369,036 results match your criteria mitochondrial fusion

Improving pollutants environmental risk assessment using a multi model toxicity determination with in vitro, bacterial, animal and plant model systems: The case of the herbicide alachlor.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 27;286:117239. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal; CNC - Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, CIBB - Centre for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology, University of Coimbra, IIIUC - Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Several environmental pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides and persistent organic pollutants play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. However, most studies have examined environmental pollutants toxicity in target organisms or using a specific toxicological test, losing the real effect throughout the ecosystem. In this sense an integrative environmental risk of pollutants assessment, using different model organisms is necessary to predict the real impact in the ecosystem and implications for target and non-target organisms. Read More

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Evaluation of anticancer effects in vitro of new iridium(III) complexes targeting the mitochondria.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 May 11;221:111465. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Life Sciences and Biopharmaceutics, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Iridium(III) complexes have the potential to serve as novel therapeutic drugs for treating tumor. In this work, three new complexes [Ir(ppy)(cdppz)](PF) (1) (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, cdppz = 11-chlorodipyrido[3,2-a,2',3'-c]phenazine), [Ir(bzq)(cdppz)](PF) (2) (bzq = benzo[h]quinolone) and [Ir(piq)(cdppz)](PF) (3) (piq = 1-phenylisoquinoline) were prepared as well as characterized. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole)-2,5-diphenyltetraazolium bromide) assay revealed that the complex 2 exerted potent cytotoxicity against to various cancer cells lines and particularly for SGC-7901 cells. Read More

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Chitosan resistance by the deletion of the putative high affinity glucose transporter in the yeast Ustilago maydis.

Carbohydr Res 2021 May 5;505:108335. Epub 2021 May 5.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Departamento de Microbiología, Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala S/N, Col. Sto. Tomas, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, CP 11340, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:

Chitosan is a polycationic amino-sugar polymer soluble in acidic pH. As a potential antifungal, it has been tested against several fungi. Its main mode of action is the permeabilization of cell membrane by the interaction with specific membrane sites. Read More

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The novel mitochondria activator, 10-ethyl-3-methylpyrimido[4,5-b]quinoline-2,4(3H,10H)-dione (TND1128), promotes the development of hippocampal neuronal morphology.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 11;560:146-151. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neuropharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan; A.I.G. Collaborative Research Institute for Aging and Brain Sciences, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, 814-0180, Japan.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most vital energy source produced mainly in the mitochondria. Age-related mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with brain diseases. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an essential cofactor for energy production in mitochondria. Read More

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The localization of the photosensitizer determines the dynamics of the secondary production of hydrogen peroxide in cell cytoplasm and mitochondria.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 May 6;219:112208. Epub 2021 May 6.

Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russia. Electronic address:

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the production of the cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by light irradiation of a photosensitizer dye in the presence of molecular oxygen. Along with photochemical ROS production, it becomes evident that PDT induces massive secondary production of ROS which is registered long after the irradiation is completed. We created cell lines of human epidermoid carcinoma with the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial localization of protein sensor HyPer sensitive to hydrogen peroxide to compare its concentration in two cellular compartments. Read More

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The role of GSK3 in metabolic pathway perturbations in cancer.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 May 11:119059. Epub 2021 May 11.

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, 3755, Chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montréal, QC, Canada, H3T 1E2; Gerald Bronfman Department of Oncology, McGill University, 5100 Maisonneuve Blvd West, Montréal, QC, Canada, H4A 3T2; Department of Medicine, Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, 1001 Décarie Blvd, Montréal, QC, Canada, H4A 3J1; Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Montréal, QC, Canada, H3G 1Y6.

Malignant transformation and tumor progression are accompanied by significant perturbations in metabolic programs. As such, cancer cells support high ATP turnover to construct the building blocks needed to fuel neoplastic growth. The coordination of metabolic networks in malignant cells is dependent on the collaboration with cellular signaling pathways. Read More

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Increasing fatty acid oxidation elicits a sex-dependent response in failing mouse hearts.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Mitochondria and Metabolism Center, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington, Republican Street 850, 98109 Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Reduced fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a hallmark of metabolic remodeling in heart failure. Enhancing mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid uptake by Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) deletion increases FAO and prevents cardiac dysfunction during chronic stresses, but therapeutic efficacy of this approach has not been determined.

Methods: Male and female ACC2f/f-MCM (ACC2KO) and their respective littermate controls were subjected to chronic pressure overload by TAC surgery. Read More

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Progresses in both basic research and clinical trials of NAD+ in Parkinson's disease.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 May 11:111499. Epub 2021 May 11.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), 72076, Tübingen, Germany; Center of Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, 72076, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

The decline of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels is a hallmark of aging in multiple organisms and tissues, including the human brain. Hence, agents that increase intracellular NAD + could have beneficial effects in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Disturbances in NAD + metabolism have also been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), supporting a link between neuronal bioenergetics failure and disease pathogenesis. Read More

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Lysionotin Induces Apoptosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Caspase-3 Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 11:109500. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Translational Medicine Research, First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130061, China. Electronic address:

As the sixth most prevalent cancer, liver cancer has been reported as the second cause of cancer-induced deaths globally. Lysionotin, a flavonoid compound widely distributed in Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim, has attracted considerable attention due to its multiple biological activities. The present study analyzes the anti-liver cancer effects of lysionotin in cell and mouse models. Read More

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Mechanisms and disease consequences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Cell 2021 May;184(10):2537-2564

Departments of Internal Medicine and Cellular & Molecular Physiology, Yale Diabetes Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading chronic liver disease worldwide. Its more advanced subtype, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), connotes progressive liver injury that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we provide an in-depth discussion of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to progressive liver injury, including the metabolic origins of NAFLD, the effect of NAFLD on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, bile acid toxicity, macrophage dysfunction, and hepatic stellate cell activation, and consider the role of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that promote fibrosis progression and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in NASH. Read More

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STING regulates metabolic reprogramming in macrophages via HIF-1α during Brucella infection.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 14;17(5):e1009597. Epub 2021 May 14.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Macrophages metabolic reprogramming in response to microbial insults is a major determinant of pathogen growth or containment. Here, we reveal a distinct mechanism by which stimulator of interferon genes (STING), a cytosolic sensor that regulates innate immune responses, contributes to an inflammatory M1-like macrophage profile upon Brucella abortus infection. This metabolic reprogramming is induced by STING-dependent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), a global regulator of cellular metabolism and innate immune cell functions. Read More

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Structural features and phylogenetic implications of Cicadellidae subfamily and two new mitogenomes leafhoppers.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251207. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Karst Science, Guizhou Normal University/State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Guizhou Karst Mountain Ecology Environment of China, Guiyang, China.

Complete mitochondrial genome sequences facilitate species identification and analyses of phylogenetic relationships. However, the available data are limited to the diverse and widespread insect family Cicadellidae. This study analyzes and summarizes the complete mitochondrial genome structure characteristics of 11 leafhopper subfamilies and two newly sequenced Typhlocybinae species, Empoascanara wengangensis and E. Read More

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Unusual Case of a Caruncular Oncocytoma.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA; Dermatology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA; Department of Basic Science Education, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA; and Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vistar Eye Center, Roanoke, VA.

Abstract: Oncocytomas are benign neoplasms that are most often found in the salivary glands and kidneys. Ocular oncocytoma typically present as an asymptomatic dark blue papule on the lacrimal caruncle. Histologically, the tumor is composed of oncocytes, cells notable for eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules representing large quantities of dysfunctional mitochondria. Read More

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Fifteen days of moderate normobaric hypoxia does not affect mitochondrial function, and related genes and proteins, in healthy men.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Purpose: To investigate within the one study potential molecular and cellular changes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis following 15 days of exposure to moderate hypoxia.

Methods: Eight males underwent a muscle biopsy before and after 15 days of hypoxia exposure (FiO = 0.140-0. Read More

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Knockdown of insulin-like growth factor 2 gene disrupts mitochondrial functions in the liver.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Endocrinology, the Affiliated Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Even though insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been reported to be overexpressed in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its role in the progression of NAFLD and the potential mechanism remain largely unclear. Using in vitro models, we found that IGF2 was the key overexpressed gene in steatosis, suggesting a possible association between IGF2 and NAFLD. Interestingly, loss-of-function experiments revealed that inhibition of IGF2 protein impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Read More

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Cryopreservation of Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758) Somatic Cells is Improved by Sucrose and High Concentrations of Fetal Bovine Serum.

Cryo Letters 2020 Sep-Oct;41(5):272-280

Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Federal Rural University of Semi-Arid (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN, Brazil.

Background: The formation of somatic cell banks is affected by, amongst other factors, the cryoprotectant solution used. The selection of an effective solution, therefore, is a primary parameter.

Objective: We optimized the cryoprotectant used for collared peccary somatic cell cryopreservation. Read More

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Incubation with Cholesterol-loaded Cyclodextrin and Subsequent Dilution in Partially Deoxygenated Extender Improves the Freezability of Cross-bred Bull Sperm.

Cryo Letters 2020 Sep-Oct;41(5):257-266

Division of Animal Reproduction, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: The cryopreservation process induces osmotic stress, membrane changes and production of reactive oxygen species resulting in damage to the spermatozoa. Together, the presence of oxygen in the extender aggravates the oxidative stress that further reduces the cryosurvival rate of sperm cells.

Objective: To study the combined effect of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) and partial deoxygenation on post-thaw semen quality in crossbred bulls. Read More

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Effect of Glutathione Supplementation to Semen Extender on Post-thawed Rooster Sperm Quality Indices Frozen After Different Equilibration Times.

Cryo Letters 2020 Mar-Apr;41(2):92-99

Department of Animal Science, Faculty College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.

Background: Avian sperm is susceptible to lipid peroxidation, compromising their fertility. The semen antioxidant system protects sperm plasma membrane against reactive oxygen species.

Objective: The study evaluates the effect of glutathione (GSH) addition to semen extender during different equilibration times (ET) on rooster sperm cryopreservation. Read More

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Liquid Storage of Geophagus brasiliensis semen in the Presence of Different Extenders.

Cryo Letters 2020 Jul-Aug;41(4):202-208

Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil.

Background: In order to preserve the genetic diversity of cichlid fish in gene banks, it is necessary to use certain extenders to maintain the integrity of spermatozoa cells during cooling.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of different extenders on the quality parameters of cooled semen of Geophagus brasiliensis.

Materials And Methods: Semen samples were collected from seven adult fish and diluted with five extenders: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS™), Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), Tris-glucose, Ginsburg's Fish Ringers, and Phosphate buffered Saline. Read More

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Alpha-tocopheryl Succinate in Extender Improves the Post Thaw Quality of Water Buffalo Spermatozoa.

Cryo Letters 2020 May-Jun;41(3):145-153

Animal Reproduction Laboratory, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Alpha-tocopheryl succinate, a major chain-splitting antioxidant, is the most effective form of vitamin E and may be used in the semen extender for cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa.

Objective: To use different concentrations of alpha-tocopheryl succinate (T1, 0.3 mM, T2, 0. Read More

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LBP Protects Hepatocyte Mitochondrial Function via the PPAR-CYP4a2 Signaling Pathway in a Rat Sepsis Model.

Shock 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pathophysiology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230000, China The First Clinical Medical College, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230000, China Department of Clinical Laboratory, Binhu Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230000, China Experimental Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Objectives: To explore the role of LBP in metabolism and optimize sepsis treatment.

Design: A sepsis model was established by injecting LPS into LBP-/- rats and WT rats and observing changes in the liver over time (0 h, 1 h, 6 h, and 24 h).

Setting: Detecting liver inflammation and injury. Read More

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A subcellular map of the human kinome.

Elife 2021 May 14;10. Epub 2021 May 14.

Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The human kinome comprises 538 kinases playing essential functions by catalyzing protein phosphorylation. Annotation of subcellular distribution of the kinome greatly facilitates investigation of normal and disease mechanisms. Here, we present Kinome Atlas (KA), an image-based map of the kinome annotated to 10 cellular compartments. Read More

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Staying fit and the obese aging heart condition.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

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Nanoplastic-Induced Genotoxicity and Intestinal Damage in Freshwater Benthic Clams (): Comparison with Microplastics.

ACS Nano 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P.R. China.

With the wide application of plastics in daily life, nanoplastics (NPs) are ubiquitous in freshwater environments. However, to date, few studies have focused on the mechanism underlying the toxicity of NPs, and the differences between this mechanism and that governing the toxicity of MPs have also not been thoroughly characterized. In this study, the genotoxicity, intestinal damage, and intestinal flora in exposed to micro/nanoplastics were investigated through RNA sequencing, histopathology, and 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively. Read More

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Detecting the epitranscriptome.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2021 May 13:e1663. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, Albany, New York, USA.

RNA modifications and their corresponding epitranscriptomic writer and eraser enzymes regulate gene expression. Altered RNA modification levels, dysregulated writers, and sequence changes that disrupt epitranscriptomic marks have been linked to mitochondrial and neurological diseases, cancer, and multifactorial disorders. The detection of epitranscriptomics marks is challenging, but different next generation sequencing (NGS)-based and mass spectrometry-based approaches have been used to identify and quantitate the levels of individual and groups of RNA modifications. Read More

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Application of the modified handmade cloning technique to pigs.

J Anim Sci Technol 2021 Mar 31;63(2):281-294. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Animal and Dairy Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Although somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is frequently employed to produce cloned animals in laboratories, this technique is expensive and inefficient. Therefore, the handmade cloning (HMC) technique has been suggested to simplify and advance the cloning process, however, HMC wastes many oocytes and leads to mitochondrial heteroplasmy. To solve these problems, we propose a modified handmade cloning (mHMC) technique that uses simple laboratory equipment, i. Read More

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The role of bile acids in cholestatic liver injury.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):737

Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Clinical disorders that impair bile flow result in retention of bile acids and cholestatic liver injury, characterized by parenchymal cell death, bile duct proliferation, liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the pathogenic role of bile acids in the development of cholestatic liver injury remains incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of this process focusing on the experimental and clinical evidence for direct effects of bile acids on each major cellular component of the liver: hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, stellate cells and immune cells. Read More

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PGE1 triggers Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway to resist hemin-induced toxicity in mouse cortical neurons.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):634

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Background: Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) exerts various pharmacological effects such as membrane stabilization, anti-inflammatory functions, vasodilation, and platelet aggregation inhibition. We have previously demonstrated that PGE1 has a beneficial impact on patients suffering from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The related mechanism underlying PGE1's beneficial effect on ICH treatment needs further exploration. Read More

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Properties and gene expression profiling of acquired radioresistance in mouse breast cancer cells.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):628

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Technology/Institute of Health and Medical Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China.

Background: Acquired radioresistant cells exhibit many characteristic changes which may influence cancer progression and further treatment options. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of radioresistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer cells on both phenotypic and molecular levels.

Methods: We established an acquired radioresistant cell line from its parental NF639 cell line (HER2-positive) by fractionated radiation and assessed changes in cellular morphology, proliferation, migration, anti-apoptosis activity, basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and energy metabolism. Read More

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Mitochondrial dysfunction attenuates rapid regeneration in livers with toxin-induced fibrosis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):527

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The mechanism of associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS)-induced rapid liver regeneration remains poorly documented, especially in patients with fibrosis. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the underlying mechanism of ALPPS-induced accelerated regeneration in toxin-induced fibrosis models.

Methods: The ALPPS-induced regeneration model was established in livers with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis to determine the regenerative pathways involved in rapid regeneration. Read More

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