38,020 results match your criteria microglia

Genetic ablation of Nrf2 exacerbates neurotoxic effects of acrylamide in mice.

Toxicology 2021 Apr 16:152785. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Japan. Electronic address:

Acrylamide (ACR), a recognized neurotoxicant in humans and experimental animals, is widely used in industry and in food generated through Maillard reaction. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of the cellular defense system and activates antioxidants and cytoprotective genes. The exact roles of Nrf2 in environmental electrophile-induced neurotoxicity is poorly understood. Read More

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Role of microglial and endothelial CD36 in post-ischemic inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β-induced endothelial activation.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10021. Electronic address:

Cerebral ischemia is associated with an acute inflammatory response that contributes to the resulting injury. The innate immunity receptor CD36, expressed in microglia and endothelium, and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are involved in the mechanisms of ischemic injury. Since CD36 has been implicated in activation of the inflammasome, the main source of IL-1β, we investigated whether CD36 mediates brain injury through the inflammasome and IL-1β. Read More

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Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: One Lactate to Rule Them All.

Neuromolecular Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The Leslie and Susan Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a dynamic process involved in cognitive functions, like learning and memory. Numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate and affect hippocampal neurogenesis. An exceptionally beneficial external factor is physical exercise due to the impact of the lactate accumulated during physical effort on neural plasticity. Read More

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Combination of tea polyphenols and proanthocyanidins prevents menopause-related memory decline in rats via increased hippocampal synaptic plasticity by inhibiting p38 MAPK and TNF-α pathway.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 19:1-19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Many studies have examined the beneficial effects of tea polyphenols (TP) and proanthocyanidins (PC) on the memory impairment in different animal models. However, the combined effects of them on synaptic, memory dysfunction and molecular mechanisms have been poorly studied, especially in the menopause-related memory decline in rats.

Methods: In this rat study, TP and PC were used to investigate their protective effects on memory decline caused by inflammation. Read More

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Inhibition of CD38 and supplementation of nicotinamide riboside ameliorate lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial and astrocytic neuroinflammation by increasing NAD.

J Neurochem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroanatomy, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-Machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8640, Japan.

Neuroinflammation is initiated by activation of the brain's innate immune system in response to an inflammatory challenge. Insufficient control of neuroinflammation leads to enhanced or prolonged pathology in various neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ) plays critical roles in cellular energy metabolism and calcium homeostasis. Read More

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Toll-like receptor 2 activation and upregulation by high mobility group box l contribute to postoperative neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in mice.

J Neurochem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and 4 have been implied in the development of POCD. The role of TLR2, a major brain TLR, in POCD is not clear. Read More

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CSF chitinase 3-like 1 is associated with iron rims in patients with a first demyelinating event.

Mult Scler 2021 Apr 19:13524585211010082. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Chronic active lesions with iron rims have prognostic implications in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Objective: To assess the relationship between iron rims and levels of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1), neurofilament light chain (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in patients with a first demyelinating event.

Methods: Iron rims were identified using 3T susceptibility-weighted imaging. Read More

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Cryopreservation of microglia enables single-cell RNA sequencing with minimal effects on disease-related gene expression patterns.

iScience 2021 Apr 25;24(4):102357. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Microglia play a key role in brain development, normal homeostasis, and neurodegenerative disorders. Single-cell technologies have led to important findings about microglia, with many animal model studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), whereas most human specimen studies using archived frozen brains for single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq). However, microglia compose a small proportion of the total brain tissue; snRNAseq depletes expression of microglia activation genes that characterize many diseases. Read More

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A Comparative Biology of Microglia Across Species.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:652748. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Microglia are unique brain-resident, myeloid cells. They have received growing interest for their implication in an increasing number of neurodevelopmental, acute injury, and neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Fate-mapping studies establish microglial ontogeny from the periphery during development, while recent transcriptomic studies highlight microglial identity as distinct from other CNS cells and peripheral myeloid cells. Read More

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HIV Neuroinflammation: The Role of Exosomes in Cell Signaling, Prognostic and Diagnostic Biomarkers and Drug Delivery.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:637192. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medicine, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States.

Fifty to sixty percent of HIV-1 positive patients experience HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) likely due to persistent inflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. The role that microglia and astrocytes play in HAND pathogenesis has been well delineated; however, the role of exosomes in HIV neuroinflammation and neuropathogenesis is unclear. Exosomes are 50-150 nm phospholipid bilayer membrane vesicles that are responsible for cell-to-cell communication, cellular signal transduction, and cellular transport. Read More

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Microglial Nox2 Plays a Key Role in the Pathogenesis of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:638381. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

While oxidative stress has been linked to multiple sclerosis (MS), the role of superoxide-producing phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Nox2) in central nervous system (CNS) pathogenesis remains unclear. This study investigates the impact of Nox2 gene ablation on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Nox2 deficiency attenuates EAE-induced neural damage and reduces disease severity, pathogenic immune cells infiltration, demyelination, and oxidative stress in the CNS. Read More

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Camptothecin Regulates Microglia Polarization and Exerts Neuroprotective Effects Activating AKT/Nrf2/HO-1 and Inhibiting NF-κB Pathways and .

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:619761. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Microglia, the main immune cells in the brain, participate in the innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). Studies have shown that microglia can be polarized into pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. Accumulated evidence suggests that over-activated M1 microglia release pro-inflammatory mediators that damage neurons and lead to Parkinson's disease (PD). Read More

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Western Diet Induces Impairment of Liver-Brain Axis Accelerating Neuroinflammation and Amyloid Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 1;13:654509. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Laboratory of Preclinical Testing of Higher Standard, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an aging-dependent, irreversible neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The prevailing AD hypothesis points to the central role of altered cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and formation of toxic amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in the brain. The lack of efficient AD treatments stems from incomplete knowledge on AD causes and environmental risk factors. Read More

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Effects of Remote Immune Activation on Performance in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 1;15:659679. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Head Injury Laboratory, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

In adult pre-clinical models, traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been shown to prime microglia, exaggerating the central inflammatory response to an acute immune challenge, worsening depressive-like behavior, and enhancing cognitive deficits. Whether this phenomenon exists following mTBI during adolescence has yet to be explored, with age at injury potentially altering the inflammatory response. Furthermore, to date, studies have predominantly examined hippocampal-dependent learning domains, although pre-frontal cortex-driven functions, including attention, motivation, and impulsivity, are significantly affected by both adolescent TBI and acute inflammatory stimuli. Read More

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Microglia in Health and Disease: The Strength to Be Diverse and Reactive.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 31;15:660523. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Neuro-Immunology Group, Department of Oncology (DONC), Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), Luxembourg, Luxembourg.

Microglia are the resident immune effector cells of the central nervous system (CNS) rapidly reacting to any perturbation in order to maintain CNS homeostasis. Although their outstanding reactive properties have been elucidated over the last decades, their heterogeneity in healthy tissue, such as across brain regions, as well as their diversity in the development and progression of brain diseases, are currently opening new avenues to understand the cellular and functional states of microglia subsets in a context-dependent manner. Here, we review the main breakthrough studies that helped in elucidating microglia heterogeneity in the healthy and diseased brain and might pave the way to critical functional screenings of the inferred cellular diversity. Read More

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Inhibition of the NKCC1/NF-κB Signaling Pathway Decreases Inflammation and Improves Brain Edema and Nerve Cell Apoptosis in an SBI Rat Model.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 31;14:641993. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurosurgery and Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Surgical brain injury (SBI) triggers microglia to release numerous inflammatory factors, leading to brain edema and neurological dysfunction. Reducing neuroinflammation and protecting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are key factors to improve the neurological function and prognosis after SBI. Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) have been implicated in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by microglia in brain injury. Read More

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Sialometabolism in Brain Health and Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2021 30;15:648617. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, United States.

Sialic acids refer to a unique family of acidic sugars with a 9-carbon backbone that are mostly found as terminal residues in glycan structures of glycoconjugates including both glycoproteins and glycolipids. The highest levels of sialic acids are expressed in the brain where they regulate neuronal sprouting and plasticity, axon myelination and myelin stability, as well as remodeling of mature neuronal connections. Moreover, sialic acids are the sole ligands for microglial Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins), and sialic acid-Siglec interactions have been indicated to play a critical role in the regulation of microglial homeostasis in a healthy brain. Read More

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Peripheral Macrophage-derived Exosomes promote repair after Spinal Cord Injury by inducing Local Anti-inflammatory type Microglial Polarization via Increasing Autophagy.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 30;17(5):1339-1352. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated No. 6 People's Hospital, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China.

Treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a challenge worldwide, and inflammation is a major cause of secondary injury after SCI. Peripheral macrophages (PMs) have been verified as a key factor that exert anti-inflammatory effects after SCI, but the mechanism is unidentified. As local macrophages, microglia also exert significant effects after SCI, especially polarization. Read More

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Genistein-3'-sodium sulfonate Attenuates Neuroinflammation in Stroke Rats by Down-Regulating Microglial M1 Polarization through α7nAChR-NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 8;17(4):1088-1100. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Key Laboratory of Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases of Ministry of Education, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou 341000, China.

Microglial M1 depolarization mediated prolonged inflammation contributing to brain injury in ischemic stroke. Our previous study revealed that Genistein-3'-sodium sulfonate (GSS) exerted neuroprotective effects in ischemic stroke. This study aimed to explore whether GSS protected against brain injury in ischemic stroke by regulating microglial M1 depolarization and its underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Absence of LEDGF/p75 Expression in Astrocytes May Affect HIV-1 Integration Efficiency.

K E Yoder

Mol Gen Microbiol Virol 2019 14;34(2):81-83. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, 43210 USA.

In spite of effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV-1 infection may still lead to neurological impairment in patients. The underlying mechanism of neurodegeneration remains mysterious. HIV-1 does not infect neurons, but does infect microglia cells in the brain. Read More

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October 2019

Alleviation of sepsis-associated encephalopathy by ginsenoside via inhibition of oxidative stress and cell apoptosis: An experimental study.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Nov;33(6):2567-2577

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Occurrence and Intervention in Huangshi Central Hospital of Hubei Medical College (Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Institute of Technology), Huangshi, Hubei, China.

Ginsenoside (Rg1) has biological effects including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection and neural function improvement, but with few studies in sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). This study thus evaluated Ginsenoside in alleviating SAE, suppressing oxidative stress (OS) or neuronal apoptosis. SAE mouse model was generated and were assigned into SAE, SAE + LD-Rg1, and SAE + HD-Rg1 groups to measure neural apoptosis by flow cytometry. Read More

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November 2020

Surveilling microglia dampens neuronal activity: operation of a purinergically mediated negative feedback mechanism.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Apr 17;6(1):160. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Acupuncture and Tuina, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

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Upregulation of KDM6B contributes to lipopolysaccharide-induced anxiety-like behavior via modulation of VGLL4 in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 15;408:113305. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Hypoxia Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325035, China. Electronic address:

Histone H3K27me3 demethylase KDM6B (also known as Jumonji domain-containing protein D3, JMJD3) plays vital roles in the etiology of inflammatory responses; however, little is known about the role of KDM6B in neuroinflammation-induced anxiety-like behavior. The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of KDM6B in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behavior and to evaluate whether it is associated with the modulation of vestigial-like family member 4 (VGLL4). The elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and open-field test were performed to test the anxiety-like behavior induced by LPS in C57BL/6 J male mice. Read More

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Multi-scale modeling for systematically understanding the key roles of microglia in AD development.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 5;133:104374. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Biomedical Informatics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 7000 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of age-related dementia, affecting over 5 million people in the United States. Unfortunately, current therapies are largely palliative and several potential drug candidates have failed in late-stage clinical trials. Studies suggest that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation might be responsible for the failures of various therapies. Read More

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Temporal dynamics of cells expressing NG2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β in the fibrotic scar formation after 3-nitropropionic acid-induced acute brain injury.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Anatomy, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

Neuron-glia antigen 2 (NG2) proteoglycan and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-β) are widely used markers of pericytes, which are considered cells that form fibrotic scars in response to central nervous system insults. However, the exact phenotypes of NG2- and PDGFR-β-expressing cells, as well as the origin of the fibrotic scar after central nervous system insults, are still elusive. In the present study, we directly examined the identities and distributions of NG2- and PDGFR-β-positive cells in the control and lesioned striatum injured by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid. Read More

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Central amygdala inflammation drives pain hypersensitivity and attenuates morphine analgesia in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Pain 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6E 2H7 Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2E1 Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G3.

Abstract: Chronic pain is a highly prevalent symptom associated with the autoimmune disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). The central nucleus of the amygdala plays a critical role in pain processing and modulation. Neuropathic pain alters nociceptive signaling in the central amygdala, contributing to pain chronicity and opioid tolerance. Read More

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Induction of cellular senescence as a late effect and BDNF-TrkB signaling-mediated ameliorating effect on disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis after developmental exposure to lead acetate in rats.

Toxicology 2021 Apr 13:152782. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Cooperative Division of Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan; Institute of Global Innovation Research, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

Lead (Pb) exposure causes cognitive deficits in children. The present study investigated the effect of developmental exposure to Pb acetate (PbAc) on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis. Pregnant rats were administered drinking water containing 0, 2000, or 4000 ppm PbAc from gestational day 6 until day 21 post-delivery (weaning), and offspring were maintained without PbAc exposure until adulthood on postnatal day (PND) 77. Read More

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Microglial IL-10 and β-endorphin expression mediates gabapentinoids antineuropathic pain.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

King's Lab, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Pharmacy, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Gabapentinoids are recommended first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. They are neuronal voltage-dependent calcium channel α2δ-1 subunit ligands and have been suggested to attenuate neuropathic pain via interaction with neuronal α2δ-1 subunit. However, the current study revealed their microglial mechanisms underlying antineuropathic pain. Read More

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Early postnatal allergic airway inflammation induces dystrophic microglia leading to excitatory postsynaptic surplus and autism-like behavior.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; Translational Neuroscience Center, Graduate School of Medicine, and School of Pharmacy at Fukuoka, International University of Health and Welfare, 137-1 Enokizu, Ookawa, Fukuoka 831-8501, Japan; Department of Neurology, Brain and Nerve Center, Fukuoka Central Hospital, International University of Health and Welfare, 2-6-11 Yakuin, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-0022, Japan. Electronic address:

Microglia play key roles in synaptic pruning, which primarily occurs from the postnatal period to adolescence. Synaptic pruning is essential for normal brain development and its impairment is implicated in neuropsychiatric developmental diseases such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recent epidemiological surveys reported a strong link between ASD and atopic/allergic diseases. Read More

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The NLRP3-related inflammasome modulates pain behavior in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 13:119489. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) may play an important role in neuropathic pain. Treatment for trigeminal neuropathic pain remains a challenge, as common drugs either do not demonstrate beneficial therapeutic effects or induce intolerance in patients.

Main Methods: In a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain, pain caused by the malpositioning of dental implants is similar to that experienced by humans. Read More

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