116,592 results match your criteria microscopy revealed

Epitaxial BaSnOthin films with low dislocation density grown on lattice matched LaInOsubstrates.

Nanotechnology 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung im Forschungsverbund Berlin eV, Max-Born-Str. 2, Berlin, Berlin, 12489, GERMANY.

The use of LaInOwith (110) surface orientation was investigated as a novel orthorhombic substrate for the epitaxial growth of semiconducting BaSnOthin films. On the basis of reflection high energy electron diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry measurements, we revealed that slight Ba doping of LaInOcrystals is beneficial to stabilize the substrate surface, which facilitates the epitaxial growth of well-ordered BaSnOthin films by pulsed laser deposition. Fully strained BaSnOfilms without misfit dislocations found by means of transmission electron microscopy were achieved due to the negligible lattice mismatch between BaSnOfilm and Ba-doped LaInOsubstrate. Read More

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September 2021

Cellular bases of olfactory circuit assembly revealed by systematic time-lapse imaging.

Cell 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Neural circuit assembly features simultaneous targeting of numerous neuronal processes from constituent neuron types, yet the dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we use the Drosophila olfactory circuit to investigate dynamic cellular processes by which olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) target axons precisely to specific glomeruli in the ipsi- and contralateral antennal lobes. Time-lapse imaging of individual axons from 30 ORN types revealed a rich diversity in extension speed, innervation timing, and ipsilateral branch locations and identified that ipsilateral targeting occurs via stabilization of transient interstitial branches. Read More

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September 2021

Novel chitosan and bacterial cellulose biocomposites tailored with polymeric nanoparticles for modern wound dressing development.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1932-1950

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania.

Dressing biomaterials play a key role in wound management keeping a moisture medium and protecting against external factors. Natural and synthetic materials could be used as dressings where chitosan and bacterial cellulose is one of the most important solutions. These biopolymers have been used for wound dressing based on their non-toxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible features. Read More

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December 2021

Asymmetric structures and conformational plasticity of the uncleaved full-length human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein trimer.

J Virol 2021 Sep 22:JVI0052921. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

The functional human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer [(gp120/gp41)] is produced by cleavage of a conformationally flexible gp160 precursor. Gp160 cleavage or the binding of BMS-806, an entry inhibitor, stabilizes the pre-triggered, "closed" (State-1) conformation recognized by rarely elicited broadly neutralizing antibodies. Poorly neutralizing antibodies (pNAbs) elicited at high titers during natural infection recognize more "open" Env conformations (States 2 and 3) induced by binding the receptor, CD4. Read More

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September 2021

Self-Assembling Peptide Dendron Nanoparticles with High Stability and a Multimodal Antimicrobial Mechanism of Action.

ACS Nano 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, People's Republic of China.

Self-assembling nanometer-scale structured peptide polymers and peptide dendrimers have shown promise in biomedical applications due to their versatile properties and easy availability. Herein, self-assembling peptide dendron nanoparticles (SPDNs) with potent antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria were developed based on the nanoscale self-assembly of an arginine-proline repeat branched peptide dendron bearing a hexadecanoic acid chain. The SPDNs are biocompatible, and our most active peptide dendron nanoparticle, C-3RP, was found to have negligible toxicity after both and studies. Read More

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September 2021

Remineralization effects of self-assembling peptide P -4 associated with three materials on early enamel carious lesions: An in vitro study.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Oral and Dental Disease Research Center, Department of Dental Public Health, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The aim of this study was to assess the remineralization of enamel caries lesions using the self-assembling peptide P -4 associated with different materials. Artificial early enamel lesions were prepared on 154 primary teeth. The samples were randomly divided into eight groups: (1) control, (2) P -4, (3) fluoridate toothpaste (FT), (4) P -4 + FT, (5) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), (6) P -4 + CPP-ACP, (7) fluoridate bioactive glass toothpaste (BT), and (8) P -4 + BT. Read More

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September 2021

Complex odontoma restricting mouth opening: an unusual clinical presentation and surgical management.

Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2021 Sep-Oct;15(5):60-63

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Periodontology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ribeirão Preto Dental School (FORP/USP); University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Odontomas are common benign odontogenic tumors, being often detected on routine radiographs during the first two decades of life. Rarely, odontoma can interfere with jaw movements, causing mouth opening limitation. A 28-year-old male patient was referred complaining of restriction of mouth opening and mandibular movements, which started 6 months ago. Read More

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September 2021

Sex Differences in the Role of CNIH3 on Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Pain Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Background: CNIH3 is an AMPA receptor (AMPAR) auxiliary protein prominently expressed in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), a region that plays a critical role in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity. However, the effects of CNIH3 on AMPAR-dependent synaptic function and behavior have not been investigated.

Methods: We assessed a gain-of-function model of Cnih3 overexpression in the dHPC and generated and characterized a line of Cnih3 C57BL/6 mice. Read More

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Cryo-EM structure of the dual incretin receptor agonist, peptide-19, in complex with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Sep 16;578:84-90. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Drug Discovery Biology Theme, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, 3052, Victoria, Australia; ARC Centre for Cryo-electron Microscopy of Membrane Proteins, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, 3052, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Dual agonists that can activate both the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR) have demonstrated high efficacy for the treatment of metabolic disease. Peptide-19 is a prototypical dual agonist that has high potency at both GLP-1R and GIPR but has a distinct signalling profile relative to the native peptides at the cognate receptors. In this study, we solved the structure of peptide-19 bound to the GLP-1R in complex with Gs protein, and compared the structure and dynamics of this complex to that of published structures of GLP-1R:Gs in complex with other receptor agonists. Read More

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September 2021

Isolation and characterization of a goose astrovirus 1 strain causing fatal gout in goslings, China.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 17;100(11):101432. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Jiangsu Agri-Animal Husbandry Vocational College, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High-Tech Research and Development of Veterinary Biopharmaceuticals, Taizhou, Jiangsu 225300, PR China. Electronic address:

In recent years, goose gout, a severe infectious disease, has affected the development of the goose industry in China. Two different genotypes of goose astrovirus (GAstV), named as GAstV-1 and GAstV-2, were identified. GAstV-2 viruses are known to be the causative agent of goose gout; however, GAstV-1 has not been isolated, and the relationship between GAstV-1 and goose gout is unknown. Read More

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Redox- and Enzyme-Responsive Macrospheres Gatekept by Polysaccharides for Controlled Release of Agrochemicals.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, 15 Dineen Dr., Fredericton E3B 5A3, Canada.

Stimuli-responsive materials afford researchers an opportunity to synthesize controlled-release carriers with various potential applications, especially for reducing the abuse of chemical reagents in farmland soil. To enhance the efficiency of agrochemical utilization, redox- and enzyme-responsive macrospheres were prepared by self-assembling β-cyclodextrin-modified zeolite and ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FcA)-grafted carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis revealed that pores of zeolite were sealed by the surface coupling of FcA-modified CMC via the formation of an inclusion complex. Read More

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September 2021

Virus Removal and Inactivation Mechanisms during Iron Electrocoagulation: Capsid and Genome Damages and Electro-Fenton Reactions.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3136, United States.

Virus destabilization and inactivation are critical considerations in providing safe drinking water. We demonstrate that iron electrocoagulation simultaneously removed (via sweep flocculation) and inactivated a non-enveloped virus surrogate (MS2 bacteriophage) under slightly acidic conditions, resulting in highly effective virus control (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

Thiophene-Based Dual Modulators of Aβ and Tau Aggregation.

Chembiochem 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

JNCASR: Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, New Chemistry Unit, 560064, Bengaluru, INDIA.

Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and Tau aggregates in the brain, which induces various pathological events resulting in neurodegeneration. There have been continuous efforts to develop modulators of the Aβ and tau aggregation process to halt or modify the disease progression. A few small molecule-based inhibitors to target both Aβ and tau pathology are reported. Read More

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September 2021

Mitochondria-related changes and metabolic dysfunction in low prognosis patients under the POSEIDON classification.

Hum Reprod 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Study Question: What is the relationship between mitochondria of granulosa cells (GCs) and age and ovarian function in the patients under the POSEIDON classification?

Summary Answer: Our results revealed obvious abnormal mitochondrial-related changes in low prognosis IVF population, where age and the function of ovarian reserve exerted a divergent effect on mitochondrial content and function.

What Is Known Already: Mitochondria have an important role in the cross-talk between GCs and oocytes. However, factors affecting mitochondria of GCs and related mechanisms are still poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Multi-organ pathological findings associated with COVID-19 in postmortem needle core biopsies in four patients and a review of the current literature.

Rev Esp Patol 2021 Oct-Dec;54(4):275-280. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofía, Madrid-Spain (Servicio de Anatomía Patológica, Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofía), Madrid, Spain.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Histopathological findings are essential in understanding its pathogenesis and we present our findings from postmortem core needle biopsies in an attempt to share information that may shed some light on this severe pandemic. Different organ samples from four patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 at the Infanta Sofía Hospital (Madrid) were studied during the months of April and May, 2020 by six pathologists using routine stains, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Read More

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October 2020

[The relevance of electron microscopy in kidney biopsies to 21 century pathology].

Rev Esp Patol 2021 Oct-Dec;54(4):234-241. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Electron microscopy (EM) has been used in the study of renal biopsies for more than 5 decades; however, it is expensive and the possibility of restricting it to selected cases has been considered. This study aims to reevaluate the necessity for EM in the diagnosis of renal biopsies today.

Material And Methods: All renal biopsies taken between 2016 and 2019 with adequate light microscopy (LM), immunofluorescence (IF) and EM studies were included. Read More

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February 2021

Synthesis of Capsaicin Loaded Silver Nanoparticles Using Green Approach and Its Anti-Bacterial Activity Against Human Pathogens.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Aug;17(8):1612-1626

Department of Basic Sciences, Common First Year Deanship, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 24230, Saudi Arabia.

Nanotechnology is drawing attention nowadays due to its ability to regulate metals into nanosize, ultimately changing metal's physical, chemical, and optical properties. Silver nanoparticles are known for their potential impact as antimicrobial agents due to their inherent property penetrating the cell wall. The present study aimed to develop and statistically optimise using a novel combination of capsaicin loaded silver nanoparticles (AgCNPs) as an effective anti-bacterial agent to treat psoriasis using a green approach. Read More

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Confocal Raman data analysis of tufts and spindles at the human dentin-enamel junction.

Arch Oral Biol 2021 Sep 11;131:105262. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

LBN, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Objective: The aim of this article is to analyze the chemical mapping of tufts and spindles of the human dental enamel using confocal Raman microscopy measuring length, structuration and composition of spindles and tufts.

Design: we used Raman diffusion, based on the interaction between photons and optic phonons, to reveal chemical bound. Adult molars were selected and longitudinally sectioned. Read More

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September 2021

Exosomes secreted from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells promote pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by transferring miR-100-5p.

Tissue Cell 2021 Aug 14;73:101623. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of General Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China; Clinical Center for Acute Pancreatitis, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Although human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) can contribute to the growth of tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), however, little is known about the exact mechanisms by which the exosomes secreted from hucMSCs (hucMSCs-exo) have an oncogenic effect on the physiopathology of PDAC. The effects of hucMSCs on tumor development are attributed to hucMSCs-exo, which deliver unique proteins and miRNAs to cancer cells.

Methods: HucMSCs and exosomes were isolated and confirmed via transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot. Read More

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Astaxanthin protects against heat-induced mitochondrial alterations in mouse hypothalamus.

Neuroscience 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, United States.

The hypothalamus plays an essential role in regulating whole-body energy and temperature homeostasis when adapting to environmental changes. We previously reported that heat exposure causes mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in mouse skeletal muscle, and pretreatment with astaxanthin (AST), an antioxidant, prevents this effect. How the hypothalamus responds to heat stress remains largely unexplored. Read More

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September 2021

Synaptotagmin 7 is targeted to the axonal plasma membrane through γ-secretase processing to promote synaptic vesicle docking in mouse hippocampal neurons.

Elife 2021 09 20;10. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, United States.

Synaptotagmin 7 (SYT7) has emerged as a key regulator of presynaptic function, but its localization and precise role in the synaptic vesicle cycle remain the subject of debate. Here, we used iGluSnFR to optically interrogate glutamate release, at the single-bouton level, in SYT7KO-dissociated mouse hippocampal neurons. We analyzed asynchronous release, paired-pulse facilitation, and synaptic vesicle replenishment and found that SYT7 contributes to each of these processes to different degrees. Read More

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September 2021

Functional properties of oligomeric and monomeric forms of VacA toxin.

Infect Immun 2021 Sep 20:IAI0034821. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.

VacA is a secreted toxin that assembles into water-soluble oligomeric structures and forms anion-selective membrane channels. Acidification of purified VacA enhances its activity in cell culture assays. Sites of protomer-protomer contact within VacA oligomers have been identified by cryo-EM, and in the current study we validated several of these interactions by chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry. Read More

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September 2021

Synthesis of β-Glucan Nanoparticles from Red Algae-Derived β-Glucan for Potential Biomedical Applications.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India.

The present study highlights/demonstrates facile synthesis of β-Glucan nanoparticles (β-GluNPs) that can be used in the prevention of breast cancer and other infectious diseases. Moreover, this method is inexpensive and shows effectivity towards different biological applications. Further, the characterization of synthesized β-GluNPs was exclusively confirmed through UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Alternative Methods of Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Breast Milk Serum.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

I. I. Mechnikov Research Institute for Vaccines and Sera, Moscow, Russia.

Antimicrobial properties are traditionally evaluated by the seeding technique, which is laborious, time-consuming, and rather imprecise. We studied the possibility of using microscopy and spectrophotometry methods for evaluation of cytotoxic activity of breast milk serum against opportunistic microbes. Activity of 50 breast milk samples obtained from healthy women at different lactation stages was tested against opportunistic yeast C. Read More

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September 2021

Cetuximab-siRNA Conjugate Linked Through Cationized Gelatin Knocks Down KRAS G12C Mutation in NSCLC Sensitizing the Cells Toward Gefitinib.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211041453

30026Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Delivery of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) has been of great interest in the past decade for effective gene silencing. To overcome synthetic and regulatory challenges posed by nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery, antibody-siRNA conjugate (ARC) platform is emerging as a potential siRNA delivery system suitable for clinical translation. Herein, we have developed a delivery technology based on the ARC platform for stable delivery of siRNA called as Gelatin-Antibody Delivery System (GADS). Read More

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September 2021

Neuroligin-3 and Neuroligin-4X form Nanoscopic clusters and regulate growth cone organization and size.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

The cell-adhesion proteins neuroligin-3 and neuroligin-4X (NLGN3/4X) have well described roles in synapse formation. NLGN3/4X are also expressed highly during neurodevelopment. However, the role these proteins play during this period is unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Structure Development of the Interphase between Drying Cellulose Materials Revealed by In Situ Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 58, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.

The nano- to microscale structures at the interface between materials can define the macroscopic material properties. These structures are extremely difficult to investigate for complex material systems, such as cellulose-rich materials. The development of new model cellulose materials and measuring techniques has opened new possibilities to resolve this problem. Read More

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September 2021

The effect of α-tocopherol, α- and γ-tocotrienols on amyloid-β aggregation and disaggregation in vitro.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2021 Dec 10;28:101131. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, 520-2192, Japan.

One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-causing neurodegeneration and consequent memory deterioration, and eventually, cognitive decline-is amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation forming amyloid plaques. Our previous study showed the potential of a tocotrienol-rich fraction-a mixture of naturally occurring of vitamin E analogs-to inhibit Aβ aggregation and restore cognitive function in an AD mouse model. The current study examined the effect of three vitamin E analogs-α-tocopherol (α-TOC), α-tocotrienol (α-T3), and γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3)-on Aβ aggregation, disaggregation, and oligomerization in vitro. Read More

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December 2021

Fabrication and Characterization of a Nanofast Cement for Dental Restorations.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:7343147. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

This study was aimed at fabricating and evaluating the physical and bioproperties of nanofast cement (NFC) as a replacement of the MTA. The cement particles were decreased in nanoscale, and zirconium oxide was used as a radiopacifier. The setting time and radiopacity were investigated according to ISO recommendations. Read More

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September 2021

Synthesis, Mesomorphic, and Solar Energy Characterizations of New Non-Symmetrical Schiff Base Systems.

Front Chem 2021 3;9:686788. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Nanophotonics and Applications Labs, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

New asymmetrical Schiff base series based on lateral methoxy group in a central core, (E)-3-methoxy-4-(((4-methoxyphenyl)imino)methyl)phenyl 4-alkoxybenzoate (), were synthesized and their optical and mesomorphic characteristics were investigated. The lateral OCHgroup was inserted in the central ring in ortho position with respect to the azomethine linkage. FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy as well as elemental analyses were used to elucidate their molecular structures. Read More

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September 2021