109,746 results match your criteria microscope polarization

Enhancing the retention of phosphorus through bacterial oxidation of iron or sulfide in the eutrophic sediments of Lake Taihu.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 26;791:148039. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Microbial activity can enhance the sequestration of phosphorus (P) in sediments, but little is known about the mechanisms behind it. In this study, sediment cores were sampled from the most eutrophic Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, and three treatments were set up in a laboratory incubation experiment, involving (a) the non-treated sediment cores, (b) inoculation, and (c) sterilization. The dissolved and labile iron (Fe) and P were obtained by high-resolution dialysis and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique, respectively. Read More

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Expression of angiogenesis-related proteins in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by osteoprotegerin during osteogenic differentiation in rats.

Wei Wang Bo Wang

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 9;98:107821. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to discuss the expression of angiogenesis-related proteins in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induced by osteoprotegerin (OGP) during osteogenic differentiation in rats, and to analyze the effect of fracture healing inflammatory factor TNF-ɑ on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs of rats. BMSCs isolated and cultured from the third generation rats were taken as the research object. According to the addition amount of OGP, BMSCs were divided into control group, OGP (10 mol/L) group, OGP (10 mol/L) group, and OGP (10 mol/L) group. Read More

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Assessment of hexavalent chromium (VI) biosorption competence of indigenous Aspergillus tubingensis AF3 isolated from bauxite mine tailing.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 1;282:131055. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ton Duc Thang, University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

The intention of this research was to find the most eminent metal tolerant and absorbing autochthonous fungal species from the waste dump of a bauxite mine. Out of the 4 (BI-1, BI-II, BI-III, and BI-IV) predominant isolates, BI-II had an excellent metal tolerance potential against most of the metals in the subsequent order: Cr(VI) (1500), Cu(II) (600), Pb(II) (500), and Zn(II) (500-1500 μg mL). BI-II had shown tolerance to Cr(VI) up to 1500 mg L. Read More

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Generation of a homozygous knock-in human embryonic stem cell line expressing SNAP-tagged SOD1.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Jun 6;54:102415. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA. Electronic address:

Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an antioxidant enzyme that protects the cells from radical oxygen species. To study the behavior of endogenous SOD1 under a microscope, we genetically modified H1 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to express SOD1 fused with a SNAP-tag, a protein tag that can be covalently labeled with a variety of synthetic probes. The engineered homozygous clone expressing SOD1-SNAP fusion proteins has normal stem cell morphology and karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers, and can be differentiated into all three germ layers in vitro, providing a versatile platform for imaging-based studies of SOD1. Read More

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Age-related differences in corneal nerve regeneration after SMILE and the mechanism revealed by metabolomics.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Jun 9:108665. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the effect of age on wound healing after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and the underlying metabolomic mechanisms.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 216 patients in four groups: the 18-20 (n = 38, Group I), 21-30 (n = 84, Group Ⅱ), 31-40 (n = 58, Group Ⅲ), and 41-50 (n = 36, Group IV) age groups. The density of corneal epithelial wing cells, basal cells, corneal stromal cells, endothelial cells and corneal nerves were examined with a laser confocal microscope (HRT III-RCM) before and 1 month, 3 month, 6 month and 1 year after SMILE. Read More

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Synergistic effect of docosahexaenoic acid or conjugated linoleic acid with caffeic acid on ameliorating oxidative stress of HepG2 cells.

J Food Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, P.R. China.

Exploring the synergistic effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with caffeic acid (CA) on ameliorating oxidative stress, thereby introducing CA to DHA or CLA will contribute significantly to enhance the bioactivity. We observed that DHA or CLA with CA promoted the recovery of intact individual morphology and the decline of cavities inside the nucleus and apoptosis under the observation of confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent inverted microscope. The activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, pyruvate and malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular morphology, and cell cycle were analyzed. Read More

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Nodal status in luminal A invasive breast cancer: relationships with cytotoxic CD8 + and regulatory FOXP3 + cells tumor-associated infiltrate and other prognostic factors.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pathomorphology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland.

Luminal A breast cancers are generally associated with low metastatic potential and good prognosis. However, there is a proportion of patients, who present with metastases in lymph nodes. The aim of our study was to determine the association between the number of positive lymph nodes and infiltrates of tumor-associated cytotoxic CD8 + (CTLs), regulatory FOXP3 + T cells (Tregs), as well as other prognostic factors. Read More

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Phasor-based hyperspectral snapshot microscopy allows fast imaging of live, three-dimensional tissues for biomedical applications.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 11;4(1):721. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Hyperspectral imaging is highly sought after in many fields including mineralogy and geology, environment and agriculture, astronomy and, importantly, biomedical imaging and biological fluorescence. We developed ultrafast phasor-based hyperspectral snapshot microscopy based on sine/cosine interference filters for biomedical imaging not feasible with conventional hyperspectral detection methods. Current approaches rely on slow spatial or spectral scanning limiting their application in living biological tissues, while faster snapshot methods such as image mapping spectrometry and multispectral interferometry are limited in spatial and/or spectral resolution, are computationally demanding, and imaging devices are very expensive to manufacture. Read More

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Rutin prevents tau pathology and neuroinflammation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Jun 11;18(1):131. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Background: Tau pathology is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. During disease progression, abnormally phosphorylated forms of tau aggregate and accumulate into neurofibrillary tangles, leading to synapse loss, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of tau pathology is expected to be a promising strategy for AD treatment. Read More

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RNA analysis based on a small number of manually isolated fixed cells (RNA-snMIFxC) to profile stem cells from human deciduous tooth-derived dental pulp cells.

Biol Proced Online 2021 Jun 11;23(1):12. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Genome Medicine, National Center for Child Health and Development, 2-10-1, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan.

Background: Expression of stemness factors, such as octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (OCT3/4), sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in human deciduous tooth-derived dental pulp cells (HDDPCs) can be assessed through fixation and subsequent immuno- or cytochemical staining. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), a powerful system to collect cells of interest, is limited by the instrument cost and difficulty in handling. Magnetic-activated cell sorting is inexpensive compared to FACS, but is confined to cells with surface expression of the target molecule. Read More

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A higher percentage of leukemic blasts with vacuoles predicts unfavorable outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Res 2021 Jun 6;109:106638. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Hematology, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital and Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Henan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Cytoplasmic vacuoles, which are a morphological feature of dysplasia, can be observed under a microscope at initial diagnosis. Recently, this typical morphological feature has been found to be associated with impaired survival. To investigate the clinical significance of the grading of blasts with vacuoles in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we retrospectively studied 152 patients newly diagnosed with non-M3 AML. Read More

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Microscopic examination of spatial transcriptome using Seq-Scope.

Cell 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Spatial barcoding technologies have the potential to reveal histological details of transcriptomic profiles; however, they are currently limited by their low resolution. Here, we report Seq-Scope, a spatial barcoding technology with a resolution comparable to an optical microscope. Seq-Scope is based on a solid-phase amplification of randomly barcoded single-molecule oligonucleotides using an Illumina sequencing platform. Read More

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The influence of extracellular tissue on neutrophil function and its possible linkage to inflammatory diseases.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Anaesthesiology, University Medical Centre Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Background: Migration, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and NETosis are functional immunological reactions of elementary importance for polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Unregulated inflammatory response of PMN within tissues plays a key role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. However, little is known about the behavior of PMN after migration through blood vessel walls. Read More

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Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from humans in Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0253186. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Microbial Cellular and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Sciences Stream Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Data on the distribution and genotype of Cryptosporidium species is limited in Ethiopia. This study examined the presence and genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium species circulating in Ethiopian human population. Stool samples collected from patients who visited rural (n = 94) and urban (n = 93) health centers in Wurgissa and Hawassa district, respectively, were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Read More

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How We Do It: Using a Surgical Microscope for Melanonychia.

Dermatol Surg 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Clinical Faculty, Minas Gerais Federal University-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Discipline of Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Campinas, Brazil Discipline of Dermatology, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, São André, Brazil Dermatology Department, Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Synergistic photocatalytic activity of a combination of carbon nanotubes-graphene-nickel foam nanocomposites enhanced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma technology for water purification.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Jun;83(11):2762-2777

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China E-mail:

Degradation activity of plasma catalysis between dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and carbon nanotubes-graphene-nickel foam (CNTs-G-Ni) has been studied in treatment of dye wastewater. CNTs-G-Ni was prepared through a two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The composite has been characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Read More

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Facile and simple fabrication of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic MS/PDA/DT sponge for efficient oil/water separation.

Environ Technol 2021 Jun 11:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

(School of Chemical Engineering, Xi'an University, Xi'an 710065 Shaanxi, PR China.).

In order to overcome the problems of frequent leakage accidents during oil exploitation, a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic porous MS/PDA/DT sponge was successfully prepared via mild solvent evaporation method, and a polydopamine assisted surface coating of 1-dodecanethiol (DT) on a melamine sponge (MS) substrate. Surface structure and performance of MS/PDA/DT sponge were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and Video Optical Contact Angle (CA) meter. The results showed that the as-prepared MS/PDA/DT sponge has a high water contact angle (WCA) of 147. Read More

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Identification of Antibody Biomarker Using High-Density Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2344:47-64

Virginia G. Piper Center for Personalized Diagnostics, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

A novel protein microarray technology, called high-density nucleic acid programmable protein array (HD-NAPPA), enables the serological screening of thousands of proteins at one time. HD-NAPPA extends the capabilities of NAPPA, which produces protein microarrays on a conventional glass microscope slide. By comparison, HD-NAPPA displays proteins in over 10,000 nanowells etched in a silicon slide. Read More

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January 2021

First Record of the Cymothoid Isopod Nerocila exocoeti Pillai, 1954 (Crustacea, Isopoda) in the South-West Indian Ocean and First Record of a Perciform Host, Echeneis naucrates, for this Species.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Save Our Seas Foundation-D'Arros Research Centre (SOSF-DRC), Rue Philippe Plantamour 20, 1201, Geneva, Switzerland.

Purpose: Cymothoid isopods of the genus Nerocila are generally poorly known. The aim of this work was to document the first record of cymothoid isopod Nerocila exocoeti for the South-West Indian Ocean, representing a significant westward range extension for this species.

Methods: A single adult, female N. Read More

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One-step self-assembly of curcumin-loaded zein/sophorolipid nanoparticles: physicochemical stability, redispersibility, solubility and bioaccessibility.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266003, People's Republic of China.

Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound isolated from turmeric, exhibits various biological activities. The application of this nutraceutical in foods, however, is limited due to its extreme hydrophobicity, inferior stability, and poor bioaccessibility. The purpose of this paper is to prepare alcohol-free curcumin-loaded zein/sophorolipid nanoparticles (Cur-Z/SNPs) by one-step self-assembly to overcome the abovementioned challenges of curcumin. Read More

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Electric-Field Control of a Single-Atom Polar Bond.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(21):216801

Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau, Germany.

We expose the polar covalent bond between a single Au atom terminating the apex of an atomic force microscope tip and a C atom of graphene on SiC(0001) to an external electric field. For one field orientation, the Au─C bond is strong enough to sustain the mechanical load of partially detached graphene, while for the opposite orientation, the bond breaks easily. Calculations based on density-functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function methods support the experimental observations by unveiling bond forces that reflect the polar character of the bond. Read More

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Antibiotic Resistance Gene-Carrying Plasmid Spreads into the Plant Endophytic Bacteria using Soil Bacteria as Carriers.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

Applications of animal manure and treated wastewater could enrich antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the plant microbiome. However, the mechanistic studies of the transmission of ARB and ARGs from the environment to plant endophytic bacteria were few. Herein, a genetically engineered fluorescent harboring a conjugative RP4 plasmid that carries three ARGs was used to trace its spread into interior in a tetracycline-amended hydroponic system in the absence or presence of a simulated soil bacterial community. Read More

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Dihydromyricetin promotes apoptosis, suppresses proliferation and tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated nuclear factor kappa-B activation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cell.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 Jun;41(3):367-375

Department of Otolaryngology of the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang 524023, China.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of dihydromyricetin (DMY) on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell proliferation, apoptosis and to reveal the underlying mechanism in vitro experiments.

Methods: The CNE-2 cell line was treated with different concentrations of DMY and the effects of DMY on cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and plate colony formation assay. Cellular apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry following Annexin V fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidine iodide staining. Read More

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Biotin-streptavidin-guided two-step pretargeting approach using PLGA for molecular ultrasound imaging and chemotherapy for ovarian cancer.

PeerJ 2021 25;9:e11486. Epub 2021 May 25.

Ultrasound Medicine Department, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Translational Research for Cancer Metastasis and Individualized Treatment, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital, Chongqing, Shapingba District, China.

Background: Ovarian cancer seriously threatens the lives and health of women, and early diagnosis and treatment are still challenging. Pre-targeting is a promising strategy to improve the treatment efficacy of ovarian cancer and the results of ultrasound imaging.

Purpose: To explore the effects of a pre-targeting strategy using streptavidin (SA) and paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded phase-shifting poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with perfluoro-n-pentane (PTX-PLGA-SA/PFPs) on the treatment and ultrasound imaging of ovarian cancer. Read More

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Surgical Outcomes of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment with Different Peripheral Vitreous-Shaving Procedures.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 28;15:2197-2202. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan.

Purpose: To compare the surgical outcomes of vitreous surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after two different peripheral vitreous-shaving techniques are performed.

Methods: We reviewed 269 eyes with RRD that were treated with a 25-gauge vitrectomy by a single surgeon between June 2015 and May 2020. The exclusion criteria for the proposed air tamponade selection were as follows: more than two weeks since RRD onset, giant retinal tears, a history of complications following cataract surgery, high myopia, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy classified as grade C or higher. Read More

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Optical Trapping with Focused Surface Waves.

Ann Phys 2020 Apr 24;532(4). Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, Institute of Photonics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

Near-field optical trapping can be realized with focused evanescent waves that are excited at the water-glass interface due to the total internal reflection, or with focused plasmonic waves excited on the water-gold interface. Herein, the performance of these two kinds of near-field optical trapping techniques is compared using the same optical microscope configuration. Experimental results show that only a single-micron polystyrene bead can be trapped by the focused evanescent waves, whereas many beads are simultaneously attracted to the center of the excited region by focused plasmonic waves. Read More

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Small flexible automated system for monitoring Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan based on active vision and image processing techniques.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12289. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Cell Biology Laboratory/ADM Nutrition/Biopolis SL/Archer Daniels Midland, Paterna, Valencia, Spain.

Traditionally Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan assays are performed by manually inspecting nematodes with a dissection microscope, which involves daily counting of live/dead worms cultured in Petri plates for 21-25 days. This manual inspection requires the screening of hundreds of worms to ensure statistical robustness, and is therefore a time-consuming approach. In recent years, various automated artificial vision systems have been reported to increase the throughput, however they usually provide less accurate results than manual assays. Read More

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Spatiotemporal imaging of 2D polariton wave packet dynamics using free electrons.

Science 2021 06;372(6547):1181-1186

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa, Israel.

Coherent optical excitations in two-dimensional (2D) materials, 2D polaritons, can generate a plethora of optical phenomena that arise from the extraordinary dispersion relations that do not exist in regular materials. Probing of the dynamical phenomena of 2D polaritons requires simultaneous spatial and temporal imaging capabilities and could reveal unknown coherent optical phenomena in 2D materials. Here, we present a spatiotemporal measurement of 2D wave packet dynamics, from its formation to its decay, using an ultrafast transmission electron microscope driven by femtosecond midinfrared pulses. Read More

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Effects of enamel deproteinization with different application times on the shear bond strength of a self-etching primer: An in vitro study.

Int Orthod 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of enamel deproteinization on the shear bond strength of a self-etching primer Transbond Plus™(TBP), with different application times of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 5.25%), primarily and secondarily on the adhesive remnant index score.

Materials And Methods: One hundred twenty-five freshly extracted human premolars were randomly and blindly divided into five groups according to the enamel surface preparation, as follows (n=25): group 1(control): Etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 15seconds+Bonding; group 2 (control): TBP™ without NaOCl, group 3: 60seconds NaOCl+TBP™, group 4: 30seconds NaOCl+TBP™, group 5: 15seconds NaOCl+TBP™. Read More

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Effects of okara and vitamin B bioenrichment on the functional properties and in vitro digestion of fermented soy milk.

Food Res Int 2021 Jul 19;145:110419. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, People's Republic of China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Food Production and Safety, School of Biological Science and Engineering, North Minzu University, Yinchuan 750021, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Due to highly nutritious and well-known prebiotic nature, okara (soy by-product) can improve the physiological benefits of probiotic consumption by enhancing the physicochemical stability and bioavailability of bacteria and metabolites, partially in food matrices and then in gastrointestinal tract. Initially, vitamin B producing probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum UFG10 was immobilized with 4% okara for soy milk fermentation. SEM micrographs showed firm adherence of UFG10 to okara surface depicting efficient immobilization. Read More

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