36,265 results match your criteria microbiome metabolism


Soil applied Ca, Mg and B altered phyllosphere and rhizosphere bacterial microbiome and reduced Huanglongbing incidence in Gannan Navel Orange.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 26;791:148046. Epub 2021 May 26.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer, Wuhan 430070, China; Research Center of Trace Elements, Wuhan 430070, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Huanglongbing (HLB) caused by 'Ca. Liberibacter. Asiaticus (Clas)' is one of the destructive diseases for citrus, threatening the development of citrus industry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy as an Informational Reservoir Dynamically Linked to Metabolic and Immunological Processes Associated with COVID-19 Neurological Disorders.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center for Cognitive and Molecular Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is the dynamically determined co-expression of wild type (WT) inherited polymorphisms and collective time-dependent somatic mutations within individual mtDNA genomes. The temporal expression and distribution of cell-specific and tissue-specific mtDNA heteroplasmy in healthy individuals may be functionally associated with intracellular mitochondrial signaling pathways and nuclear DNA gene expression. The maintenance of endogenously regulated tissue-specific copy numbers of heteroplasmic mtDNA may represent a sensitive biomarker of homeostasis of mitochondrial dynamics, metabolic integrity, and immune competence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The biological underpinnings of therapeutic resistance in pancreatic cancer.

Genes Dev 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and has only recently achieved a 5-yr survival rate of 10%. This dismal prognosis reflects the remarkable capacity of PDAC to effectively adapt to and resist therapeutic intervention. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the biological underpinnings of PDAC and their implications as targetable vulnerabilities in this highly lethal disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Atopic dermatitis: Role of the skin barrier, environment, microbiome, and therapeutic agents.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Dermatology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disorder characterized by eczematous and pruritic skin lesions. In recent decades, the prevalence of AD has increased worldwide, most notably in developing countries. The enormous progress in our understanding of the complex composition and functions of the epidermal barrier allows for a deeper appreciation of the active role that the skin barrier plays in the initiation and maintenance of skin inflammation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Maternal gut microbiota displays minor changes in overweight and obese women with GDM.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Mater Research Institute-The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Department of Endocrinology, Mater Health, Australia. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Previous literature have shown a diversity of findings regarding the relationship between the maternal gut microbiota and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We investigated the gut microbiota of overweight and obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) against matched euglycaemic women at 16 and 28-weeks' gestation.

Methods And Results: This study included women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) cohort. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Probiotics alleviate adipose inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity by restoring adipose invariant natural killer T cells.

Nutrition 2021 Apr 25;89:111285. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China.

Objective: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which are depleted in obese individuals, play important roles in preventing diet-induced obesity and associated disorders. Probiotic supplementation can alter the gut microbiota and immunomodulation in obesity. However, it remains unclear whether probiotics can affect visceral adipose iNKT cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between vaginal microbiota and risk of early pregnancy miscarriage.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 10;77:101669. Epub 2021 May 10.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China. Electronic address:

Approximately 15 % of clinically recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage. To explore the vaginal microbiota profile in women diagnosed with early pregnancy miscarriage (including missed miscarriage [M] or empty-sac miscarriage [E]), the microbial community structure in vaginal fluid was evaluated by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 region and compared with that in women with normal pregnancy (P). Taxa identified in samples from the P, E, and M groups formed distinct clusters. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Telmisartan induces a specific gut microbiota signature which may mediate its antiobesity effect Anti-obesity effect of telmisartan and the gut microbiota.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 8:105724. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lübeck, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; CBBM (Center of Brain, Behavior and Metabolism). Electronic address:

Telmisartan prevents diet-induced obesity (DIO) in rodents. Given that the precise underlying mechanism is not known, we examined whether a gut-related mechanism might be involved. Sprague-Dawley rats received cafeteria diet (CD) for 3 months to develop DIO and were administered either telmisartan (8mg/kg) or vehicle. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Specification and Function of Enteroendocrine Cells in Drosophila and Mammals: A Comparative Review.

FEBS J 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

National Institute of Biological Sciences, No. 7 Science Park Road, Zhongguancun Life Science Park, Beijing, 102206, China.

Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) in both invertebrates and vertebrates derive from intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and are scattered along the digestive tract, where they function in sensing various environmental stimuli and subsequently secrete neurotransmitters or neuropeptides to regulate diverse biological and physiological processes. To fulfill these functions, EECs are specified into multiple subtypes that occupy specific gut regions. With advances in single-cell technology, organoid culture experimental systems, and CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genomic editing, rapid progress has been made towards characterization of EEC subtypes in mammals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effect of lipid metabolism regulator anthocyanins from on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and C57BL/6 mice activating AMPK signaling and gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Food Science and Engineering, College of Agriculture, Yanbian University, Yanji 133000, Jilin, China. and Department of Food Science and Engineering, College of Integration Science, Yanbian University, Yanji 133000, Jilin, China.

This study investigated lipid metabolism regulation by anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa (AAM) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and high fat diet (HFD) mice. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis identified the constituents of AAM, which decreased lipid content and inflammation in 3T3-L1 cells without cytotoxicity. Meanwhile, taking normal diet and orlistat mice as references, AAM supplementation improved blood lipid levels and adipocyte degeneration, promoted beneficial gut microbial growth, and maintained lipid metabolism in HFD mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plant-Based Diet Index and Metabolic Risk in Men: Exploring the Role of the Gut Microbiome.

J Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI) is associated with a lower risk of cardiometabolic conditions, but its association as well as interactions with microbiome have not been elucidated.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the interrelations between hPDI, gut microbiome, and cardiometabolic risk markers.

Methods: hPDI was derived from dietary assessments by a validated FFQ and was examined in relation to metagenomic profiles of 911 fecal samples collected from 303 men aged 71 ± 4 y with an average BMI (in kg/m2) of 25. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rumen Microbiota of Tibetan Sheep () Adaptation to Extremely Cold Season on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:673822. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized by low temperatures and hypoxia, and this feature is more obvious in the winter. However, it is not clear how Tibetan sheep adapt to extreme cold climates. To address this, we used physiological methods combined with next-generation sequencing technology to explore the differences in growth performance, forage nutrient digestion, serum biochemical indexes, and rumen microbial communities of Tibetan sheep () between the summer and winter. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Binary Metabolic Phenotypes and Phenotype Diversity Metrics for the Functional Characterization of Microbial Communities.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:653314. Epub 2021 May 25.

A.A. Kharkevich Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

The profiling of 16S rRNA revolutionized the exploration of microbiomes, allowing to describe community composition by enumerating relevant taxa and their abundances. However, taxonomic profiles alone lack interpretability in terms of bacterial metabolism, and their translation into functional characteristics of microbiomes is a challenging task. This bottom-up approach minimally requires a reference collection of major metabolic traits deduced from the complete genomes of individual organisms, an accurate method of projecting these traits from a reference collection to the analyzed amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), and, ultimately, an approach to a microbiome-wide aggregation of predicted individual traits into physiologically relevant cumulative metrics to characterize and compare multiple microbiome samples. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Supplier-origin mouse microbiomes significantly influence locomotor and anxiety-related behavior, body morphology, and metabolism.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 10;4(1):716. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri Metagenomics Center (MUMC), University of Missouri (MU), Columbia, MO, USA.

The mouse is the most commonly used model species in biomedical research. Just as human physical and mental health are influenced by the commensal gut bacteria, mouse models of disease are influenced by the fecal microbiome (FM). The source of mice represents one of the strongest influences on the FM and can influence the phenotype of disease models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Zinc.

Adv Food Nutr Res 2021 24;96:251-310. Epub 2021 May 24.

IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia; Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russia. Electronic address:

Since the discovery of manifest Zn deficiency in 1961, the increasing number of studies demonstrated the association between altered Zn status and multiple diseases. In this chapter, we provide a review of the most recent advances on the role of Zn in health and disease (2010-20), with a special focus on the role of Zn in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, diabetes and obesity, male and female reproduction, as well as COVID-19. In parallel with the revealed tight association between ASD risk and severity and Zn status, the particular mechanisms linking Zn and ASD pathogenesis like modulation of synaptic plasticity through ProSAP/Shank scaffold, neurotransmitter metabolism, and gut microbiota, have been elucidated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mass spectrometry-based urinary metabolomics for exploring the treatment effects of Radix ginseng-Schisandra chinensis herb pair on Alzheimer's disease in rats.

J Sep Sci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, National Center of Mass Spectrometry in Changchun, Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, China.

Herb pairs are the unique combinations of two relatively fixed herbs, intrinsically convey the basic idea of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. The compatibility of Radix ginseng and Schisandra chinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating Alzheimer's disease for many years. However, there are few studies on Radix ginseng-Schisandra chinensis herb pair, and the underlying action mechanism is still unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Markers of metabolic health and gut microbiome diversity: findings from two population-based cohort studies.

Diabetologia 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer-WHO, Lyon, France.

Aims/hypothesis: The gut microbiome is hypothesised to be related to insulin resistance and other metabolic variables. However, data from population-based studies are limited. We investigated associations between serologic measures of metabolic health and the gut microbiome in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) and the TwinsUK cohort. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

strains derived from human gut ameliorate metabolic disorders via modulation of gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acids metabolism.

Benef Microbes 2021 Jun 10;12(3):267-281. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China P.R.

Regulation on gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are believed to be a pathway to suppress the development of metabolic syndrome. In this study, three strains derived from the human gut were investigated for their effects on alleviation of metabolic disorders. These strains were individually administered to metabolic disorder rats induced by high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Consuming Different Structural Parts of Bamboo Induce Gut Microbiome Changes in Captive Giant Pandas.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Chengdu, 610081, China.

Giant pandas consume different structural parts of bamboo (shoots, leaves and culms) during different seasons. Previous research showed different bamboo parts have varying nutritional content and that a long-term diet consisting of a single part of bamboo resulted in remarkable metabolic changes within captive giant pandas. However, the effects on the gut microbiome of giant pandas, as a result of a single bamboo part diet, have not been investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vitamin K Vitamers Differently Affect Energy Metabolism in IPEC-J2 Cells.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 24;8:682191. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Veterinary Medical Science, University of Bologna, Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

The fat-soluble vitamin K (VK) has long been known as a requirement for blood coagulation, but like other vitamins, has been recently recognized to play further physiological roles, particularly in cell development and homeostasis. Vertebrates cannot synthesize VK, which is essential, and it can only be obtained from the diet or by the activity of the gut microbiota. The IPEC-J2 cell line, obtained from porcine small intestine, which shows strong similarities to the human one, represents an excellent functional model to study the effect of compounds at the intestinal level. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evolving Interplay Between Dietary Polyphenols and Gut Microbiota-An Emerging Importance in Healthcare.

Front Nutr 2021 24;8:634944. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, India.

Polyphenols are natural plant compounds and are the most abundant antioxidants in the human diet. As the gastrointestinal tract is the primary organ provided to diet sections, the diet may be regarded as one of the essential factors in the functionality, integrity, and composition of intestinal microbiota. In the gastrointestinal tract, many polyphenols remain unabsorbed and may accumulate in the large intestine, where the intestinal microbiota are most widely metabolized. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

is a newly isolated human commensal bacterium preventing diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders in mice.

Gut 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group (MNUT), Walloon Excellence in Life Sciences and BIOtechnology (WELBIO), UCLouvain, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

Objective: To investigate the abundance and the prevalence of J115, a novel butyrate-producing bacterium isolated from the human gut both in the general population and in subjects with metabolic syndrome. To study the impact of this bacterium on host metabolism using diet-induced obese and diabetic mice.

Design: We analysed the presence and abundance of the bacterium in 11 984 subjects using four human cohorts (ie, Human Microbiome Project, American Gut Project, Flemish Gut Flora Project and Microbes4U). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The clinical impact of maternal weight on offspring health: lights and shadows in breast milk metabolome.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, AOU and University of Cagliari. SS 554 km 4,500, 09042 Monserrato. Italy.

Introduction: Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity, depending on maternal nutrition and metabolic state, can influence fetal, neonatal and long-term offspring health, regarding cardio-metabolic, respiratory, immunological and cognitive outcomes. Thus, maternal weight can act, through mechanisms that are not full understood, on the physiology and metabolism of some fetal organs and tissues, to adapt themselves to the intrauterine environment and nutritional reserves. These effects could occur by modulating gene expression, neonatal microbiome, and through breastfeeding. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Advances in research on the relationship between bile acid, gut microbiota and the occurrence and development of cholangiocarcinoma].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 May;29(5):493-496

Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital With Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a kind of malignant tumor that originates from the bile duct epithelium. Due to its insidious nature, there is no effective early diagnosis and treatment method. Therefore, once it is detected, it is at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gut-Liver Axis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: the Impact of the Metagenome, End Products, and the Epithelial and Vascular Barriers.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 May 8;41(2):191-205. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

SeLiver Group at Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS), Virgen del Rocio University Hospital/CSIC/University of Seville, Seville, Spain.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a systemic, dynamic, heterogeneous, and multiaxis entity, the pathogenesis of which is still uncertain. The gut-liver axis is regulated and stabilized by a complex network encompassing a metabolic, immune, and neuroendocrine cross-talk between the gut, the microbiota, and the liver. Changes in the gut-liver axis affect the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates in the hepatocytes, and they impact the balance of inflammatory mediators and cause metabolic deregulation, promoting NAFLD and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of the Gut Microbiota in Stroke Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Implications.

Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Jun 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Major advances have been made in stroke treatment and prevention in the past decades. However, the burden of stroke remains high. Identification of novel targets and establishment of effective interventions to improve stroke outcomes are, therefore, needed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bacterial microcompartments and their role in pathogenicity.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2021 Jun 6;63:19-28. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Pathology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

Catabolic bacterial microcompartments (BMC), or metabolosomes, are self-assembling structures formed by enzymes enclosed by porous protein shells. They provide a specialised environment inside bacterial cells separating a short catabolic pathway with reactive or toxic intermediates from the cytoplasm. Substrates for microcompartment metabolism like ethanolamine and 1,2-propanediol are constantly produced in the human intestine by bacterial metabolism of food or host cell components. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microbiota-derived acetate activates intestinal innate immunity via the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase complex.

Immunity 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Microbe-derived acetate activates the Drosophila immunodeficiency (IMD) pathway in a subset of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) of the anterior midgut. In these cells, the IMD pathway co-regulates expression of antimicrobial and enteroendocrine peptides including tachykinin, a repressor of intestinal lipid synthesis. To determine whether acetate acts on a cell surface pattern recognition receptor or an intracellular target, we asked whether acetate import was essential for IMD signaling. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

HAC01 ameliorates type 2 diabetes in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice in association with modulating the gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

AtoGen Co., Ltd, Daejeon, 34015, Korea.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a serious metabolic disorder that occurs worldwide; however, this condition can be managed with probiotics. We assessed the potential therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 on hyperglycemia and T2DM and determined their potential mechanisms using mice with high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The diabetic model was established with an HFD and 50 mg kg-1 STZ. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF