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Rural Stroke Surveillance and Establishment of Acute Stroke Care Pathway Using Frontline Health Workers in Rural Northwest India: The Ludhiana Experience.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India.

Background And Purpose: The role of community health workers (CHWs) in stroke surveillance and in establishing the stroke care pathway has not been studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using CHWs in the public health system to identify stroke patients for population-based stroke registration and to study the establishment of acute stroke care pathway in rural areas of Ludhiana, Punjab, Northwest India.

Methods: Two rural blocks in Ludhiana district, comprising 164 villages and a population of 259,778, were selected. Read More

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The Immune Responses against Coronavirus Infections: Friend or Foe?

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 May 5:1-14. Epub 2021 May 5.

Cancer Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Coronaviruses (CoVs) were first discovered in the 1960s. Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the cause of COVID-19, which spread throughout China and subsequently, across the world. As COVID-19 causes serious public health concerns across the world, investigating the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and its interaction with the host immune responses may provide a clearer picture of how the pathogen causes disease in some individuals. Read More

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Clinical characteristics of sleep apnea in middle-old and oldest-old inpatients: symptoms and comorbidities.

Sleep Med 2021 Apr 16;82:179-185. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UMR 8256 Biological Adaptation and Aging, F-75005, Paris, France; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), DHU FAST, Functional Explorations and Sleep Investigation Unit for the Older Patients, Charles Foix Hospital, Pitié-Salpêtrière-Charles Foix Group, F-94200, Ivry-sur-Seine, France; Sorbonne Université, UFR Médecine, F-75013, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in older adults but still underdiagnosed for many reasons, such as underreported symptoms, non-specific ones because of the comorbidities and polypharmacy, or the social belief of sleep problems as normal with aging.

Objectives: To identify salient symptoms and comorbidities associated with OSA, diagnosed by nocturnal respiratory polygraphy in geriatric inpatients.

Method: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study in a sample of 102 geriatric inpatients from a French Geriatric University Hospital. Read More

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Basic gait pattern and impact of fall risk factors on gait among older adults in India.

Gait Posture 2021 Apr 30;88:16-21. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Electronic address:

Background: An unstable gait pattern is an indicator of an increased risk of falls among older adults. Data on basic gait parameters is useful in the early identification of gait impairment. However, reference gait measurements are not available in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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Association between metabolic syndrome and resting-state functional brain connectivity.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Apr 1;104:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Neuroimaging Research for Veterans Center (NeRVe), Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The objective of this study is to examine whether metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors, disrupts the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the large-scale cortical brain networks. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from seventy-eight middle-aged and older adults living with and without MetS (27 MetS; 51 non-MetS). FC maps were derived from the time series of intrinsic activity in the large-scale brain networks by correlating the spatially averaged time series with all brain voxels using a whole-brain seed-based FC approach. Read More

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Collateral ligament sprains of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the long fingers: Results of a surgical series of 15 patients.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Institut Montpelliérain de la Main et du Membre Supérieur, Clinique Saint-Roch, 560 Avenue du Colonel Pavelet, 34070 Montpellier, France.

Introduction Collateral ligament sprains of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MP) of the long fingers are rare and mostly treated conservatively. Clinical examination to diagnose the severity of these injuries is mandatory. The purpose of our study is to report the results of 15 patients treated surgically. Read More

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A 4-year Longitudinal Neuroimaging Study of Cognitive Control using Latent Growth Modeling: Developmental Changes and Brain-Behavior Associations.

Neuroimage 2021 May 2:118134. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, U.S.A.; Fralin Biomedical Research Institute at VTC, Roanoke, VA 24016, U.S.A.

Despite theoretical models suggesting developmental changes in neural substrates of cognitive control in adolescence, empirical research has rarely examined intraindividual changes in cognitive control-related brain activation using multi-wave multivariate longitudinal data. We used longitudinal repeated measures of brain activation and behavioral performance during the multi-source interference task (MSIT) from 167 adolescents (53% male) who were assessed annually over four years from ages 13 to 17 years. We applied latent growth modeling to delineate the pattern of brain activation changes over time and to examine longitudinal associations between brain activation and behavioral performance. Read More

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Mouse models of sarcopenia: classification and evaluation.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Sarcopenia is a progressive and widespread skeletal muscle disease that is related to an increased possibility of adverse consequences such as falls, fractures, physical disabilities and death, and its risk increases with age. With the deepening of the understanding of sarcopenia, the disease has become a major clinical disease of the elderly and a key challenge of healthy ageing. However, the exact molecular mechanism of this disease is still unclear, and the selection of treatment strategies and the evaluation of its effect are not the same. Read More

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Large pulmonary sclerosing pneumocytoma in a young female: A rare lung tumor.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pathology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, South Korea.

We report a case of a 28-year-old female who presented with a solid mass lesion in the right middle lobe (RML). A chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 3.5 cm sized round and solid mass between the medial and lateral segment of the RML. Read More

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Structural correlates of sensorimotor dysfunction in heavy cannabis users.

Addict Biol 2021 May 5:e13032. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Sensorimotor dysfunction has been previously reported in persons with cannabis dependence. Such individuals can exhibit increased levels of neurological soft signs (NSS), particularly involving motor coordination and sensorimotor integration. Whether such abnormalities may also apply to non-dependent individuals with heavy cannabis use (HCU) is unknown, as much as the neural correlates underlying such deficits. Read More

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Both frontal and temporal cortex exhibit phonological and semantic specialization during spoken language processing in 7- to 8-year-old children.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study by Weiss et al. (Weiss et al., Human Brain Mapping, 2018, 39, 4334-4348) examined brain specialization for phonological and semantic processing of spoken words in young children who were 5 to 6 years old and found evidence for specialization in the temporal but not the frontal lobe. Read More

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Helpful post-diagnostic services for young onset dementia: Findings and recommendations from the Angela project.

Health Soc Care Community 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Health Studies, Centre for Applied Dementia Studies, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK.

There is a significant lack of evidence regarding optimum models for service provision in young onset dementia (YOD). Our study aim was to gather detailed information about services experienced as helpful by those with YOD and family carers. The objective was to identify the core features of these services to inform service design, delivery and improvements. Read More

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Retrospective confidence judgments: Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Cognitive Science, Department of Digital Humanities, Faculty of Arts, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Confidence in our retrieved memories, that is, retrospective confidence, is a metamemory process we perform daily. There is an abundance of applied research focusing on the metamemory judgments and very diverse studies including a wide range of clinical populations. However, the neural correlates that support its functioning are not well defined impeding the implementation of noninvasive neuromodulatory clinical interventions. Read More

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Validation of Oxford Cognitive Screen: Executive Function (OCS-EF), a tablet-based executive function assessment tool amongst adolescent females in rural South Africa.

Int J Psychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Short, reliable, easily administered executive function (EF) assessment tools are needed to measure EF in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa given the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder. We administered Oxford Cognitive Screen-Executive Function (OCS-EF) to 932 rural South African females (mean age 19.7 years). Read More

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Paying for performance to improve the delivery of health interventions in low- and middle-income countries.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 5;5:CD007899. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute for Global Health and Development, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: There is growing interest in paying for performance (P4P) as a means to align the incentives of healthcare providers with public health goals. Rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of these strategies in improving health care and health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is lacking; this is an update of the 2012 review on this topic.

Objectives: To assess the effects of paying for performance on the provision of health care and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of Penner serotype prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in low- and middle-income countries.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251039. Epub 2021 May 5.

Enteric Diseases Department, Infectious Diseases Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, United States of America.

Introduction: While Campylobacter jejuni is a leading foodborne bacterial pathogen worldwide, it poses a particular risk to susceptible populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A capsule-conjugate vaccine approach has been proposed as a potential solution, but little information exists on circulating C. jejuni capsule types in LMICs. Read More

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Components of clean delivery kits and newborn mortality in the Zambia Chlorhexidine Application Trial (ZamCAT): An observational study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 5;18(5):e1003610. Epub 2021 May 5.

Ariadne Labs, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Neonatal infection, a leading cause of neonatal death in low- and middle-income countries, is often caused by pathogens acquired during childbirth. Clean delivery kits (CDKs) have shown efficacy in reducing infection-related perinatal and neonatal mortality. However, there remain gaps in our current knowledge, including the effect of individual components, the timeline of protection, and the benefit of CDKs in home and facility deliveries. Read More

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Correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and arterial elasticity in middle-aged and elderly cadres in Guiyang, China: A retrospective observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25826

Department of General Medicine, Guiyang First People's Hospital.

Abstract: There is evidence that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH) D] levels may be associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between 25-(OH) D levels and blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, and arterial elasticity in middle-aged and elderly cadres in China.In this retrospective study, we included 401 civil servants and cadres aged >42 years who underwent medical examinations at Guiyang Municipal First People's Hospital, China in 2018. Read More

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Changes in healthcare workers' knowledge, attitudes, practices, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25825

College of Medicine, King Saud University.

Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused an unprecedented health crisis around the world, not least because of its heterogeneous clinical presentation and course. The new information on the pandemic emerging daily has made it challenging for healthcare workers (HCWs) to stay current with the latest knowledge, which could influence their attitudes and practices during patient care.This study is a follow-up evaluation of changes in HCWs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as anxiety levels regarding COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic. Read More

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Cross-sectional area reference values for high-resolution ultrasonography of the upper extremity nerves in healthy Asian adults.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25812

Department of Neurology, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Abstract: In this study, multiple-site, cross-sectional area (CSA) reference values were established for major peripheral nerves, including small branches, in the upper extremity of a healthy Asian population.This study included 107 prospectively recruited age-matched, healthy subjects with a mean age of 46 years (range, 24-75 years). All subjects underwent standardized nerve conduction studies for the median, ulnar, peroneal, posterior tibial, and sural nerves. Read More

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Perfusion image guided mechanical thrombectomy combined with tirofiban successfully revascularize systemic lupus erythematosus related acute large vessel occlusion: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25779

Department of Neurological Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Rationale: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an important cause of stroke, more than a half the cases present as acute ischemic stroke. Thrombolysis is an effective choice in most cases, but for large vessel occlusion, mechanical thrombectomy is more effective. Here we reported a case of SLE-related stroke with left middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, who was successfully treated by MT and tirofiban. Read More

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Trapezius Tear Causing Scapular Winging Treated with Rhomboid Transfer and Achilles Allograft Reconstruction: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 May 5;11(2). Epub 2021 May 5.

Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Case: This is a case of an 18-year-old woman with superior and lateral scapular winging due to traumatic injuries to the insertions of the superior and middle trapezius as well as the origins of the latissimus dorsi and lower trapezius.

Conclusion: Scapular winging can be caused by a muscle tear in absence of a nerve injury. This patient underwent latissimus dorsi origin repair and superior and middle trapezius repairs. Read More

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Digit Survival After Prolonged Digital Tourniquet Application Associated with Severe Venous Congestion: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 May 5;11(2). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Prisma Health Midlands, Columbia, South Carolina.

Case: A 22-year-old roofer presented to the emergency department with partial amputation of the left middle finger. He was treated with revision amputation using a glove tourniquet. He followed up 14 days later demonstrating a retained tourniquet with severe ischemic changes. Read More

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Estimating the COVID-19 spread through real-time population mobility patterns: surveillance in Low- and Middle- income countries.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

School of Nursing, Hong Kong Ppolytechnic University, Hong Kong, HK.

Background: On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a public health emergency of international concern and later characterized it as a pandemic. Since then, the virus has also rapidly spread among Latin American, Caribbean and African countries. The first aim of this study was to identify new emerging COVID-19 clusters over time and in space in Latin American, Caribbean, and African regions [mostly low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)], using a prospective space-time scan measurement approach. Read More

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February 2021

Associations of language-based bedtime routines with early cognitive skills and academic achievement: A follow-up from kindergarten to middle school.

Br J Dev Psychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Sorbonne Université, GRC 24 Handicap Moteur Cognitif et Réadaptation (HaMCre), Paris, France.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the extent to which language-based bedtime routines (LBR) reported by parents before kindergarten were associated with early cognitive skills at kindergarten and subsequent academic achievement in typically developing children.

Method: We followed a community-based sample of 664 French-speaking adolescents from kindergarten (5-6 years) to the end of middle school (15 years). Kindergarten measures included a parental questionnaire aimed at assessing the presence or absence of any kind of LBR, such as storytelling, looking at children's books, reading a story, listening to songs, or singing nursery rhymes, as well as family contextual characteristics. Read More

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The ischiofemoral space of the hip is influenced by the frontal knee alignment.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

BG Center for Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Purpose: The ischiofemoral distance (IFD), defined as the distance between the ischial tuberosity and the lesser trochanter of the femur, is gaining recognition as an extra-articular cause of hip pain. It is unknown whether the IFD is influenced by the frontal knee alignment. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of realignment surgery around the knee on the IFD. Read More

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Human cell receptors: potential drug targets to combat COVID-19.

Amino Acids 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention & Research, Noida, 201301, India.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced that COVID-19 is a pandemic having a higher spread rate rather than the mortality. Identification of a potential approach or therapy against COVID-19 is still under consideration. Read More

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Evaluation of Drug Trials in High-, Middle-, and Low-Income Countries and Local Commercial Availability of Newly Approved Drugs.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e217075. Epub 2021 May 3.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Importance: Clinical research supporting US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug approvals is largely conducted outside the US.

Objective: To characterize where drugs were tested for FDA approval and to determine how commonly and quickly these drugs received marketing approval in the countries where they were tested, both overall and by country income level and geographical region.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional analysis of trials supporting FDA approval of novel drugs in 2012 and 2014, sponsored by large drug companies, did not involve human participants. Read More

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Should COVID-19 be branded to viral thrombotic fever?

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2021 30;116:e200552. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Coronaviruses can cause a diverse array of clinical manifestations, from fever with symptoms of the common cold to highly lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus discovered in Hubei province, China, at the end of 2019, became known worldwide for causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Over one year's time period, the scientific community has produced a large bulk of knowledge about this disease and countless reports about its immune-pathological aspects. Read More

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Experience of cardiac implantable electronic device lead removal from a South African tertiary referral centre.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 Apr 19;32:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town; Cardiac Clinic, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: The rate of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation in low- and middle-income countries is increasing. Patients recieving these devices are frequently older and with multiple co-morbidities, which may later lead to complications requiring CIED removal. CIED removals are associated with life-threatening complications. Read More

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