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Synthesis of L-[5-11C]Leucine and L-alfa-[5-11C]Methylleucine via Pd0-mediated 11C-Methylation and Microfluidic Hydrogenation: Potentiality of Leucine PET Probes for Tumor Imaging.

ChemMedChem 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

RIKEN Kobe Institute, Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, 650-0047, Kobe, JAPAN.

The efficient synthesis of L-[5-11C]leucine and L-alfa-[5-11C]methylleucine has been investigated using a continuous two-step sequence of rapid reactions consisting of Pd0-mediated 11C-methylation and microfluidic hydrogenation. The synthesis of L-[5-11C]leucine and L-alfa-[5-11C]methylleucine was accomplished within 40 min with a decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 15-38% based on [11C]CH3I, radiochemical purity of 95-99%, and chemical purity of 95-99%. The Pd impurities in the injectable solution measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry met the international criteria for human use. Read More

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Synthesis and Evaluation of F-Labeled Fluoroalkyl Triphenylphosphonium Salts as Mitochondrial Voltage Sensors in PET Myocardial Imaging.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2275:49-64

Innovation Center for Molecular Probe Development, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School and Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun, South Korea.

We have previously reported that radiolabeled phosphonium cations accumulate in the mitochondria down a transmembrane potential gradient. We present an optimized procedure for synthesis of three [F]-labeled fluoroalkyl triphenylphosphonium salts ([F]FATPs) via two-step simple nucleophilic substitution reactions to develop new myocardial imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET) . The total reaction time of [F]FATPs was within 60 min, and the overall decay-corrected radiochemical yield was approximately 15-30% (decay corrected). Read More

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January 2021

Biotin-streptavidin-guided two-step pretargeting approach using PLGA for molecular ultrasound imaging and chemotherapy for ovarian cancer.

PeerJ 2021 25;9:e11486. Epub 2021 May 25.

Ultrasound Medicine Department, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Translational Research for Cancer Metastasis and Individualized Treatment, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital, Chongqing, Shapingba District, China.

Background: Ovarian cancer seriously threatens the lives and health of women, and early diagnosis and treatment are still challenging. Pre-targeting is a promising strategy to improve the treatment efficacy of ovarian cancer and the results of ultrasound imaging.

Purpose: To explore the effects of a pre-targeting strategy using streptavidin (SA) and paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded phase-shifting poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with perfluoro-n-pentane (PTX-PLGA-SA/PFPs) on the treatment and ultrasound imaging of ovarian cancer. Read More

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Multiphase Engineered BNT-Based Ceramics with Simultaneous High Polarization and Superior Breakdown Strength for Energy Storage Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Dielectric ceramics are crucial for high-temperature, pulse-power energy storage applications. However, the mutual restriction between the polarization and breakdown strength has been a significant challenge. Here, multiphase engineering controlled by the two-step sintering heating rate is adopted to simultaneously obtain a high polarization and breakdown strength in 0. Read More

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Differential insulin sensitivity of NMR-based metabolomic measures in a two-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp study.

Metabolomics 2021 Jun 9;17(6):57. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics; Department of Internal Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Insulin is the key regulator of glucose metabolism, but it is difficult to dissect direct insulin from glucose-induced effects. We aimed to investigate the effects of hyperinsulemia on metabolomic measures under euglycemic conditions in nondiabetic participants.

Methods: We assessed concentrations of 151 metabolomic measures throughout a two-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure. Read More

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The life cycle of SPβ and related phages.

Arch Virol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

FG Synthetic Microbiology, Institute for Biotechnology, BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, 01968, Senftenberg, Germany.

Phages are viruses of bacteria and are the smallest and most common biological entities in the environment. They can reproduce immediately after infection or integrate as a prophage into their host genome. SPβ is a prophage of the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis 168, and it has been known for more than 50 years. Read More

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Facile extraction and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from agricultural waste sugarcane straw.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China.

Background: Sugarcane straw is an available but largely ignored lignocellulosic biomass to obtain cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with highly crystalline, tunable surface chemistries and a wide-ranging adaptability. Herein, we utilized sugarcane straw to obtain pure cellulose via purification processes, followed by subsequent preparation of CNCs via sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The properties of the purified fibers and obtained CNCs were assessed by their composition, morphology, chemical structure, crystallinity and thermal stability. Read More

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Valorization of microalgae into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by two-step conversion with ferric sulfate.

Gwi-Taek Jeong

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 2;293:112919. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan, 48513, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Microalgae are known as renewable, potential, and sustainable feedstocks for biofuel production. The present work investigated the efficient valorization of green microalgae Chlorella sp. to produce sugars and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using thermochemical conversion with a metal-salt (ferric sulfate) as catalyst using a statistical approach and two-step conversion. Read More

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Characterising Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Clinical Samples Using Nanopore Sequencing.

Front Vet Sci 2021 17;8:656256. Epub 2021 May 17.

Vesicular Disease Reference Laboratory, The Pirbright Institute, Woking, United Kingdom.

The sequencing of viral genomes provides important data for the prevention and control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks. Sequence data can be used for strain identification, outbreak tracing, and aiding the selection of the most appropriate vaccine for the circulating strains. At present, sequencing of FMD virus (FMDV) relies upon the time-consuming transport of samples to well-resourced laboratories. Read More

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Adsorption-biodegradation coupled remediation process for the efficient removal of a textile dye through chemically functionalized sugarcane bagasse.

Water Environ Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Aquatic Environment and Health Management Division, ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, 400061.

Textile dye effluents has many deleterious effects; therefore, it is essential to remove before releasing into waterbodies. This study developed a two-step process for decolorization of textile dye using sugarcane-bagasse (SCB). The first-step of the process involved functionalization of SCB with alginic acid and applying as packing material in column and assessing its performance for adsorptive removal of Drimarene red. Read More

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Training Data Selection and Optimal Sensor Placement for Deep-Learning-Based Sparse Inertial Sensor Human Posture Reconstruction.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 May 10;23(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Although commercial motion-capture systems have been widely used in various applications, the complex setup limits their application scenarios for ordinary consumers. To overcome the drawbacks of wearability, human posture reconstruction based on a few wearable sensors have been actively studied in recent years. In this paper, we propose a deep-learning-based sparse inertial sensor human posture reconstruction method. Read More

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Physical Activity, Sleep, and Sedentary Behavior among Successful Long-Term Weight Loss Maintainers: Findings from a U.S. National Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 22;18(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

The Cooper Institute, Dallas, TX 75230, USA.

Despite adults' desire to reduce body mass (weight) for numerous health benefits, few are able to successfully lose at least 5% of their starting weight. There is evidence on the independent associations of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep with weight loss; however, this study provided insight on the combined effects of these behaviors on long-term body weight loss success. Hence, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the joint relations of sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors with successful long-term weight loss. Read More

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A New Approach for Controlling Mesoporosity in Activated Carbon by the Consecutive Process of Air Oxidation, Thermal Destruction of Surface Functional Groups, and Carbon Activation (the OTA Method).

Molecules 2021 May 7;26(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand.

A new and simple method, based entirely on a physical approach, was proposed to produce activated carbon from longan fruit seed with controlled mesoporosity. This method, referred to as the OTA, consisted of three consecutive steps of (1) air oxidation of initial microporous activated carbon of about 30% char burn-off to introduce oxygen surface functional groups, (2) the thermal destruction of the functional groups by heating the oxidized carbon in a nitrogen atmosphere at a high temperature to increase the surface reactivity due to increased surface defects by bond disruption, and (3) the final reactivation of the resulting carbon in carbon dioxide. The formation of mesopores was achieved through the enlargement of the original micropores after heat treatment via the CO gasification, and at the same time new micropores were also produced, resulting in a larger increase in the percentage of mesopore volume and the total specific surface area, in comparison with the production of activated carbon by the conventional two-step activation method using the same activation time and temperature. Read More

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Microwave-Assisted Two-Step Liquefaction of Acetone-Soluble Lignin of Silvergrass Saccharification Residue for Production of Biopolyol and Biopolyurethane.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 6;13(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Chemical Engineering (Integrated Engineering), Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 17104, Korea.

The application of microwave heating facilitated efficient two-step liquefaction of acetone-soluble lignin obtained from saccharification residue of (silvergrass), which was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis, to produce biopolyol with a low acid number and favorable hydroxyl number. The acetone-soluble lignin was liquefied using a crude glycerol and 1,4-butanediol solvent mixture at various solvent blending ratios, biomass loadings, acid loadings, and reaction temperatures. The optimal reaction condition was determined at a solvent blending ratio of crude glycerol to 1,4-butanediol of 1:2, 20% of biomass loading, and 1% of catalyst loading at a reaction temperature of 140 °C for 10 min. Read More

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One and Two-Step In Vitro-In Vivo Correlations Based on USP IV Dynamic Dissolution Applied to Four Sodium Montelukast Products.

Pharmaceutics 2021 May 11;13(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Departamento Ingeniería of Área Farmacia, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, 03550 Alicante, Spain.

Montelukast is a weak acid drug characterized by its low solubility in the range of pH 1.2 to 4.5, which may lead to dissolution-limited absorption. Read More

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Preparation of Supported Perovskite Catalyst to Purify Membrane Concentrate of Coal Chemical Wastewater in UV-Catalytic Wet Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation System.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 4;18(9). Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, China.

The effective treatment of membrane concentrate is a major technical challenge faced by the new coal chemical industry. In this study, a supported perovskite catalyst LaCoO/X was prepared by a sol-impregnation two-step method. The feasibility of the supported perovskite catalyst LaCoO/X in the UV-catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation (UV-CWPO) system for the purification of concentrated liquid of coal chemical wastewater was investigated. Read More

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A Two-Step Microwave Annealing Process for PAN Pre-Oxidation through a TM-Mode Cavity.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 3;13(9). Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300044, Taiwan.

A novel microwave annealing system and a specific processing condition are proposed for the pre-oxidation of carbon fiber. The microwave annealing system consists of a TM-mode resonant cavity and a silicon carbide (SiC) susceptor. The TM-mode cavity enhances the electric field at the center. Read More

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Comparison of Two-Step Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and One-Step Automated Auditory Brainstem Response for Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Programs in Remote Areas of China.

Front Pediatr 2021 14;9:655625. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

To compare the hearing screening results of two-step transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) and one-step automatic auditory brainstem response (AABR) in non-risk newborns, and to explore a more suitable hearing screening protocol for infants discharged within 48 h after birth in remote areas of China. To analyze the age effect on pass rate for hearing screening, 2005 newborns were divided into three groups according to screening time after birth: <24, 24-48, and 48-72 h. All subjects received TEOAE + AABR test as first hearing screen, and those who failed in any test were rescreened with TEOAE + AABR at 6 weeks after birth. Read More

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Body-Mounted Robotic System for MRI-Guided Shoulder Arthrography: Cadaver and Clinical Workflow Studies.

Front Robot AI 2021 10;8:667121. Epub 2021 May 10.

Children's National Health System, Washington, DC, United States.

This paper presents an intraoperative MRI-guided, patient-mounted robotic system for shoulder arthrography procedures in pediatric patients. The robot is designed to be compact and lightweight and is constructed with nonmagnetic materials for MRI safety. Our goal is to transform the current two-step arthrography procedure (CT/x-ray-guided needle insertion followed by diagnostic MRI) into a streamlined single-step ionizing radiation-free procedure under MRI guidance. Read More

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Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Ultrasensitive Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Saliva and Viral Transport Medium Clinical Samples.

Anal Chem 2021 06 25;93(22):7797-7807. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3028, United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the shortcomings in the deployment of state-of-the-art diagnostics platforms. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques have been rapidly developed to meet the growing testing needs, such techniques often need samples collected through a swab, the use of RNA extraction kits, and expensive thermocyclers in order to successfully perform the test. Isothermal amplification-based approaches have also been recently demonstrated for rapid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection by minimizing sample preparation while also reducing the instrumentation and reaction complexity. Read More

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[CDs-BOC Nanophotocatalyst Activating Persulfate Under Visible Light for the Efficient Degradation of Typical PPCPs].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Jun;42(6):2885-2895

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China.

A new type of CDs-BOC photocatalyst was synthesized in a convenient two-step method of hydrothermal and calcination processes. Carbon quantum dots (CDs) were used to modify BiOCl nanosheets. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), which showed that CDs were successfully introduced. Read More

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A novel strategy for SARS-CoV-2 mass screening with quantitative antigen testing of saliva: a diagnostic accuracy study.

Lancet Microbe 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

International Medical Department, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Background: Quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection requires medical personnel and is time consuming, and thus is poorly suited to mass screening. In June, 2020, a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA; Lumipulse G SARS-CoV-2 Ag kit, Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan) was developed that can detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleoproteins in NPS or saliva samples within 35 min. In this study, we assessed the utility of CLEIA in mass SARS-CoV-2 screening. Read More

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Ultrafast and Real-Time Nanoplasmonic On-Chip Polymerase Chain Reaction for Rapid and Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics.

ACS Nano 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Advent and fast spread of pandemic diseases draw worldwide attention to rapid, prompt, and accurate molecular diagnostics with technical development of ultrafast polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Microfluidic on-chip PCR platforms provide highly efficient and small-volume bioassay for point-of-care diagnostic applications. Here we report ultrafast, real-time, and on-chip nanoplasmonic PCR for rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics at point-of-care level. Read More

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Efficient degradation of tetracycline by [email protected] titanium dioxide nanofluid via enhanced catalysis and photothermal conversion.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 5;787:147536. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, PR China. Electronic address:

The applications of photocatalytic pollutant degradation have remained limited due to the low efficiency of solar energy utilization. In this study, a photothermal catalyst consisting of reduced graphene oxide @ black TiO ([email protected]) nanofluid with effective full-spectrum (from ultraviolet to infrared light) absorption was synthesized by a typical two-step method of high temperature calcination and hydrothermal method. Moreover, the photothermal catalytic performance of the [email protected] nanofluid on tetracycline was verified. Read More

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September 2021

ALDH2 rs671 is associated with elevated FPG, reduced glucose clearance and hepatic insulin resistance in Japanese men.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Metabolism & Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies data from East Asians identified acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 as a susceptibility variant for type 2 diabetes in males.

Methods: We studied 94 non-obese, non-diabetic, Japanese men. Using a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, we evaluated insulin sensitivity in muscle and liver. Read More

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Dendrimer-assisted boronate affinity cellulose foams for the efficient and selective separation of glycoproteins.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 17;265:118082. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Papermaking Technology and Specialty Paper Development, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Light Chemistry Engineering Education, Key Laboratory of Paper Based Functional Materials of China National Light Industry, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xian, 710021, China.

Surfaces engineered to identify and enrich glycoproteins are of considerable interest in the diagnostic and detection fields. A boronate affinity (BA) material was proposed as a potential candidate for the isolation of glycoproteins. However, this material has the disadvantages of low efficiency and non-degradability. Read More

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Detection and quantification of toxicants in food and water using Ag-Au core-shell fractal SERS nanostructures and multivariate analysis.

Talanta 2021 Aug 2;231:122383. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

QuSENS Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada. Electronic address:

Here we demonstrate a facile, two step formation of silver core - gold shell (Ag-Au) nanostructures using microelectrodes and assess their performance as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates to detect and quantify toxicants. Ag nanostructures, serving as the scaffolds for the bimetallic structures, were grown first by using electrochemical deposition on the edges of microelectrodes functionalized with the alkanethiol, 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. Subsequently, different concentrations of HAuCl were used to perform a galvanic reaction on the surfaces of the Ag nanostructures with aqueous droplets being placed on the microelectrodes for 10 min before the substrate was rinsed and dried. Read More

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Application of statistical modeling for the production of highly pure rhamnolipids using magnetic biocatalysts: Evaluating its efficiency as a bioremediation agent.

J Hazard Mater 2021 06 5;412:125323. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Integrated Bioprocessing Laboratory, School of Bioengineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology (SRM IST), Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu 603203, India. Electronic address:

In the present study, highly pure rhamnolipids (RLs) was produced using biocatalysts immobilized on amino-functionalized chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles. Upon immobilizing naringinase and Candida antarctica lipase B (CaLB) under the optimized conditions, an enhanced operational stability with biocatalytic loads of 935 ± 2.4 U/g (naringinase) and 825 ± 4. Read More

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GC-MS Discrimination of Citrulline from Ornithine and Homocitrulline from Lysine by Chemical Derivatization: Evidence of Formation of -Carboxy-ornithine and -Carboxy-lysine.

Molecules 2021 Apr 15;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Core Unit Proteomics, Institute of Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Derivatization of amino acids by 2 M HCl/CHOH (60 min, 80 °C) followed by derivatization of the intermediate methyl esters with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) in ethyl acetate (30 min, 65 °C) is a useful two-step derivatization procedure (procedure A) for their quantitative measurement in biological samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as methyl ester pentafluoropropionic (PFP) derivatives, (Me)-(PFP). This procedure allows in situ preparation of trideutero-methyl esters PFP derivatives, (dMe)-(PFP), from synthetic amino acids and 2 M HCl/CDOD for use as internal standards. However, procedure A converts citrulline (Cit) to ornithine (Orn) and homocitrulline (hCit) to lysine (Lys) due to the instability of their carbamide groups under the acidic conditions of the esterification step. Read More

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Zinc-Containing Effluent Treatment Using Biofilm Formed on Zeolite.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;14(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratory for Heterochain Polymers, A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova Str., 28, 119991 Moscow, Russia.

The sorption properties of biofilm formed on zeolite (mineral-organic sorbent) as a sorbent have been investigated aiming to determine its suitability for complex zinc-containing effluent treatment. The optimum conditions for metal sorption from synthetic solutions were evaluated by changing the pH, zinc concentration, temperature, and time of sorption. The highest removal of metal ions was attained at pH range 3. Read More

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