89,618 results match your criteria mitochondrial dna


Melatonin rescues cerebral ischemic events through upregulated tunneling nanotube-mediated mitochondrial transfer and downregulated mitochondrial oxidative stress in rat brain.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 14;139:111593. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan; Stem Cell Research Center, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Life Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Cerebral ischemic events, comprising of excitotoxicity, reactive oxygen production, and inflammation, adversely impact the metabolic-redox circuit in highly active neuronal metabolic profile which maintains energy-dependent brain activities. Therefore, we investigated neuro-regenerative potential of melatonin (Mel), a natural biomaterial secreted by pineal gland.

Methods: We specifically determined whether Mel could influence tunneling nanotubes (TNTs)-mediated transfer of functional mitochondria (Mito) which in turn may alter membrane potential, oxidative stress and apoptotic factors. Read More

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Assessment spermatogenic cell apoptosis and the transcript levels of metallothionein and p53 in Meretrix meretrix induced by cadmium.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 14;217:112230. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, 325035 Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) has been widely used in industry and can accumulate in the water, soil, and food. Meretrix meretrix is one of the marine shellfishes cultivated for economic purpose in China. The increasing Cd levels in coastal marine water could adversely affect the economic benefits of shellfish cultivation. Read More

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Subtle genomic DNA damage induces intraneuronal production of amyloid-β (1-42) by increasing β-secretase activity.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21569

Cell Biology and Physiology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India.

Aberrant accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in brain is the major trigger for pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is imperative to understand how Aβ attains such toxic levels in the brain parenchyma. We detected that a subtle and tolerable amount of DNA damage, related to aging, increased intraneuronal Aβ production both in cultured neuron and in cortex of rodent brain. Read More

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Low glucose and high pyruvate reduce the production of 2-oxoaldehydes, improving mitochondrial efficiency, redox regulation and stallion sperm function.

Biol Reprod 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Equine Reproduction and Equine Spermatology, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain.

Energy metabolism in spermatozoa is complex and involves the metabolism of carbohydrate fatty acids and amino acids. The ATP produced in the electron transport chain (ETC) in the mitochondria appears to be crucial for both sperm motility and maintaining viability, while glycolytic enzymes in the flagella may contribute to ATP production to sustain motility and velocity. Stallion spermatozoa seemingly use diverse metabolic strategies, and in this regard, a study of the metabolic proteome showed that gene ontology (GO) terms and Reactome pathways related to pyruvate metabolism and the Krebs cycle were predominant. Read More

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A novel nonsense variant in MT-CO3 causes MELAS syndrome.

Neuromuscul Disord 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Research Institute of Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases and Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, No. 107 West Wenhua Road Jinan, Jinan, Shandong 250012 China; Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong 266035 China; Mitochondrial Medicine Laboratory, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong 266035 China; Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250000, China. Electronic address:

Both mitochondrial and nuclear gene mutations can cause cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex Ⅳ) dysfunction, leading to mitochondrial diseases. Although numerous diseases caused by defects of the COX subunits or COX assembly factors have been documented, clinical cases directly related to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 gene (MT-CO3) mutations are relatively rare. Here, we report a 47-year-old female patient presented with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome. Read More

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Environmental pollutants exposure and male reproductive toxicity: the role of epigenetic modifications.

Toxicology 2021 Apr 13:152780. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021, China. Electronic address:

Male fertility rates have shown a progressive decrease in recent decades. There is a growing concern about the male reproductive dysfunction caused by environmental pollutants exposure, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not well understood. Epigenetic modifications play a key role in the biological responses to external stressors. Read More

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Molecular characterization of viruses found in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies infested with Varroa destructor and Nosema cerana in Egypt.

Mol Cell Probes 2021 Apr 13:101731. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; Egypt Center for Research and Regenerative Medicine (ECRRM), Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have a vital role as pollinators of various crops in the global food supply. Honeybee colonies in Egypt have recently experienced an unexplained rise in annual loss due to a phenomenon known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). In the current study, honey bees were collected from 14 sites from eight governorates in Egypt. Read More

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Mitochondrial DNA mutations contribute to high altitude pulmonary edema via increased oxidative stress and metabolic reprogramming during hypobaric hypoxia.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2021 Apr 13:148431. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Defence R&D Organization (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India.

High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is experienced by non-acclimatized sea level individuals on exposure to high altitude hypoxic conditions. Available evidence suggests that genetic factors and perturbed mitochondrial redox status may play an important role in HAPE pathophysiology. However, the precise mechanism has not been fully understood. Read More

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Casein kinase TbCK1.2 regulates division of kinetoplast DNA, and movement of basal bodies in the African trypanosome.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0249908. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States of America.

The single mitochondrial nucleoid (kinetoplast) of Trypanosoma brucei is found proximal to a basal body (mature (mBB)/probasal body (pBB) pair). Kinetoplast inheritance requires synthesis of, and scission of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) generating two kinetoplasts that segregate with basal bodies into daughter cells. Molecular details of kinetoplast scission and the extent to which basal body separation influences the process are unavailable. Read More

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Interrelationships of Anenterotrema (Digenea: Dicrocoeliidae) from Neotropical bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) with description of a new species from Molossus molossus in Brazil.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biology, University of North Dakota, 10, Cornell Street, Grand Forks, ND, 58202, USA.

Anenterotrema is a small genus of dicrocoeliids (Digenea: Dicrocoeliidae) containing 6 species found in Neotropical bats. Members of this genus are characterized by the lack of digestive system organs and, unlike the majority of dicrocoeliids, parasitize the intestine of their definitive hosts. In this study, we have morphologically examined newly collected specimens belonging to four species of Anenterotrema from Brazil, Ecuador, and Panama. Read More

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Solvent-dependent Stabilization of a Charge Transfer State is the Key to Ultrafast Triplet State Formation in an Epigenetic DNA Nucleoside.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

East China Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, 3663 N. Zhongshan Rd., 200062, Shanghai, CHINA.

2'-Deoxy-5-formylcytidine (5fdCyd), a naturally occurring nucleoside found in mammalian DNA and mitochondrial RNA, exhibits important epigenetic functionality in biological processes. Because it efficiently generates triplet excited states, it is an endogenous photosensitizer capable of damaging DNA, but the intersystem crossing (ISC) mechanism responsible for ultrafast triplet state generation is poorly understood. In this study, time-resolved mid-IR spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations reveal the distinct ultrafast ISC mechanisms of 5fdCyd in water vs. Read More

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Were eukaryotes made by sex?: Sex might have been vital for merging endosymbiont and host genomes giving rise to eukaryotes.

Authors:
Michael Brandeis

Bioessays 2021 Apr 16:e2000256. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The Department of Genetics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

I hypothesize that the appearance of sex facilitated the merging of the endosymbiont and host genomes during early eukaryote evolution. Eukaryotes were formed by symbiosis between a bacterium that entered an archaeon, eventually giving rise to mitochondria. This entry was followed by the gradual transfer of most bacterial endosymbiont genes into the archaeal host genome. Read More

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Non-coding Regions of Mitochondrial DNA and the cox1 Gene Reveal Genetic Variability Among Local Belarusian Populations of the Causative Agent of Cercarial Dermatitis, Bird Schistosome Trichobilharzia szidati (Digenea: Schistosomatidae).

Acta Parasitol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Genome Organization, Institute of Gene Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Introduction: The cercariae of avian blood flukes Trichobilharzia szidati (Digenea, Schistosomatidae) are known to cause cercarial allergic dermatitis ("swimmer's itch") in humans. Global epidemics can have significant impacts on local tourism-related economies in recreational areas. Little is known about the genetic polymorphism of the parasite population, or about the variability of the non-coding regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the possibility of using this as a genetic marker. Read More

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Morphological and molecular characterisation of (Nematoda: Longidoridae), first report from Greece.

J Nematol 2021 20;53. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Ecological Modelling, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Sampling for needle nematodes was carried out in a grapevine area in Thessaloniki, North Greece and two nematode species of ( and ) were collected. Nematodes were extracted from 500 cm of soil by modified sieving and decanting method, processed to glycerol and mounted on permanent slides, and subsequently identified morphologically and molecularly. Nematode DNA was extracted from single individuals and PCR assays were conducted to amplify D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA, ITS1 rRNA, and partial mitochondrial coxI regions. Read More

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n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) associated with finger millet in Kenya.

J Nematol 2021 22;53. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Nematology Research Unit, Department of Biology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

n. sp. was found associated with finger millet in Kenya and is described based on light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and molecular information. Read More

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February 2021

Genetic variation within a species of parasitic nematode, , in skunks.

J Nematol 2021 17;53. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Biology, Angelo State University, 2601 W. Ave N, San Angelo, Texas, 76909.

Carnivores in the families Mustelidae and Mephitidae are essential hosts for the cranial roundworm genus . A high prevalence of has been observed in the striped skunk, . Genetic barcoding studies of other nematodes have successfully used the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene to analyze genetic variation and divergence. Read More

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February 2021

Impact of somatic mutations on phosphoethanolamine synthesis, ROS production and DNA damage.

Mol Cell Oncol 2021 19;8(2):1877598. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano - Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Recently we showed that Ethanolamine Kinase 1 ( mutations cause a decreased synthesis of phosphoethanolamine, and that phosphoethanolamine is able to modulate mitochondrial activity through competition with succinate for complex II. The decreased phosphoethanolamine concentration leads to increased mitochondria activity and reactive oxygen species production, which causes the accumulation of new mutations. Read More

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February 2021

Bioallethrin enhances generation of ROS, damages DNA, impairs the redox system and causes mitochondrial dysfunction in human lymphocytes.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8300. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, 202002, India.

Bioallethrin is a synthetic pesticide that is widely used to control insect pests. The wide use of bioallethrin has resulted in inevitable human exposure. In this study we report the effect of different concentrations of bioallethrin (10 to 200 µM, 2 h at 37 °C) on human lymphocytes under in vitro conditions. Read More

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Unearthing Neanderthal population history using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from cave sediments.

Science 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Bones and teeth are important sources of Pleistocene hominin DNA, but are rarely recovered at archaeological sites. Mitochondrial DNA has been retrieved from cave sediments, but provides limited value for studying population relationships. We therefore developed methods for the enrichment and analysis of nuclear DNA from sediments, and applied them to cave deposits in western Europe and southern Siberia dated to between approximately 200,000 and 50,000 years ago. Read More

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Arsenic trioxide synergistically promotes the antileukaemic activity of venetoclax by downregulating Mcl-1 in acute myeloid leukaemia cells.

Exp Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 15;10(1):28. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Background: The evasion of apoptosis through dysregulated Bcl-2 family members is a hallmark of leukaemia stem cells (LSCs) in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Therefore, targeting Bcl-2 with venetoclax has been suggested as an attractive strategy for inducing apoptosis in AML LSCs. However, the selective inhibition of Bcl-2 in AML often leads to upregulation of Mcl-1, another dominant anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein conferring venetoclax resistance. Read More

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Autochthonous, zoonotic Onchocerca lupi in a South Texas dog, United States.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 15;14(1):203. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College Station, TX, USA.

Background: Onchocerca lupi is an emerging, zoonotic filarioid nematode associated with ocular disease in companion animals in North America and the Old World. The areas where this parasite is assumed to be endemic in the USA comprise southwestern states. Thus far, all cases reported outside of the southwest are associated with travel or animal movement. Read More

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Mild Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in a Western European family due to the rare Asian m.14502T>C variant in the gene.

Ophthalmic Genet 2021 Apr 16:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial neurodegenerative disease. The majority (>90%) is related to three primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants: m.3460G>A, m. Read More

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Rediscovery and first genetic description of some poorly known tick species: Haemaphysalis kopetdaghica Kerbabaev, 1962 and Dermacentor raskemensis Pomerantzev, 1946.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Apr 9;12(4):101726. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey.

This study aimed to provide novel information for some poorly known/rare tick species collected from wild goats (Capra aegagrus) in the mountains of Eastern Anatolia, Turkey and to expand upon the available genetic data. The collected ticks were morphologically identified as Haemaphysalis kopetdaghica (all active stages, n = 140), Dermacentor raskemensis (adults, n = 7), Ixodes gibbosus (adults, n = 15), Rhipicephalus kohlsi (female, n = 1), and R. bursa (nymphs, n = 2). Read More

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Study of ER Stress and Apoptotic Proteins in the Heart and Tumor Exposed to Doxorubicin.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Apr 12:119039. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Electronic address:

Although a high cumulative dose of Doxorubicin (Dox) is known to cause cardiotoxicity, there is still a lack of understanding of the subcellular basis of this drug-induced cardiomyopathy. Differential effects of Dox on mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were examined in cardiomyocytes, tumor cells, implanted tumors and hearts of normal as well as tumor-bearing animals. Dox increased mitochondrial (Mito) Bax activation at 3h in the cardiomyocyte without change in the DNA damage inducible transcriptor-3 (DDIT3) expression in the ER. Read More

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Evolution of eukaryotes as a story of survival and growth of mitochondrial DNA over two billion years.

Authors:
Abhijit Deonath

Biosystems 2021 Apr 12:104426. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, Australian Government, Canberra, Australia. Electronic address:

Mitochondria's significance in human diseases and in functioning, health and death of eukaryotic cell has been acknowledged widely. Yet our perspective in cell biology and evolution remains nucleocentric. Mitochondrial DNA, by virtue of its omnipresence and species-level conservation, is used as a barcode in animal taxonomy. Read More

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New insights on human Hsp70-escort protein 1: Chaperone activity, interaction with liposomes, cellular localizations and HSPA's self-assemblies remodeling.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

The 70 kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) are prone to self-assembly under thermal stress conditions, forming supramolecular assemblies (SMA), what may have detrimental consequences for cellular viability. In mitochondria, the cochaperone Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1) maintains mitochondrial Hsp70 (mtHsp70) in a soluble and functional state, contributing to preserving proteostasis. Here we investigated the interaction between human Hep1 (hHep1) and HSPA9 (human mtHsp70) or HSPA1A (Hsp70-1A) in monomeric and thermic SMA states to unveil further information about the involved mechanisms. Read More

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Mitochondria-DNA copy-number and incident venous thromboembolism among middle-aged women: a population-based cohort study.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University/Region Skåne, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, University Hospital, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-205 02, Malmö, Sweden.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common cardiovascular disease. Low amount of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) has been associated with arterial cardiovascular disease (CVD) and reflects mitochondrial dysfunctions. However, whether mtDNA-CN is associated with VTE has not been determined. Read More

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Ancient and modern mitogenomes from Central Argentina: new insights into population continuity, temporal depth and migration in South America.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades, Departamento de Antropología, Córdoba, Argentina.

The inverted triangle shape of South America places Argentina territory as a geographical crossroads between the two principal peopling streams that followed either the Pacific or the Atlantic coasts, which could have then merged in Central Argentina. Although the genetic diversity from this region is therefore crucial to decipher past population movements in South America, its characterization has been overlooked so far. We report 92 modern and 22 ancient mitogenomes spanning a temporal range of 5000 years, which were compared to a large set of previously reported data. Read More

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Mixed-Ligand Cobalt(III) Complexes of a Naturally Occurring Coumarin and Phenanthroline Bases as Mitochondria-Targeted Dual-Purpose Photochemotherapeutics.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Chemistry, Handique Girls' College, Guwahati 781001, Assam, India.

The bioessential nature of cobalt and the rich photochemistry of its coordination complexes can be exploited to develop potential next-generation photochemotherapeutics. A series of six novel mixed-ligand cobalt(III) complexes of the formulation [Co(B)(L)]ClO (-), where B is an N,N-donor phenanthroline base, namely, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen in and ), dipyrido[3,2-:2',3'-]quinoxaline (dpq in and ), and dipyrido[3,2-:2',3'-]phenazine (dppz in and ), and L is an O,O-donor dianionic ligand derived from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene, cat, in -) or esculetin (6,7-dihydoxycoumarin, esc, in -), have been prepared and characterized, and their light-triggered cytotoxicity has been studied in cancer cells. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction structures of complexes (as PF salt, ) and show distorted octahedral geometries around the cobalt(III) center formed by the set of NO donor atoms. Read More

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Metabolic impact of pathogenic variants in the mitochondrial glutamyl-tRNA synthetase EARS2.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Children's Medical Center Research Institute, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (encoded by EARS2) is a mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase required to translate the 13 subunits of the electron transport chain encoded by the mitochondrial DNA. Pathogenic EARS2 variants cause combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, subtype 12 (COXPD12), an autosomal recessive disorder involving lactic acidosis, intellectual disability and other features of mitochondrial compromise. Patients with EARS2 deficiency present with variable phenotypes ranging from neonatal lethality to a mitigated disease with clinical improvement in early childhood. Read More

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