2,797 results match your criteria mitochondria generate

Hypoxia and Brain Aging: Neurodegeneration or Neuroprotection?

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Apr 13:101343. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The absolute reliance of the mammalian brain on oxygen to generate ATP renders it acutely vulnerable to hypoxia, whether at high altitude or in clinical settings of anemia or pulmonary disease. Hypoxia is pivotal to the pathogeneses of myriad neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, reduced environmental oxygen, e. Read More

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Mitochondrial membrane tension governs fission.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(2):108947

Institute of Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Route Cantonale, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; National Centre for Competence in Research Programme Chemical Biology, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

During mitochondrial fission, key molecular and cellular factors assemble on the outer mitochondrial membrane, where they coordinate to generate constriction. Constriction sites can eventually divide or reverse upon disassembly of the machinery. However, a role for membrane tension in mitochondrial fission, although speculated, has remained undefined. Read More

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Mitochondrial dysfunction and potential mitochondrial protectant treatments in tendinopathy.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Orthopedic Soft Tissue Research Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.

Tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal condition that affects a wide range of patients, including athletes, laborers, and older patients. Tendinopathy is often characterized by pain, swelling, and impaired performance and function. The etiology of tendinopathy is multifactorial, including both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Read More

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Evaluating the mitochondrial activity and inflammatory state of dimethyl sulfoxide differentiated PLB-985 cells.

Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 7;135:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB, Canada; New Brunswick Center for Precision Medicine, Moncton, NB, Canada. Electronic address:

Neutrophils play a key role in the innate immunity with their ability to generate and release inflammatory mediators that promote the inflammatory response and consequently restore the hemostasis. As active participants in several steps of the normal inflammatory response, neutrophils are also involved in chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. Given their dual role in the modulation of inflammation, regulating the inflammatory response of neutrophils has been suggested as an important therapeutic approach by numerous researchers. Read More

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Kv1.3 voltage-gated potassium channels link cellular respiration to proliferation through a non-conducting mechanism.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 7;12(4):372. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Cellular energy metabolism is fundamental for all biological functions. Cellular proliferation requires extensive metabolic reprogramming and has a high energy demand. The Kv1. Read More

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Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Cause or Consequence of Vascular Calcification?

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:611922. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Functional Genetics and Development Division, The Roslin Institute and The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies (R(D)SVS), University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.

Mitochondria are crucial bioenergetics powerhouses and biosynthetic hubs within cells, which can generate and sequester toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress-stimulated ROS production results in ATP depletion and the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, leading to mitochondria dysfunction and cellular apoptosis. Mitochondrial loss of function is also a key driver in the acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype that drives senescent cells into a pro-inflammatory state. Read More

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Osteolineage depletion of mitofusin2 enhances cortical bone formation in female mice.

Bone 2021 Apr 1;148:115941. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Musculoskeletal Research Center, Division of Bone and Mineral Disease, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Shriners Hospitals for Children, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Mitochondria are essential organelles that form highly complex, interconnected dynamic networks inside cells. The GTPase mitofusin 2 (MFN2) is a highly conserved outer mitochondrial membrane protein involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology, which can affect various metabolic and signaling functions. The role of mitochondria in bone formation remains unclear. Read More

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Generation and Evaluation of Isogenic iPSC as a Source of Cell Replacement Therapies in Patients with Kearns Sayre Syndrome.

Cells 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

St. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre, Regenerative Medicine Program, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R2H 2A6, Canada.

Kearns Sayre syndrome (KSS) is mitochondrial multisystem disorder with no proven effective treatment. The underlying cause for multisystem involvement is the energy deficit resulting from the load of mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which manifests as loss of cells and tissue dysfunction. Therefore, functional organ or cellular replacement provides a promising avenue as a therapeutic option. Read More

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Mitochondrial Transfer in Cancer: A Comprehensive Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 23;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Pole of Pharmacology, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique (IREC), Université Catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain), Avenue Hippocrate 57 Box B1.57.04, 1200 Brussels, Belgium.

Depending on their tissue of origin, genetic and epigenetic marks and microenvironmental influences, cancer cells cover a broad range of metabolic activities that fluctuate over time and space. At the core of most metabolic pathways, mitochondria are essential organelles that participate in energy and biomass production, act as metabolic sensors, control cancer cell death, and initiate signaling pathways related to cancer cell migration, invasion, metastasis and resistance to treatments. While some mitochondrial modifications provide aggressive advantages to cancer cells, others are detrimental. Read More

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Molecular and Supramolecular Structure of the Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation System: Implications for Pathology.

Life (Basel) 2021 Mar 15;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Under aerobic conditions, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) converts the energy released by nutrient oxidation into ATP, the currency of living organisms. The whole biochemical machinery is hosted by the inner mitochondrial membrane (mtIM) where the protonmotive force built by respiratory complexes, dynamically assembled as super-complexes, allows the FF-ATP synthase to make ATP from ADP + Pi. Recently mitochondria emerged not only as cell powerhouses, but also as signaling hubs by way of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Read More

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Role of Mitochondria in Viral Infections.

Life (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Mary H. Weiser Food Allergy Center, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Viral diseases account for an increasing proportion of deaths worldwide. Viruses maneuver host cell machinery in an attempt to subvert the intracellular environment favorable for their replication. The mitochondrial network is highly susceptible to physiological and environmental insults, including viral infections. Read More

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Chloroplast-derived photo-oxidative stress causes changes in H2O2 and EGSH in other subcellular compartments.

Plant Physiol 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), University of Bonn, D-53113 Bonn, Germany.

Metabolic fluctuations in chloroplasts and mitochondria can trigger retrograde signals to modify nuclear gene expression. Mobile signals likely to be involved are reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can operate protein redox switches by oxidation of specific cysteine residues. Redox buffers, such as the highly reduced glutathione pool, serve as reservoirs of reducing power for several ROS-scavenging and ROS-induced damage repair pathways. Read More

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January 2021

AMPK-dependent and -independent coordination of mitochondrial function and muscle fiber type by FNIP1.

PLoS Genet 2021 Mar 29;17(3):e1009488. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animals for Disease Study, Department of Spine Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Mitochondria are essential for maintaining skeletal muscle metabolic homeostasis during adaptive response to a myriad of physiologic or pathophysiological stresses. The mechanisms by which mitochondrial function and contractile fiber type are concordantly regulated to ensure muscle function remain poorly understood. Evidence is emerging that the Folliculin interacting protein 1 (Fnip1) is involved in skeletal muscle fiber type specification, function, and disease. Read More

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TDP-43 and PINK1 mediate CHCHD10 mutation-induced defects in Drosophila and in vitro.

Nat Commun 2021 03 26;12(1):1924. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN, USA.

Mutations in coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 10 (CHCHD10) can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we generate CHCH10-mutant Drosophila melanogaster and HeLa cell lines to model CHCHD10-associated ALS-FTD. Read More

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A549 cells contain enlarged mitochondria with independently functional clustered mtDNA nucleoids.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(3):e0249047. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States of America.

Mitochondria are commonly viewed as highly elongated organelles with regularly spaced mtDNA genomes organized as compact nucleoids that generate the local transcripts essential for production of mitochondrial ribosomes and key components of the respiratory chain. In contrast, A549 human lung carcinoma cells frequently contain apparently swollen mitochondria harboring multiple discrete mtDNA nucleoids and RNA processing granules in a contiguous matrix compartment. While this seemingly aberrant mitochondrial morphology is akin to "mito-bulbs" previously described in cells exposed to a variety of genomic stressors, it occurs in A549 cells under typical culture conditions. Read More

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Photobiomodulation and Oxidative Stress: 980 nm Diode Laser Light Regulates Mitochondrial Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species Production.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 3;2021:6626286. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

Photobiomodulation with 808 nm laser light electively stimulates Complexes III and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, while Complexes I and II are not affected. At the wavelength of 1064 nm, Complexes I, III, and IV are excited, while Complex II and some mitochondrial matrix enzymes seem to be not receptive to photons at that wavelength. Complex IV was also activated by 633 nm. Read More

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Tanshinone IIA combined with CsA inhibit myocardial cell apoptosis induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in obese rats.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Mar 22;21(1):100. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Traditional Chinese Medicine Viscera-State Theory and Applications, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China.

Background: Acute myocardial injury (AMI), which is induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR), is a significant cause of acute kidney injury (AKI)-related associated death. Obesity increases the severity and frequency of AMI and AKI. Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) combined with cyclosporine A (CsA) pretreatment was used to alleviate myocardial cell apoptosis induced by renal IR, and to determine whether TIIA combined with CsA would attenuate myocardial cell apoptosis by modulating mitochondrial function through the PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway in obese rats. Read More

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Mitochondrial apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Apn1 is not critical for the completion of the Plasmodium berghei life cycle.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 May 27;101:103078. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Division of Molecular Parasitology and Immunology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, 226031, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Ghaziabad, India. Electronic address:

Mitochondrion is an essential organelle in malaria parasite and its DNA must be maintained for optimal function during its complex life cycle. Base excision repair is one of the major pathways by which this is achieved. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases are important components of this pathway as they create a nick at the 5'-phosphodiester bond in the AP site and generate free 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl groups. Read More

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Rotary Ion-Translocating ATPases/ATP Synthases: Diversity, Similarities, and Differences.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 Dec;85(12):1613-1630

Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Ion-translocating ATPases and ATP synthases (F-, V-, A-type ATPases, and several P-type ATPases and ABC-transporters) catalyze ATP hydrolysis or ATP synthesis coupled with the ion transport across the membrane. F-, V-, and A-ATPases are protein nanomachines that combine transmembrane transport of protons or sodium ions with ATP synthesis/hydrolysis by means of a rotary mechanism. These enzymes are composed of two multisubunit subcomplexes that rotate relative to each other during catalysis. Read More

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December 2020

A multiplier peroxiporin signal transduction pathway powers piscine spermatozoa.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(10)

Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology, Institute of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain;

The primary task of a spermatozoon is to deliver its nuclear payload to the egg to form the next-generation zygote. With polyandry repeatedly evolving in the animal kingdom, however, sperm competition has become widespread, with the highest known intensities occurring in fish. Yet, the molecular controls regulating spermatozoon swimming performance in these organisms are largely unknown. Read More

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Deletion of the mitochondria-shaping protein Opa1 during early thymocyte maturation impacts mature memory T cell metabolism.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padua, Italy.

Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), a mitochondria-shaping protein controlling cristae biogenesis and respiration, is required for memory T cell function, but whether it affects intrathymic T cell development is unknown. Here we show that OPA1 is necessary for thymocyte maturation at the double negative (DN)3 stage when rearrangement of the T cell receptor β (Tcrβ) locus occurs. By profiling mitochondrial function at different stages of thymocyte maturation, we find that DN3 cells rely on oxidative phosphorylation. Read More

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NADPH and Mito-Apocynin Treatment Protects Against KA-Induced Excitotoxic Injury Through Autophagy Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:612554. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Laboratory of Aging and Nervous Diseases and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Aim: Previous research recognizes that NADPH can produce reduced glutathione (GSH) as a coenzyme and produce ROS as a substrate of NADPH oxidase (NOX). Besides, excessive activation of glutamate receptors results in mitochondrial impairment. The study aims at spelling out the effects of NADPH and Mito-apocynin, a NOX inhibitor which specifically targets the mitochondria, on the excitotoxicity induced by Kainic acid (KA) and its mechanism. Read More

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February 2021

The N-terminal domain of uracil-DNA glycosylase: Roles for disordered regions.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 May 18;101:103077. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, United States. Electronic address:

The presence of uracil in DNA calls for rapid removal facilitated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase superfamily of enzymes, which initiates the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In humans, uracil excision is accomplished primarily by the human uracil-DNA glycosylase (hUNG) enzymes. In addition to BER, hUNG enzymes play a key role in somatic hypermutation to generate antibody diversity. Read More

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Mitochondrial dysfunction and traffic jams in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Mitochondrion 2021 Feb 25;58:102-110. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive neuronal loss anatomically or physiologically and accumulation of protein in the cells. Mitochondria provide energy to these neuronal cells consuming 20% of the body's oxygen. Mitochondria are the dynamic membrane-bound cell organelles that function to generate ATP, regulate calcium homeostasis, and produce reactive oxygen species. Read More

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February 2021

Mitochondria targeted nanoparticles to generate oxygen and responsive-release of carbon monoxide for enhanced photogas therapy of cancer.

Biomater Sci 2021 Apr 22;9(7):2709-2720. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Pharmaceutical Science, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.

Carbon monoxide (CO) based gas therapy has been an emerging strategy for cancer treatment. However, the uncontrolled release of CO and limited therapeutic efficacy of monotherapy are two major obstacles for clinical application. To overcome these issues, human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles combined with manganese dioxide (MnO) were developed to deliver a photosensitizer (IR780) and CO donor (MnCO) for a synergistic therapy combining CO gas therapy and phototherapy. Read More

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Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate mitochondrial biogenesis in porcine embryos.

J Reprod Dev 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Animal Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan.

The number of mitochondria in blastocysts is a potential marker of embryo quality. However, the molecular mechanisms governing the mitochondrial number in embryos are unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels on mitochondrial biogenesis in porcine embryos. Read More

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February 2021

 Nuclear and cytoplasmic quality of oocytes derived from serum-free culture of secondary follicles in vitro.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Jul 15;236(7):5352-5361. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

In vitro culture of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of mature oocytes and it could offer a novel option of assisted reproductive technologies. Here we described a 2-dimensional follicular serum-free culture system with 3-dimensional effect that can make secondary follicles develop into antral follicles (78.52%), generating developmentally mature oocytes in vitro (66. Read More

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Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Ovary Regulates Germ Stem Cell Number, Cell Fate, and Female Fertility.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 28;8:596819. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

iNOVA4Health, CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, NMS, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

The fate and proliferative capacity of stem cells have been shown to strongly depend on their metabolic state. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell being responsible for energy production oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) as well as for several other metabolic pathways. Mitochondrial activity strongly depends on their structural organization, with their size and shape being regulated by mitochondrial fusion and fission, a process known as mitochondrial dynamics. Read More

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January 2021

Aerobic Metabolic Adaptations in Endurance Eccentric Exercise and Training: From Whole Body to Mitochondria.

Front Physiol 2020 27;11:596351. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

UCA-INRAE, Human Nutrition Unit, ASMS Team, University Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

A characteristic feature of eccentric as compared with concentric exercise is the ability to generate greater mechanical loads for lower cardiopulmonary demands. Current evidence concurs to show that eccentric training translates into considerable gains in muscle mass and strength. Less is known, however, regarding its impact on oxygen transport and on factors to be considered for optimizing its prescription and monitoring. Read More

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January 2021

Efficient Anticancer Effect on Choroidal Melanoma Cells Induced by Tanshinone IIA Photosensitization.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin International Joint Research and Development Centre of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Tanshinone IIA (TanIIA) has multiple biological functions and already been clinically used to treat many cardiovascular diseases. TanIIA is a photoactive molecule and can be excited by light to generate TanIIA*. Generation of TanIIA* by TanIIA photosensitization indicates that TanIIA may serve as a photosensitizer to bring photodynamic damage to organisms. Read More

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February 2021