exchange of therapeutic cargoes to host cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are membrane particles trafficking nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites and metabolic enzymes, lipids, and entire organelles. Read More

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