76 results match your criteria microbiome β-diversity

Individual and Group Response of Treatment with Ivacaftor on Airway and Gut Microbiota in People with CF and a S1251N Mutation.

J Pers Med 2021 Apr 27;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital-University Medical Center, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 85090, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Ivacaftor has been shown to restore the functionality of the S1251N (also known as c.3752G>A) mutated CFTR, which may cause alterations in both airway and gut physiology and micro-environment, resulting in a change of microbiota in these organs. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of ivacaftor on the microbial community composition of both airway and gut in subjects with CF carrying one S1251N mutation, using a 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing approach. Read More

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Gut microbiota characterization in Chinese patients with alopecia areata.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 May 15;102(2):109-115. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: The gut microbiota is known to play a key role in autoimmune diseases.

Objectives: To identify and compare the characteristics in the gut microbial composition of patients with alopecia areata (AA) and healthy controls (HCs).

Methods: In a cross-sectional discovery cohort, we enrolled 33 patients with AA and 35 HCs from the same geographic location in Shanghai, China. Read More

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The aerobiome uncovered: Multi-marker metabarcoding reveals potential drivers of turn-over in the full microbial community in the air.

Environ Int 2021 Sep 12;154:106551. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Wageningen Environmental Research, Wageningen University & Research, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Air is a major conduit for the dispersal of organisms at the local and the global scale. Most research has focused on the dispersal of plants, vertebrates and human disease agents. However, the air represents a key dispersal medium also for bacteria, fungi and protists. Read More

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September 2021

High Diversity of β-Glucosidase-Producing Bacteria and Their Genes Associated with Scleractinian Corals.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 29;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Coral Reef Research Center of China, Guangxi Laboratory on the Study of Coral Reefs in the South China Sea, School of Marine Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

β-Glucosidase is a microbial cellulose multienzyme that plays an important role in the regulation of the entire cellulose hydrolysis process, which is the rate-limiting step in bacterial carbon cycling in marine environments. Despite its importance in coral reefs, the diversity of β-glucosidase-producing bacteria, their genes, and enzymatic characteristics are poorly understood. In this study, 87 β-glucosidase-producing cultivable bacteria were screened from 6 genera of corals. Read More

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Microbial environment shapes immune function and cloacal microbiota dynamics in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

Anim Microbiome 2020 Jun 3;2(1):21. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 11103, 9700 CC, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The relevance of the host microbiota to host ecology and evolution is well acknowledged. However, the effect of the microbial environment on host immune function and host microbiota dynamics is understudied in terrestrial vertebrates. Using a novel experimental approach centered on the manipulation of the microbial environment of zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, we carried out a study to investigate effects of the host's microbial environment on: 1) constitutive immune function, 2) the resilience of the host cloacal microbiota; and 3) the degree to which immune function and host microbiota covary in microbial environments that differ in diversity. Read More

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sp. nov., isolated from refrigerated beef.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Feb;71(2)

Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food, Department of Safety and Quality of Meat, E.-C.-Baumann-Straße 20, D-95326 Kulmbach, Germany.

During a project focusing on the diversity of meat microbiota associated with beef ripening, a strain was isolated exhibiting high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (>99 %) to DSM 107652, DSM 29167, DSM 29164 and DSM 18862. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete gene sequences of the isolate V5/DAB/2/5 indicated a separate branch with about 99.0 % nucleotide identities to the closest relatives DSM 107652, DSM 29167 and DSM 29164, while average nucleotide identities (ANIb) calculated from the draft genomes were 94. Read More

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February 2021

Chronic stress and corticosterone exacerbate alcohol-induced tissue injury in the gut-liver-brain axis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):826. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 3 N Dunlap, Suite S303, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

Alcohol use disorders are associated with altered stress responses, but the impact of stress or stress hormones on alcohol-associated tissue injury remain unknown. We evaluated the effects of chronic restraint stress on alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction and liver damage in mice. To determine whether corticosterone is the stress hormone associated with the stress-induced effects, we evaluated the effect of chronic corticosterone treatment on alcoholic tissue injury at the Gut-Liver-Brain (GLB) axis. Read More

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January 2021

Abundance and diversity of epiphytic microbiota on forage crops and their fermentation characteristic during the ensiling of sterile sudan grass.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jan 12;37(2):27. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Institute of Ensiling and Processing of Grass, College of Agro-Grassland Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang 1, Nanjing, 210095, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous epiphytic microbiota inoculation on the fermentation quality and microbial community of sudan grass silage. Gamma irradiated sudan grass was ensiled with distilled water (STR), epiphytic microbiota of sudan grass (SUDm), forage sorghum (FSm), napier grass (NAPm) and whole crop corn (WCCm). The FSm inoculated silage have significantly lower lactic acid (LA) concentration and higher pH during early ensiling, while LA concentration gradually and significantly increased with the progression of ensiling and have lower pH in relation to other treatments for terminal silage. Read More

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January 2021

The microbiome and the immune system in critical illness.

Curr Opin Crit Care 2021 04;27(2):157-163

Department of Surgery and Emory Critical Care Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Although the gut microbiome plays a crucial role in the maintenance of health, it is hypothesized to drive morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. This review describes the relationship between the gut microbiome and the immune system in critical illness.

Recent Findings: The gut microbiome is converted to a pathobiome in the ICU, characterized by decreased microbial diversity and pathogen predominance. Read More

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A meta-analysis of the effect of binge drinking on the oral microbiome and its relation to Alzheimer's disease.

Sci Rep 2020 11 16;10(1):19872. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Biological Science, Seton Hall University, 400 S Orange Ave, South Orange, NJ, 07079, USA.

The diversity of bacterial species in the oral cavity makes it a key site for research. The close proximity of the oral cavity to the brain and the blood brain barrier enhances the interest to study this site. Changes in the oral microbiome are linked to multiple systemic diseases. Read More

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November 2020

In Vitro Prebiotic Effects of Malto-Oligosaccharides Containing Water-Soluble Dietary Fiber.

Molecules 2020 Nov 9;25(21). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Integrated Biomedical and Life Science, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

This study measured the proliferative activity of malto-oligosaccharide (MOS) as a prebiotic against Bifidobacteria, resistance to digestion in vitro, and changes during in vitro fermentation by human fecal microorganisms. It consisted of 21.74%, 18. Read More

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November 2020

Antibiotic-induced disruption of commensal microbiome linked to increases in binge-like ethanol consumption behavior.

Brain Res 2020 11 19;1747:147067. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Titus Family Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, 1985 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089, United States. Electronic address:

Research focusing on the gut-brain axis is growing, but the interplay of ethanol (alcohol molecule), the gut microbiome, the brain and behavior is poorly understood. In the current study, we remodeled the gut microbiota by providing adult male C57BL/6J mice with a non-absorbable antibiotic cocktail (ABX) in the drinking water and tested ethanol consumption behavior in a binge-like "Drinking in the Dark" model. Notably, 2 weeks of ABX pre-treatment significantly increased ethanol consumption during the 6 weeks of ethanol exposure in the DID paradigm. Read More

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November 2020

Influence of proton pump inhibitor or rebamipide use on gut microbiota of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 02;60(2):708-716

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Patients with RA commonly use gastrointestinal (GI) protective drugs for treatment and prevention of drug-associated GI injuries. However, how these drugs affect the gut microbiota in RA patients remains unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the gut microbiota of RA patients according to use of GI protective drugs such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine 2-receptor antagonists and rebamipide. Read More

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February 2021

Impact of dichlorprop on soil microbial community structure and diversity during its enantioselective biodegradation in agricultural soils.

J Environ Sci Health B 2020 6;55(11):974-982. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Center for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Enantioselective biodegradation of racemic dichlorprop in two soils was investigated in the laboratory. Chiral separation of racemic dichlorprop was achieved by using HPLC with Phenomenex Lux Amylose-2. The first-order kinetic model fitted well the dissipation data of racemic dichlorprop and its pure R- and S-enantiomers. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of chronic cyclic heat stress on the intestinal morphology, oxidative status and cecal bacterial communities in broilers.

J Therm Biol 2020 Jul 16;91:102619. Epub 2020 May 16.

College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to examine the effects of chronic cyclic heat stress (HS) on the intestinal morphology, oxidative stress and cecal bacterial communities of broilers. One-day-old Arbor Acres (AA) male broilers (n = 100) were acclimated for 3 weeks and then randomly allocated into two groups, normal control (NC) group (22 ± 1 °C, 24 h/day) and HS group (32 ± 1 °C, 10 h/day lasted for 2 weeks). At 35 d of age, intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and cecal digesta were collected for detection. Read More

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Epigallocatechin gallate but not catechin prevents nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice similar to green tea extract while differentially affecting the gut microbiota.

J Nutr Biochem 2020 10 20;84:108455. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Human Nutrition Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Catechin-rich green tea extract (GTE) protects against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by alleviating gut-derived endotoxin translocation and hepatic Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-nuclear factor κB (NFκB) inflammation. We hypothesized that intact GTE would attenuate NASH-associated responses along the gut-liver axis to a greater extent than purified (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) or (+)-catechin (CAT). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet, a high-fat (HF) diet, or the HF diet with 2% GTE, 0. Read More

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October 2020

Bacterial metabolism rescues the inhibition of intestinal drug absorption by food and drug additives.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 07 22;117(27):16009-16018. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, G.W. Hooper Research Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143;

Food and drug products contain diverse and abundant small-molecule additives (excipients) with unclear impacts on human physiology, drug safety, and response. Here, we evaluate their potential impact on intestinal drug absorption. By screening 136 unique compounds for inhibition of the key intestinal transporter OATP2B1 we identified and validated 24 potent OATP2B1 inhibitors, characterized by higher molecular weight and hydrophobicity compared to poor or noninhibitors. Read More

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Ursolic acid reverses liver fibrosis by inhibiting interactive NOX4/ROS and RhoA/ROCK1 signalling pathways.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 06 3;12(11):10614-10632. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Liver fibrosis is the reversible deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and scar formation after liver damage by various stimuli. The interaction between NOX4/ROS and RhoA/ROCK1 in liver fibrosis is not yet clear. Ursolic acid (UA) is a traditional Chinese medicine with anti-fibrotic effects, but the molecular mechanism underlying these effects is still unclear. Read More

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Potential role of gut microbiota, the proto-oncogene PIKE (Agap2) and cytochrome P450 CYP2W1 in promotion of liver cancer by alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and protection by dietary soy protein.

Chem Biol Interact 2020 Jul 14;325:109131. Epub 2020 May 14.

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, USA.

We have previously demonstrated promotion of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiated liver tumorigenesis after feeding diets high in fat or ethanol (EtOH) to male mice. This was accompanied by hepatic induction of the proto-oncogene PIKE (Agap2). Switch of dietary protein from casein to soy protein isolate (SPI) significantly reduced tumor formation in these models. Read More

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IL-37 Ameliorating Allergic Inflammation in Atopic Dermatitis Through Regulating Microbiota and AMPK-mTOR Signaling Pathway-Modulated Autophagy Mechanism.

Front Immunol 2020 28;11:752. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Interaction between eosinophils and dermal fibroblasts is essential for provoking allergic inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD). co-culture of human eosinophils and dermal fibroblasts upon AD-related IL-31 and IL-33 stimulation, and MC903-induced AD murine model were employed to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of IL-1 family cytokine IL-37 in AD. Results showed that IL-37b could inhibit the induction of AD-related pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and chemokines CXCL8, CCL2 and CCL5, increase autophagosome biogenesis-related LC3B, and decrease autophagy-associated ubiquitinated protein p62 by regulating intracellular AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Read More

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High-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing of the pulmonary microbiome of rats with allergic asthma.

Genes Dis 2020 Jun 3;7(2):272-282. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Laboratory of Innovation, Basic Medical Experimental Teaching Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401331, China.

A decrease in microbial infection in adolescents is implicated with an increase in the incidence of asthma and allergic diseases in adulthood, indicating that the microbiome plays a critical role in asthma. However, the microbial composition of the lower respiratory tract remains unclear, hindering the further exploration of the pathogenesis of asthma. This study aims to explore the microbial distribution and composition in the lungs of normal rats and rats with allergic asthma via 16S rDNA sequencing. Read More

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Honeybee gut microbiota dysbiosis in pesticide/parasite co-exposures is mainly induced by Nosema ceranae.

J Invertebr Pathol 2020 05 28;172:107348. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, Laboratoire Microorganismes: Génome et Environnement, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address:

Honeybees ensure a key ecosystem service by pollinating many agricultural crops and wild plants. However, in the past few decades, managed bee colonies have been declining in Europe and North America. Researchers have emphasized both parasites and pesticides as the most important factors. Read More

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Effect of fructans, prebiotics and fibres on the human gut microbiome assessed by 16S rRNA-based approaches: a review.

Benef Microbes 2020 Mar 19;11(2):101-129. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

The inherent and diverse capacity of dietary fibres, nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) and prebiotics to modify the gut microbiota and markedly influence health status of the host has attracted rising interest. Research and collective initiatives to determine the composition and diversity of the human gut microbiota have increased over the past decade due to great advances in high-throughput technologies, particularly the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. Here we reviewed the application of 16S rRNA-based molecular technologies, both community wide (sequencing and phylogenetic microarrays) and targeted methodologies (quantitative PCR, fluorescent hybridisation) to study the effect of chicory inulin-type fructans, NDOs and specific added fibres, such as resistant starches, on the human intestinal microbiota. Read More

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Fecal Microbiome Distinguishes Alcohol Consumption From Alcoholic Hepatitis But Does Not Discriminate Disease Severity.

Hepatology 2020 07;72(1):271-286

Divison of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.

Background And Aims: The role of the intestinal microbiome in alcoholic hepatitis is not established. The aims of this study were to (1) characterize the fecal microbial ecology associated with alcoholic hepatitis, (2) relate microbiome changes to disease severity, and (3) infer the functional relevance of shifts in microbial ecology.

Approach And Results: The fecal microbiome in patients with moderate alcoholic hepatitis (MAH) or severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) was compared with healthy controls (HCs) and heavy drinking controls (HDCs). Read More

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The effect of intramammary pirlimycin hydrochloride on the fecal microbiome of early-lactation heifers.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Apr 7;103(4):3459-3469. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia 65211.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intramammary pirlimycin on the fecal microbiome of dairy cattle. Primiparous heifers were enrolled and assigned to a treatment or control group at a ratio of 2:1. In part 1 of the study, treated heifers (T1) were given intramammary pirlimycin into one infected quarter once daily for 2 d at 24-h intervals, according to the label instructions. Read More

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Dietary Synbiotic Supplementation Protects Barrier Integrity of Hepatocytes and Liver Sinusoidal Endothelium in a Mouse Model of Chronic-Binge Ethanol Exposure.

Nutrients 2020 Jan 31;12(2). Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Inflammation & Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Alcohol overconsumption disrupts the gut microbiota and intestinal barrier, which decreases the production of beneficial microbial metabolic byproducts and allows for translocation of pathogenic bacterial-derived byproducts into the portal-hepatic circulation. As ethanol is known to damage liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), here we evaluated dietary supplementation with a previously studied synbiotic on gut microbial composition, and hepatocyte and LSEC integrity in mice exposed to ethanol. We tested a chronic-binge ethanol feeding mouse model in which C57BL/6 female mice were fed ethanol (5% vol/vol) for 10 days and provided a single ethanol gavage (5 g/kg body weight) on day 11, 6 h before euthanasia. Read More

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January 2020

Profiling of the viable bacterial and fungal microbiota in fermented feeds using single-molecule real-time sequencing.

J Anim Sci 2020 Feb;98(2)

Department of Laboratory Animal Science, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Fermented concentrated feed has been widely recognized as an ideal feed in the animal industry. In this study, we used a powerful method, coupling propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment with single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology to compare the bacterial and fungal composition of feeds before and after fermentation with four added lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants (one Lactobacillus casei strain and three L. plantarum strains). Read More

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February 2020

Differential effects of synthetic psychoactive cathinones and amphetamine stimulants on the gut microbiome in mice.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(1):e0227774. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Research and Development Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America.

The list of pharmacological agents that can modify the gut microbiome or be modified by it continues to grow at a high rate. The greatest amount of attention on drug-gut microbiome interactions has been directed primarily at pharmaceuticals used to treat infection, diabetes, cardiovascular conditions and cancer. By comparison, drugs of abuse and addiction, which can powerfully and chronically worsen human health, have received relatively little attention in this regard. Read More

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Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoate (HMTBa) supplementation on rumen bacterial populations in dairy cows when exposed to diets with risk for milk fat depression.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Mar 19;103(3):2718-2730. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802.

Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) is a condition marked by a reduction in milk fat yield experimentally achieved by increasing dietary unsaturated fatty acids and fermentable carbohydrates. 2-Hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoate (HMTBa) is a methionine analog observed to reduce diet-induced MFD in dairy cows. We hypothesize that the reduction in diet-induced MFD by HMTBa is due to changes in the rumen microbiota. Read More

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Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Faecal Microbiota: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

Nutrients 2019 Nov 27;11(12). Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3168 Australia.

In animal studies, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve gut microbiota and intestinal inflammation. However, limited evidence exists on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the human gut microbiota. We examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on faecal microbiota in 26 vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≤50 nmol/L), overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m) otherwise healthy adults. Read More

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November 2019