19,314 results match your criteria microscopy afm

Self-assembly of wax tubules and pure ß-diketone on HOPG and glass.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2021 20;12:939-949. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Marie-Curie-Str. 1, 47533 Kleve, Germany.

Eucalyptus trees and many plants from the grass family (Poaceae) and the heather family (Ericaceae) have a protective multifunctional wax coating on their surfaces made of branched ß-diketone tubules. ß-diketone tubules have a different size, shape, and chemical composition than the well-described nonacosanol tubules of the superhydrophobic leaves of lotus (). Until now the formation process of ß-diketone tubules is unknown. Read More

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Effect of aging and rejuvenation on adhesion properties of modified asphalt binder based on AFM.

J Microsc 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China.

The adhesion between asphalt binder and aggregate is very important to the performance and durability of asphalt pavement. In order to explore the characterization of modified asphalt binder in microstructure during aging and rejuvenation, the virgin asphalt binder and three kinds of modified asphalt binder (SBS, rubber powder and high viscosity and high elasticity modifier) in different aging and rejuvenation condition were prepared. The micromorphology and surface adhesion were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Read More

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September 2021

Demonstration of atomic force microscopy imaging using an integrated opto-electro-mechanical transducer.

Ultramicroscopy 2021 Aug 15;230:113368. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Applied Physics and Institute for Photonic Integration, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

The low throughput of atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the main drawback in its large-scale deployment in industrial metrology. A promising solution would be based on the parallelization of the scanning probe system, allowing acquisition of the image by an array of probes operating simultaneously. A key step for reaching this goal relies on the miniaturization and integration of the sensing mechanism. Read More

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Comparative analysis of the dust retention capacity and leaf microstructure of 11 Sophora japonica clones.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(9):e0254627. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

College of Landscape Architecture and Tourism, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071000, China.

We used fresh leaves of Sophora japonica L. variety 'Qingyun 1' (A0) and 10 superior clones of the same species (A1-A10) to explore leaf morphological characteristics and total particle retention per unit leaf area under natural and artificial simulated dust deposition treatments. Our objectives were to explore the relationship between the two methods and to assess particle size distribution, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) heavy metal content, and scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM) characteristics of leaf surface microstructure. Read More

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September 2021

Correlation of Thermoelectric Performance, Domain Morphology and Doping Level in PEDOT:PSS Thin Films Post-Treated with Ionic Liquids.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Sep 7:e2100397. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Lehrstuhl für Funktionelle Materialien, Physik Department, Technische Universität München, James Franck-Str. 1, Garching, 85748, Germany.

Ionic liquid (IL) post-treatment of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films with ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIM DCA), allyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (AMIM DCA), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate (EMIM TCB) is compared. Doping level modifications of PEDOT are characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and directly correlate with the observed Seebeck coefficient enhancement. With conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) the authors investigate changes in the topographic-current features of the PEDOT:PSS thin film surface due to IL treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Interfacial nanostructure and friction of a polymeric ionic liquid-ionic liquid mixture as a function of potential at Au(111) electrode interface.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 16;606(Pt 2):1170-1178. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: The polymeric cations of polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) can adsorb from the bulk of a conventional ionic liquid (IL) to the Au(111) electrode interface and form a boundary layer. The interfacial properties of the PIL boundary layer may be tuned by potential.

Experiments: Atomic force microscopy has been used to investigate the changes of surface morphology, normal and lateral forces of a 5 wt% PIL/IL mixture as a function of potential. Read More

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Bidirectional doping of two-dimensional thin-layer transition metal dichalcogenides using soft ammonia plasma.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Engineering Research Center of IoT Technology Applications (Ministry of Education), Department of Electronic Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Because of suitable band gap and high mobility, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials are promising in future microelectronic devices. However, controllable p-type and n-type doping of TMDs is still a challenge. Herein, we develop a soft plasma doping concept and demonstrate both n-type and p-type doping for TMDs including MoS and WS through adjusting the plasma working parameters. Read More

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September 2021

Determining the Specific Activity of Anti-Rabies Sera and Immunoglobulin Using Atomic Force Microscopy of Cell Cultures.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2021 Jul-Sep;13(3):136-142

Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute "Microbe", Saratov, Russia.

Background: Mouse neutralization test is widely used to determine the level of anti-rabies antibodies, but it is labor-intensive and time consuming. Alternative methods for determining the neutralizing activity of anti-rabies sera and immunoglobulin in cell cultures are also known. Methods such as FAVN and RFFIT involve the use of fluorescent diagnostics. Read More

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October 2020

3D RNA nanocage for encapsulation and shielding of hydrophobic biomolecules to improve the biodistribution.

Nano Res 2020 Dec 4;13(12):3241-3247. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Center for RNA Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, College of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Medicine, Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) nanotechnology platforms have the potential of harboring therapeutics for delivery in disease treatment. However, the nonspecific interaction between the harbored hydrophobic drugs and cells or other components before reaching the diseased site has been an obstacle in drug delivery. Here we report an encapsulation strategy to prevent such nonspecific hydrophobic interactions and based on a self-assembled three-dimensional (3D) RNA nanocage. Read More

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December 2020

Photo-damage promoted by tetra-cationic palladium(II) porphyrins in rapidly growing mycobacteria.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Sep 1;36:102514. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Bioinorganic and Porphyrinic Materials Laboratory, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, Campus Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.. Electronic address:

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has gained prominence in microbiology, especially in treating non-invasive infections. Diseases such as mycobacteriosis, which causes localized infections and has a slow treatment, tend to be future targets for this type of technology. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the action of two isomeric Pd(II)-porphyrins on fast-growing mycobacterial strains (RGM). Read More

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September 2021

Unlocking the secret of lignin-enzyme interactions: Recent advances in developing state-of-the-art analytical techniques.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Sep 1:107830. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Co-Innovation Center for Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, Department of Bioengineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China. Electronic address:

Bioconversion of renewable lignocellulosics to produce liquid fuels and chemicals is one of the most effective ways to solve the problem of fossil resource shortage, energy security, and environmental challenges. Among the many biorefinery pathways, hydrolysis of lignocellulosics to fermentable monosaccharides by cellulase is arguably the most critical step of lignocellulose bioconversion. In the process of enzymatic hydrolysis, the direct physical contact between enzymes and cellulose is an essential prerequisite for the hydrolysis to occur. Read More

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September 2021

Gum acacia PEG iron oxide nanocomposite (GA-PEG-IONC) induced pharmacotherapeutic activity on the Las R gene expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and HOXB13 expression of prostate cancer (Pc 3) cell line. A green therapeutic approach of molecular mechanism inhibition.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

CBIRD (Centre of Bioresource Research and Development (C-BIRD), Department of Biotechnology, Sathyabama Institute of Science & Technology, Jeppiaar Nagar, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Chennai 600 119, Tamil Nadu, India.

Among the diverse nanomaterials, polymer-based nanocomposites are gained more attention due to their high efficacy, target biological activities, biodegradability and biocompatibility-gum acacia (GA) - a polymer obtained from acacia trees-is considering the multifunctional nanocomposite synthesis. Distinctive Physico-chemical and biocompatibility properties of gum acacia are utilised to prepare a highly stable, biologically active, eco-friendly Nanocomposite. In this current investigation, gum acacia - poly ethylene glycol grafted iron oxide nanocomposite (GA-PEG-IONC) was synthesised by in situ green science principles. Read More

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Numerical Correction of AFM-SECM Measurements.

Anal Chem 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States.

Mass-transport-limited catalysis and membrane transport can be characterized by concentration profiles surrounding active surfaces. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a tool that has been used to measure concentration profiles; however, the presence and geometry of the tip can distort these profiles due to hindered diffusion, which in turn alters chemical behavior at the catalytic surface. To fully characterize the behavior of surface features such as catalytic sites, it is essential to account for and analytically remove the effect of tip presence. Read More

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September 2021

Atomic force microscopy and surface plasmon resonance for real-time single-cell monitoring of bacteriophage-mediated lysis of bacteria.

Nanoscale 2021 Aug 2;13(31):13538-13549. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

The growing incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains presents a major challenge in modern medicine. Antibiotic resistance is often exhibited by Staphylococcus aureus, which causes severe infections in human and animal hosts and leads to significant economic losses. Antimicrobial agents with enzymatic activity (enzybiotics) and phage therapy represent promising and effective alternatives to classic antibiotics. Read More

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Benchmarking atomically defined AFM tips for chemical-selective imaging.

Nanoscale 2021 Aug 4;13(32):13617-13623. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Physikalisches Institut, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, 48149 Münster, Germany.

Controlling the identity of the tip-terminating atom or molecule in low-temperature atomic force microscopy has led to ground breaking progress in surface chemistry and nanotechnology. Lacking a comparative tip-performance assessment, a profound standardization in such experiments is highly desirable. Here we directly compare the imaging and force-spectroscopy capabilities of four atomically defined tips, namely Cu-, Xe-, CO-, and O-terminated Cu-tips (CuOx-tips). Read More

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The role of convolutional neural networks in scanning probe microscopy: a review.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2021 13;12:878-901. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Chemical Research Support, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Progress in computing capabilities has enhanced science in many ways. In recent years, various branches of machine learning have been the key facilitators in forging new paths, ranging from categorizing big data to instrumental control, from materials design through image analysis. Deep learning has the ability to identify abstract characteristics embedded within a data set, subsequently using that association to categorize, identify, and isolate subsets of the data. Read More

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Evaluation of surface analysis of gutta-percha after disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite, silver nanoparticles, and chitosan nanoparticles by atomic force microscopy: An study.

J Conserv Dent 2021 Jan-Feb;24(1):63-66. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Aims And Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the surface topography of gutta-percha (GP) after disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (5.25%), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (70 µg/ml), and chitosan nanoparticles (ChNPs) (1.5 mg/ml) by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Read More

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UV Resonance Raman explores protein structural modification upon fibrillation and ligand interaction.

Biophys J 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:

Amyloids are proteinaceous deposits considered an underlying pathological hallmark of several degenerative diseases. The mechanism of amyloid formation and its inhibition still represent challenging issues, especially when protein structure cannot be investigated by classical biophysical techniques as for the intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In this view, the need to find an alternative way for providing molecular and structural information regarding IDPs prompted us to set a novel, to our knowledge, approach focused on UV Resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. Read More

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Effects of Cold-Light Bleaching on Enamel Surface and Adhesion of .

Biomed Res Int 2021 21;2021:3766641. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Tooth bleaching is becoming increasingly popular among patients with tooth staining, but the safety of bleaching agents on tooth structure has been questioned. Primarily thriving on the biofilm formation on enamel surface, has been recognized as a major cariogenic bacterial species. The present study is aimed at investigating how cold-light bleaching would change enamel roughness and adhesion of . Read More

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Investigating the morphological dynamics of the plasma membrane by high-speed atomic force microscopy.

J Cell Sci 2021 Sep 1;134(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-konoe, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

Despite numerous recent developments in bioimaging techniques, nanoscale and live-cell imaging of the plasma membrane has been challenging because of the insufficient z-resolution of optical microscopes, as well as the lack of fluorescent probes to specifically label small membrane structures. High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) is a powerful tool for visualising the dynamics of a specimen surface and is therefore suitable for observing plasma membrane dynamics. Recent developments in HS-AFM for live-cell imaging have enabled the visualisation of the plasma membrane and the network of cortical actin underneath the membrane in a living cell. Read More

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September 2021

High Performance of Post-Treated PEDOT:PSS Thin Films for Thermoelectric Power Generation Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 1;13(36):42977-42990. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan.

Thermoelectric materials capable of converting waste heat energy into electrical energy are enchanting for applications in wearable electronics and sensors by harvesting heat energy of the human body. Organic conducting polymers offer promise of thermoelectric materials for next-generation power sources of wearable devices due to their low cost in preparation, easy processing, low toxicity, low thermal conductivity, mechanical flexibility, light weight, and large area application. Generally, the pristine PEDOT:PSS film has low electrical conductivity, small Seebeck coefficient, and low thermal conductivity. Read More

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September 2021

Biophysical reviews top five: atomic force microscopy in biophysics.

Toshio Ando

Biophys Rev 2021 Aug 10;13(4):455-458. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Nano Life Science Institute (WPI-NanoLSI), Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, 920-1192 Japan.

Since its invention in the late 1980s, atomic force microscopy (AFM), in which a nanometer-sized tip is used to physically interrogate the properties of a surface at high resolution, has brought about scientific revolutions in both surface science and biological physics. In response to a request from the journal, I have prepared a top-five list of scientific papers that I feel represent truly landmark developments in the use of AFM in the biophysics field. This selection is necessarily limited by number (just five) and subjective (my opinion) and I offer my apologies to those not appearing in this list. Read More

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A Study of the Effects of Plasma Surface Treatment on Lipid Bilayers Self-Spreading on a Polydimethylsiloxane Substrate under Different Treatment Times.

Langmuir 2021 Sep 31;37(36):10732-10740. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

School of Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 403, Ishikawadai Bldg. 3, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 Japan.

Plasma-treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-supported lipid bilayers are used as functional tools for studying cell membrane properties and as platforms for biotechnology applications. Self-spreading is a versatile method for forming lipid bilayers. However, few studies have focused on the effect of plasma treatment on self-spreading lipid bilayer formation. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of cellulose nanocrystals on chitosan/PVA/nano β-TCP composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering application.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2021 Sep 12:1-19. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur, UP, India.

The need for an ideal tissue construct has lead to the search of a myriad of polymer composites with desirable properties. The nature, location and type of tissue to be regenerated determines the type of material to be used. A bone construct has its own requirements such as osteoconductivity, mineralization tendency, synchronized degradation rate, osteogenic differentiation potential etc, which results in search of new possible combination of materials aimed to improve tissue response. Read More

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September 2021

An Optimized O9-1/Hydrogel System for Studying Mechanical Signals in Neural Crest Cells.

J Vis Exp 2021 Aug 13(174). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Pediatrics, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston; The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston;

Neural crest cells (NCCs) are vertebrate embryonic multipotent cells that can migrate and differentiate into a wide array of cell types that give rise to various organs and tissues. Tissue stiffness produces mechanical force, a physical cue that plays a critical role in NCC differentiation; however, the mechanism remains unclear. The method described here provides detailed information for the optimized generation of polyacrylamide hydrogels of varying stiffness, the accurate measurement of such stiffness, and the evaluation of the impact of mechanical signals in O9-1 cells, a NCC line that mimics in vivo NCCs. Read More

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Microscale Photopatterning of Through-thickness Modulus in a Monolithic and Functionally Graded 3D Printed Part.

Small Sci 2021 Mar 24;1(3). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Applied Chemicals and Materials Division (647), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO 80305.

3D printing is transforming traditional processing methods for applications ranging from tissue engineering to optics. To fulfill its maximum potential, 3D printing requires a robust technique for producing structures with precise three-dimensional (x, y and z) control of mechanical properties. Previous efforts to realize such spatial control of modulus within 3D printed parts have largely focused on low-resolution (mm to cm scale) multi-material processes and grayscale approaches that spatially vary the modulus in the x-y plane and energy dose-based ( = ) models that do not account for the resin's sub-linear response to irradiation intensity. Read More

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Nanoscale characteristics of conditioning film development on photobioreactor materials: influence on the initial adhesion and biofilm formation by a cyanobacterium.

Biofouling 2021 Aug 30;37(7):777-790. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD, USA.

Adsorption of conditioning films on a solid surface is the first step in the development of biofilms. With the goal of understanding the preliminary adhesion mechanisms of cyanobacteria on photobioreactor (PBR) materials to prevent biofouling, the physical changes occurring on PBR materials were investigated during the initial adhesion and biofilm formation by sp. PCC 7120, a cyanobacterium that is genetically modified to produce linalool. Read More

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A New Function for Amyloid-Like Interactions: Cross-Beta Aggregates of Adhesins form Cell-to-Cell Bonds.

Pathogens 2021 Aug 11;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Louvain Institute of Biomolecular Science and Technology, Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud, 4-5, bte L7.07.07, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Amyloid structures assemble through a repeating type of bonding called "cross-β", in which identical sequences in many protein molecules form β-sheets that interdigitate through side chain interactions. We review the structural characteristics of such bonds. Single cell force microscopy (SCFM) shows that yeast expressing Als5 adhesin from demonstrate the empirical characteristics of cross-β interactions. Read More

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3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) End-Group Functionalized Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL): Self-Assembly in Organic Solvents and Its Coincidentally Observed Peculiar Behavior in Thin Film and Protonated Media.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 14;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Centre of Advanced Research in Bionanoconjugates and Biopolymers, "Petru Poni" Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A, Grigore-Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi, Romania.

End-group functionalization of homopolymers is a valuable way to produce high-fidelity nanostructured and functional soft materials when the structures obtained have the capacity for self-assembly (SA) encoded in their structural details. Herein, an end-functionalized PCL with a π-conjugated EDOT moiety, (), designed exclusively from hydrophobic domains, as a functional "hydrophobic amphiphile", was synthesized in the bulk ROP of ε-caprolactone. The experimental results obtained by spectroscopic methods, including NMR, UV-vis, and fluorescence, using DLS and by AFM, confirm that in solvents with extremely different polarities (chloroform and acetonitrile), presents an interaction- and structure-based bias, which is strong and selective enough to exert control over supramolecular packing, both in dispersions and in the film state. Read More

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Analysis of Surface Roughness and Three-dimensional Scanning Topography of Zirconia Implants before and after Photofunctionalization by Atomic Force Microscopy: An Study.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2021 Jun 5;13(Suppl 1):S766-S771. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Tagore Dental College, Rathinamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India.

Aim: To analyze surface roughness and three-dimensional (3D) scanning topography parameters of zirconia implants before and after photofunctionalization by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Materials And Methods: Ten commercially available zirconia implants five each in the study and control group were taken. The study group was subjected to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 48 h using the shorter wavelength of 254 nm. Read More

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