202,222 results match your criteria middle east


The role of genetic manipulation and in situ modifications on production of bacterial nanocellulose: A review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey.

Natural polysaccharides are well-known biomaterials because of their availability and low-cost, with applications in diverse fields. Cellulose, a renowned polysaccharide, can be obtained from different sources including plants, algae, and bacteria, but recently much attention has been paid to the microorganisms due to their potential of producing renewable compounds. In this regard, bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a novel type of nanocellulose material that is commercially synthesized mainly by Komagataeibacter spp. Read More

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Challenges experienced by patients with hypertension in Ghana: A qualitative inquiry.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0250355. Epub 2021 May 6.

Professor Emeritus of Applied Psychology, Department of Works and Social Psychology Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherland.

Background: Hypertension (HPT) is an essential public health problem affecting both lower and middle-income countries disproportionately. Evidence suggests that HPT is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. Yet, challenges faced by patients with HPT in Ghana are not sufficiently explored. Read More

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Elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Oman: a success story from the Middle East.

East Mediterr Health J 2021 Apr 27;27(4):381-389. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Directorate General for Disease Surveillance and Control, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman.

Background: In January 2016, the National AIDS Programme (NAP) in Oman introduced a package of interventions, including capacity building for service providers, to improve the quality of HIV services.

Aims: To report the impact of these interventions on the rate of vertical HIV transmission in the period from January 2016 to December 2019. We also describe the virological and obstetric outcomes for HIV-infected pregnant women. Read More

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Molecular diversity of coronavirus host cell entry receptors.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2021 05;45(3)

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses causing disease in a wide range of animals, and humans. Since 2002, the successive emergence of bat-borne severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 has reinforced efforts in uncovering the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms governing coronavirus cell tropism and interspecies transmission. Decades of studies have led to the discovery of a broad set of carbohydrate and protein receptors for many animal and human coronaviruses. Read More

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Comparison of genomic and antigenic properties of Newcastle Disease virus genotypes II, XXI and VII from Egypt do not point to antigenic drift as selection marker.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Diagnostic Virology, 17493, Greifswald Insel-Riems, Germany.

Newcastle disease (ND), caused by avian orthoavulavirus type-1 (NDV), is endemic in poultry in many regions of the world and causes continuing outbreaks in poultry populations. In the Middle East, genotype XXI, , used to be present in poultry in Egypt but has been replaced by genotype VII. We investigated whether virus evolution contributed to superseding and focused on the antigenic sites within the Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) spike protein. Read More

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Analysis of Top ten-Cited Articles Published in the Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons Over a 10-Year Period.

J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2021 Jan-Feb;26(1):23-26. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Paediatric Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India.

Aim: The objective was to identify, analyze, and categorize the characteristics (the type of article, country of origin, institution, authorship, topic, and the number of citations) of the articles published in the Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons (JIAPS) from 2008 to 2017, with particular focus on the top ten-cited articles.

Materials And Methods: The above characteristics of the individual articles were tabulated in the Microsoft Excel sheet. The number of citations of an article was obtained from three databases (CrosssRef, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar). Read More

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January 2021

Earliest known human burial in Africa.

Nature 2021 May 5;593(7857):95-100. Epub 2021 May 5.

UMR 5199 CNRS De la Préhistoire à l'Actuel: Culture, Environnement, et Anthropologie (PACEA), Université Bordeaux, Talence, France.

The origin and evolution of hominin mortuary practices are topics of intense interest and debate. Human burials dated to the Middle Stone Age (MSA) are exceedingly rare in Africa and unknown in East Africa. Here we describe the partial skeleton of a roughly 2. Read More

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Innate immune sensing of coronavirus and viral evasion strategies.

Exp Mol Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.

The innate immune system is the first line of the host defense program against pathogens and harmful substances. Antiviral innate immune responses can be triggered by multiple cellular receptors sensing viral components. The activated innate immune system produces interferons (IFNs) and cytokines that perform antiviral functions to eliminate invading viruses. Read More

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Impaired inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission and transcription studied in single neurons by Patch-seq in Huntington's disease.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany;

Transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington's disease (HD) causes functional deficits in striatal neurons. Here, we performed Patch-sequencing (Patch-seq) in an in vitro HD model to investigate the effects of mutant Huntingtin (Htt) on synaptic transmission and gene transcription in single striatal neurons. We found that expression of mutant decreased the synaptic output of striatal neurons in a cell autonomous fashion and identified a number of genes whose dysregulation was correlated with physiological deficiencies in mutant Htt neurons. Read More

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Early human impacts and ecosystem reorganization in southern-central Africa.

Sci Adv 2021 May 5;7(19). Epub 2021 May 5.

Ministry of Civic Education and National Unity, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Modern engage in substantial ecosystem modification, but it is difficult to detect the origins or early consequences of these behaviors. Archaeological, geochronological, geomorphological, and paleoenvironmental data from northern Malawi document a changing relationship between forager presence, ecosystem organization, and alluvial fan formation in the Late Pleistocene. Dense concentrations of Middle Stone Age artifacts and alluvial fan systems formed after ca. Read More

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Perceived stress, stressors, and coping strategies among nursing students in the Middle East and North Africa: an overview of systematic reviews.

Syst Rev 2021 May 5;10(1):136. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute for Population Health, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Ar-Rayyan, Qatar.

Background: In nursing students, high stress levels can lead to burnout, anxiety, and depression. Our objective is to characterize the epidemiology of perceived stress, stressors, and coping strategies among nursing students in the Middle East and North Africa region.

Methods: We conducted an overview of systematic reviews. Read More

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The Immune Responses against Coronavirus Infections: Friend or Foe?

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 May 5:1-14. Epub 2021 May 5.

Cancer Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Coronaviruses (CoVs) were first discovered in the 1960s. Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the cause of COVID-19, which spread throughout China and subsequently, across the world. As COVID-19 causes serious public health concerns across the world, investigating the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and its interaction with the host immune responses may provide a clearer picture of how the pathogen causes disease in some individuals. Read More

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Changes in healthcare workers' knowledge, attitudes, practices, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25825

College of Medicine, King Saud University.

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented health crisis around the world, not least because of its heterogeneous clinical presentation and course. The new information on the pandemic emerging daily has made it challenging for healthcare workers (HCWs) to stay current with the latest knowledge, which could influence their attitudes and practices during patient care.This study is a follow-up evaluation of changes in HCWs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as anxiety levels regarding COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic. Read More

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Human cell receptors: potential drug targets to combat COVID-19.

Amino Acids 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention & Research, Noida, 201301, India.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced that COVID-19 is a pandemic having a higher spread rate rather than the mortality. Identification of a potential approach or therapy against COVID-19 is still under consideration. Read More

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Should COVID-19 be branded to viral thrombotic fever?

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2021 30;116:e200552. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Coronaviruses can cause a diverse array of clinical manifestations, from fever with symptoms of the common cold to highly lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus discovered in Hubei province, China, at the end of 2019, became known worldwide for causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Over one year's time period, the scientific community has produced a large bulk of knowledge about this disease and countless reports about its immune-pathological aspects. Read More

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Global birth defects app: An innovative tool for describing and coding congenital anomalies at birth in low resource settings.

Birth Defects Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Surveillance programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have difficulty in obtaining accurate information about congenital anomalies.

Methods: As part of the ZikaPLAN project, an International Committee developed an app for the description and coding of congenital anomalies that are externally visible at birth, for use in low resource settings. The "basic" version of the app was designed for a basic clinical setting and to overcome language and terminology barriers by providing diagrams and photos, sourced mainly from international Birth Defects Atlases. Read More

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Early evidence of establishment of the tropical bedbug (Cimex hemipterus) in Central Europe.

Med Vet Entomol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre CAS, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

In recent decades, the world has witnessed a remarkable resurgence of bedbugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Although populations of the common bedbug, Cimex lectularius L., expanded in temperate regions of its original distribution, the tropical bedbug, C. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2-Associated Guillain-Barre Syndrome Obscured by Diabetes Mellitus Peripheral Neuropathy.

Cureus 2021 Mar 31;13(3):e14209. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Internal Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA.

Multiple neurological complications, including Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), have been reported in association with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak. GBS has well-known associations with viruses such as influenza, human immunodeficiency virus, Zika, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Till date, there have been around 50 distinct published cases of GBS occurring concurrently or shortly after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Increasing prevalence of NAFLD/NASH among children, adolescents and young adults from 1990 to 2017: a population-based observational study.

BMJ Open 2021 May 4;11(5):e042843. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Objective: To describe the prevalence and variations of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) among children and adolescents (CADs) and young adults (YADs).

Design: A population-based observational study.

Setting: Annual cases and prevalence of NAFLD/NASH from 1990 to 2017, by sex, region and country were collected from the Global Burden of Disease database. Read More

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Integration of non-communicable disease and HIV/AIDS management: a review of healthcare policies and plans in East Africa.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 May;6(5)

Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK

Background: Low-income and middle-income countries are struggling to manage growing numbers of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), while services for patients with HIV infection are well established. There have been calls for integration of HIV and NCD services to increase efficiency and improve coverage of NCD care, although evidence of effectiveness remains unclear. In this review, we assess the extent to which National HIV and NCD policies in East Africa reflect the calls for HIV-NCD service integration. Read More

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Convalescent plasma for adults with acute COVID-19 respiratory illness (CONCOR-1): study protocol for an international, multicentre, randomized, open-label trial.

Trials 2021 May 4;22(1):323. Epub 2021 May 4.

McMaster Centre for Transfusion Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Convalescent plasma has been used for numerous viral diseases including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and Ebola virus; however, evidence to support its use is weak. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus responsible for the 2019 global pandemic of COVID-19 community acquired pneumonia. We have undertaken a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Determinants of dental caries in children in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review based on literature published from 2000 to 2019.

BMC Oral Health 2021 May 4;21(1):237. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Health Sciences, College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, P.O. Box 144534, Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Background: Dental caries risk factors have been expanded to not only emphasize biology, dietary and oral habits but also broader social determinants such as socioeconomic factors and the utilization of health services. The aim was to review sociobehavioural/cultural and socioeconomic determinants of dental caries in children residing in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

Methods: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline database and Google Scholar to identify studies published from 2000 to 2019 covering children using key search terms. Read More

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A Telephone-Based Tobacco Cessation Program in the State of Qatar: Protocol of a Feasibility Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 29;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.

In Qatar, tobacco is the leading preventable cause of death and disease. Telephone-based interventions for smoking are cost-effective and scalable interventions that are effective in promoting smoking behavior change. While many countries have implemented these services within their tobacco control programs, there is a distinct dearth of a telephone-based smoking cessation intervention that is adapted and tailored to meet the needs of people who smoke in Qatar. Read More

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Identification of the Begomoviruses Squash Leaf Curl Virus and Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus in Various Plant Samples in North America.

Viruses 2021 04 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

The Biodesign Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

Geminiviruses are a group of plant-infecting viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes. Within this family, viruses in the genus are known to have a worldwide distribution causing a range of severe diseases in a multitude of dicotyledonous plant species. Begomoviruses are transmitted by the whitefly and their ssDNA genomes can be either monopartite or bipartite. Read More

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From HIV to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Hematologic Complications in Viral Pandemics.

Authors:
Donald S Karcher

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

From the Department of Pathology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia.

Context.—: From the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic in the 1980s to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, multiple viral pandemics have occurred and all have been associated with hematologic complications of varying severity.

Objective. Read More

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Molecular characterization of Leishmania species from stray dogs and human patients in Saudi Arabia.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy.

Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica cause cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans and dogs in several parts of the world, with a large number of cases recorded in the Middle East. However, when they occur in sympatry, the role of each species of Leishmania in the epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is not clear. To assess the frequency and to identify the species of Leishmania that infect humans and stray dogs in Riyadh and Al-Qaseem (Saudi Arabia), 311 stray dogs and 27 human patients who were suspected for Leishmania infection were examined for CL by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Read More

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Incidence and prevalence of moyamoya disease in urban China: a nationwide retrospective cohort study.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing, China

Background And Objective: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an increasingly recognised cause of stroke, mainly described in East Asia. China is the largest nation in Asia, but few studies reported the epidemiology of MMD, especially at a national level. We aimed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of MMD in China. Read More

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Inappropriate intensification of glucose-lowering treatment in older patients with type 2 diabetes: the global DISCOVER study.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 May;9(1)

Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany.

Introduction: Although individualized target glycated hemoglobin (HbA) levels are recommended in older people with type 2 diabetes, studies report high levels of potential overtreatment. We aimed to investigate the proportion of older patients (aged ≥65 years) who potentially received an inappropriately intensive treatment (HbA level <7.0% (53. Read More

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Time trends in HPV vaccination according to country background: a nationwide register-based study among girls in Norway.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 3;21(1):854. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Since the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was introduced in Norway in 2009, the vaccine uptake has increased. Whether this increase is similar regardless of the girls' country background is unknown. We examined changes in HPV vaccine uptake from 2009 to 2014 and studied the impact of parental education and income on HPV vaccine uptake according to country background. Read More

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The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults and children in the United Arab Emirates: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 05 3;21(1):224. Epub 2021 May 3.

Sharjah Institute of Medical Research, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Background: The psychosocial impact of previous infectious disease outbreaks in adults has been well documented, however, there is limited information on the mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults and children in the United Arab Emirate (UAE) community. The aim of this study was to explore anxiety levels among adults and children in the UAE and to identify potential risk and protective factors for well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Using a web-based cross-sectional survey we collected data from 2200 self-selected, assessed volunteers and their children. Read More

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