9,244 results match your criteria mitochondrial fragmentation

Cryopiece, a novel carrier with faster cooling rate, high recovery rate and retrieval rate, for individual sperm cryopreservation.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Mar;10(3):1121-1132

Department of Andrology, Urological Medical Center, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cryopreservation of extremely few spermatozoa is still a major challenge for male fertility preservation. This study aims to evaluate the cooling rate, recovery rate, and retrieval rate, along with other parameters of spermatozoa that cryopreserved using Cryopiece, a novel carrier, for individual sperm cryopreservation.

Methods: Semen samples from 60 fertile donors were collected, and each semen sample was screened for motile sperm and mixed with cryoprotective agent (CPA), and then frozen using Cryopiece, micro-straw, and mini-straws. Read More

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The apoptosis mechanisms of HepG2 cells induced by bitter melon seed.

J Food Biochem 2021 Apr 12:e13683. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of College of Tea and Food Science and Technology, Jiangsu Vocational College of Agriculture and Forestry, Zhenjiang, China.

Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the world. Bitter melon seed (BMS) is well known for anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. MicroRNA-421 (miR-421) is considered as a regulator of cancer initiation, tumor metastasis, and progression, interfering with transcription of the mRNAs responsible for the cancer pathogenesis. Read More

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Calcineurin-mediated intracellular organelle calcium homeostasis is required for the survival of fungal pathogens upon extracellular calcium stimuli.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):1091-1110

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, Jiangsu Engineering and Technology Research Centre for Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China.

In eukaryotes, calcium not only is an essential mineral nutrient but also serves as an intracellular second messenger that is necessary for many physiological processes. Previous studies showed that the protein phosphatase-calcineurin protects fungi from toxicity caused by the extracellular calcium; however, little is known about how calcineurin mediates the cellular physiology process for this function. In this study, by monitoring intracellular calcium, particularly by tracking vacuolar calcium dynamics in living cells through a novel procedure using modified aequorin, we found that calcineurin dysfunction systematically caused abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis in cytosol, mitochondria, and vacuole, leading to drastic autophagy, global organelle fragmentation accompanied with the increased expression of cell death-related enzymes, and cell death upon extracellular calcium stimuli. Read More

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December 2021

Tebuconazole induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HCT116 cells through ROS generation.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 11;174:104797. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

University of Monastir, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds, LR01SE17, Avicenne Street, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia; Higher Institute of Biotechnology, University of Monastir, Taher Haddad Street, 5000, Monastie, Tunisia. Electronic address:

Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been widely used for the control of plant pathogenic fungi, suggesting that mammal exposure occurs regularly. Several studies demonstrated that TEB exposure has been linked to a variety of toxic effects, including neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, reprotoxicity and carcinogenicity. However, there is a few available data regarding the molecular mechanism involved in TEB-induced toxicity. Read More

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A novel role of claudin-5 in prevention of mitochondrial fission against ischemic/hypoxic stress in cardiomyocytes.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Downregulation of claudin-5 in the heart is associated with the end-stage heart failure. However, the underlying mechanism of claudin-5 is unclear. Here we investigated the molecular actions of claudin-5 in perspective of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes to better understand the role of claudin-5 in cardioprotection during ischemia. Read More

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Epigenetics, fragmentomics, and topology of cell-free DNA in liquid biopsies.

Science 2021 04;372(6538)

Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Liquid biopsies that analyze cell-free DNA in blood plasma are used for noninvasive prenatal testing, oncology, and monitoring of organ transplant recipients. DNA molecules are released into the plasma from various bodily tissues. Physical and molecular features of cell-free DNA fragments and their distribution over the genome bear information about their tissues of origin. Read More

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Pterocephin A, a novel Triterpenoid Saponin from Pterocephalus hookeri induced liver injury by activation of necroptosis.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 19;85:153548. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Pterocephalus hookeri (C. B. Clarke) Höeck, a Tibetan medicine widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, was recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020 version) with slight toxicity. Read More

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Mitochondria-dependent phase separation of disease-relevant proteins drives pathological features of age-related macular degeneration.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) damages the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the tissue that safeguards photoreceptor health, leading to irreversible vision loss. Polymorphisms in cholesterol and complement genes are implicated in AMD, yet mechanisms linking risk variants to RPE injury remain unclear. We sought to determine how allelic variants in the apolipoprotein E cholesterol transporter modulate RPE homeostasis and function. Read More

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Squamosamide Derivative FLZ Diminishes Aberrant Mitochondrial Fission by Inhibiting Dynamin-Related Protein 1.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:588003. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substrate and Function of Natural Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial morphology is dynamic and precisely regulated by mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery. Aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation, which can result in cell death, is controlled by the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Read More

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Immunostaining of telomerase in embryonic and juvenile feather follicle of the chick labels proliferating cells for feather formation.

Lorenzo Alibardi

Zoology (Jena) 2020 Sep 19;146:125846. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Comparative Histolab Padova and Department of Biology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Feathers regenerate through proliferation of cells derived from follicle stem cells. Immunoloblotting for telomerase in chick embryonic and juvenile feathers shows immunopositive bands around 100 kDa, 75 and 60 kDa only in embryonic feathers, indicating fragmentation of the protein due to physiological processing or artifacts derived from protein extraction. Immunolabeling for telomerase is present in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the collar epithelium and bulge located in the follicle, and in sparse cells of the dermal papilla. Read More

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September 2020

Osteolineage depletion of mitofusin2 enhances cortical bone formation in female mice.

Bone 2021 Jul 1;148:115941. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Musculoskeletal Research Center, Division of Bone and Mineral Disease, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Shriners Hospitals for Children, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Mitochondria are essential organelles that form highly complex, interconnected dynamic networks inside cells. The GTPase mitofusin 2 (MFN2) is a highly conserved outer mitochondrial membrane protein involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology, which can affect various metabolic and signaling functions. The role of mitochondria in bone formation remains unclear. Read More

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Cytotoxic Mechanism of Sphaerodactylomelol, an Uncommon Bromoditerpene Isolated from .

Molecules 2021 Mar 4;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

MARE-Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ESTM, Politécnico de Leiria, 2520-614 Peniche, Portugal.

Marine natural products have exhibited uncommon chemical structures with relevant antitumor properties highlighting their potential to inspire the development of new anticancer agents. The goal of this work was to study the antitumor activities of the brominated diterpene sphaerodactylomelol, a rare example of the dactylomelane family. Cytotoxicity (10-100 µM; 24 h) was evaluated on tumor cells (A549, CACO-2, HCT-15, MCF-7, NCI-H226, PC-3, SH-SY5Y, SK-ML-28) and the effects estimated by MTT assay. Read More

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Nicotinamide Treatment Facilitates Mitochondrial Fission through Drp1 Activation Mediated by SIRT1-Induced Changes in Cellular Levels of cAMP and Ca.

Cells 2021 Mar 10;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Life Science, University of Seoul, Jeonnong-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02504, Korea.

Mitochondrial autophagy (or mitophagy) is essential for mitochondrial quality control, which is critical for cellular and organismal health by attenuating reactive oxygen species generation and maintaining bioenergy homeostasis. Previously, we showed that mitophagy is activated in human cells through SIRT1 activation upon treatment of nicotinamide (NAM). Further, mitochondria are maintained as short fragments in the treated cells. Read More

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Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Leukemia U937 Cells by C18 Hydroxy Unsaturated Fatty Acid Isolated from Red Alga .

Mar Drugs 2021 Mar 2;19(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan.

Our previous studies have found that (±)-()-12-hydroxyoctadec-10-enoic acid (HOEA) isolated from the red alga showed cytotoxic effects on various living organisms including harmful microalgae, Gram-positive bacteria, and mammalian tumor cells. Since natural products with apoptosis-inducing ability can be promising anti-cancer agents, in this study, we investigated the cytotoxic mechanism of HOEA on U937 cells focusing on apoptosis induction. HOEA showed much stronger cytotoxic and cytolytic effects on U937 cells than elaidic acid, which has similar structure but no 12-hydroxy group, suggesting that hydroxy group is important for the cytotoxicity of HOEA. Read More

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Estimating hybridization as a consequence of climatic fluctuations: A case study of two geometridae species.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Mar 30;161:107168. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

In some cases, the phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the nuclear DNA (ncDNA) are discordant. There are three major causes of the discordance within insects, including hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and infection by Wolbachia. In this study, we used a combination of multilocus and coalescent analyses to explore these processes occurred during the evolutionary history of Limbatochlamys rosthorni Rothschild, 1894 and Limbatochlamys pararosthorni Han and Xue, 2005. Read More

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Long-term stiripentol administration, an anticonvulsant drug, does not impair sperm parameters in rats.

Andrologia 2021 Apr 1:e14058. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Reproduction and Clinic of Farm Animals, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.

In this study, we investigated the influence of long-term administration of stiripentol on sex hormones and semen quality in young Wistar rats. Investigated animals received for 6 months either stiripentol or saline solution. After one month, stiripentol increased temporarily serum level of testosterone (p < 0. Read More

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Effects of Pulsed-Wave Photobiomodulation Therapy on Human Spermatozoa.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Gynecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, University Clinic of Bonn, Bonn, 53127, Germany.

Background And Objectives: Previous studies reported that photobiomodulation (PBM) positively affects the mitochondrial respiratory chain in sperm, resulting in improved motility and velocity. As laser settings are not yet fully established, the present study aimed at optimizing PBM on human sperm. In addition, possible side-effects of PBM on sperm DNA fragmentation level and acrosomal integrity have been analyzed. Read More

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Perilipin2 down-regulation in β cells impairs insulin secretion under nutritional stress and damages mitochondria.

JCI Insight 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States of America.

Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is the lipid droplet (LD) protein in β cells that increases under nutritional stress. Down-regulation of PLIN2 is often sufficient to reduce LD accumulation. To determine whether PLIN2 positively or negatively affects β cell function under nutritional stress, PLIN2 was down-regulated in mouse β cells, INS1 cells, and human islet cells. Read More

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Multilocus Genotyping of Sympatric Hepatozoon Species Infecting the Blood of Ontario Ranid Frogs Reinforces Species Differentiation and Identifies an Unnamed Hepatozoon Species.

J Parasitol 2021 Mar;107(2):246-261

Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.

Intraerythrocytic gamonts of at least 2 named Hepatozoon species have been reported to infect the erythrocytes of ranid frogs in Ontario, Canada. Although gamonts of both species are morphometrically similar, the cytopathological changes that 1 of these species, Hepatozoon clamatae, causes to host erythrocytes, manifested by nuclear fragmentation, was used historically to distinguish this parasite from Hepatozoon catesbianae. Molecular characterization of these 2 Hepatozoon species has been equivocal in correlating genotype with gamont morphotype. Read More

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NOX4 promotes ferroptosis of astrocytes by oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation via the impairment of mitochondrial metabolism in Alzheimer's diseases.

Redox Biol 2021 May 19;41:101947. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Integrated Biomedical Science, Soonchunhyang Institute of Medi-bio Science (SIMS), Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, 31151, Chungcheongnam-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurotoxicity during AD. Impaired mitochondrial metabolism has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in brain damage of AD. Read More

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Achyranthes aspera L. leaf extract induced anticancer effects on Dalton's Lymphoma via regulation of PKCα signaling pathway and mitochondrial apoptosis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 23;274:114060. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Tumor Immunology Lab, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Epidemiological studies promote the inclusion of natural-products in diet due to their inhibitory effects on various types of cancer. Among them, Achyranthes aspera L. (Family Amaranthaceae) is a medicinal plant in Ayurvedic pharmacopeia, found in India, Southeast Asia, America, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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Deoxyribonuclease activity negative correlates with extracellular DNA in uncomplicated singleton pregnancies in the third trimester.

J Perinat Med 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute of Molecular Biomedicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Objectives: It is not clear, which factors affect extracellular DNA (ecDNA) concentrations in healthy women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies, although deoxyribonucleases (DNases) are hypothesized to be responsible for the cleavage of plasma ecDNA. The aim of this study was to analyze potential determinants of total ecDNA including plasma DNase activity.

Methods: Plasma samples were collected from 48 healthy women with singleton uncomplicated pregnancies in the third trimester (gestation week 37). Read More

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Analysis of the Functional Aspects of Sperm and Testicular Oxidative Stress in Individuals Undergoing Metabolic Surgery.

Obes Surg 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Human Reproduction Section, Sao Paulo Federal University, R Napoleão de Barros, 715, 2° floor, Vila Clementino, São Paulo, SP, 04024-002, Brazil.

Purpose: Metabolic surgery is a recommended treatment for obese patients that results in BMI reduction; however, the observed impact of this therapy on male fertility is inconsistent. This research aimed to study the effects of BMI changes after metabolic surgery on seminal analysis, sex hormonal profile, sperm functional integrity, and the seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels.

Materials And Methods: A prospective study was performed in 15 patients for whom metabolic surgery was recommended. Read More

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Genetic consequences of long-term small effective population size in the critically endangered pygmy hog.

Evol Appl 2021 Mar 11;14(3):710-720. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Animal Breeding and Genomics Wageningen University & Research Wageningen the Netherlands.

Increasing human disturbance and climate change have a major impact on habitat integrity and size, with far-reaching consequences for wild fauna and flora. Specifically, population decline and habitat fragmentation result in small, isolated populations. To what extend different endangered species can cope with small population size is still largely unknown. Read More

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FGF1 prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and reducing oxidative stress via AMPK/Nur77 suppression.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Mar 24;6(1):133. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Structural Biology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

As a classically known mitogen, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has been found to exert other pleiotropic functions such as metabolic regulation and myocardial protection. Here, we show that serum levels of FGF1 were decreased and positively correlated with fraction shortening in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients, indicating that FGF1 is a potential therapeutic target for DCM. We found that treatment with a FGF1 variant (FGF1) with reduced proliferative potency prevented diabetes-induced cardiac injury and remodeling and restored cardiac function. Read More

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Chrysin inhibits propagation of HeLa cells by attenuating cell survival and inducing apoptotic pathways.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Mar;25(5):2206-2220

School of Life Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Dubai, UAE.

Objective: Chrysin, one of the main active constituents of flavonoids, is known for demonstrating protective effects against various types of cancer including cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine apoptosis induction and antiproliferative action of chrysin on human cervical cancer cells.

Materials And Methods: In this study, attempts have been made to establish anticancer role of chrysin on HeLa cells. Read More

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VPS35 D620N knockin mice recapitulate cardinal features of Parkinson's disease.

Aging Cell 2021 Mar 21:e13347. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

D620N mutation in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 ortholog (VPS35) gene causes late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and contributes to idiopathic PD. However, how D620N mutation leads to PD-related deficits in vivo remains unclear. In the present study, we thoroughly characterized the biochemical, pathological, and behavioral changes of a VPS35 D620N knockin (KI) mouse model with chronic aging. Read More

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Spermatic profile of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): Knowing more to preserve better.

Zoo Biol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is being threatened by natural habitat destruction and fragmentation, illegal hunting and road kills. In this context, the generation of basic information on the reproductive parameters of this species is vital, aiming to improve reproductive management via, amongst others, assisted reproductive technologies. This study aimed to describe the morphological and functional features of semen collected from captive giant anteaters. Read More

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Autophagy facilitates mitochondrial rebuilding after acute heat stress via a DRP-1-dependent process.

J Cell Biol 2021 Apr;220(4)

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Acute heat stress (aHS) can induce strong developmental defects in Caenorhabditis elegans larva but not lethality or sterility. This stress results in transitory fragmentation of mitochondria, formation of aggregates in the matrix, and decrease of mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, active autophagic flux associated with mitophagy events enables the rebuilding of the mitochondrial network and developmental recovery, showing that the autophagic response is protective. Read More

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Green tea extract increases the quality and reduced DNA mutation of post-thawed Kacang buck sperm.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 8;7(3):e06372. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Veterinary Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Ketawanggede, Lowokwaru, Malang, 65145, Indonesia.

The study aimed to determine the addition of green tea extract (GTE) in extender on the quality and DNA mutation of post-thawed Kacang buck sperm. The sperm DNA mutation was observed on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) of mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic Acid (mtDNA). A pool of 12 Kacang buck ejaculates was diluted in skim milk-egg yolk extender contained 0, 0. Read More

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