8,067 results match your criteria microbial translocation

Increased LPS levels coexist with systemic inflammation and result in monocyte activation in severe COVID-19 patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 9;100:108125. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Graduate Program in Biosciences, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Mucosal barrier alterations may play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including COVID-19. In this study we evaluate the association between bacterial translocation markers and systemic inflammation at the earliest time-point after hospitalization and at the last 72 h of hospitalization in survivors and non-survivors COVID-19 patients. Sixty-six SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients and nine non-COVID-19 pneumonia controls were admitted in this study. Read More

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September 2021

Diketopiperazine Modulates Arabidopsis Thaliana Root System Architecture by Promoting Interactions of Auxin Receptor TIR1 and IAA7/17 Proteins.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tropical Biological Resources of Ministry Education, Hainan University, Haikou, 571157 China.

Plants can detect the quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules of microorganisms, such as amino acids, fat derivatives, and diketopiperazines (DKPs), thus allowing the exchange information to promote plant growth and development. Here, we evaluated the effects of 12 synthesized DKPs on Arabidopsis thaliana roots and studied their underlying mechanisms of action. Results showed that, as QS signal molecules, the DKPs promoted lateral root development and root hair formation in Arabidopsis thaliana to differing degrees. Read More

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September 2021

Enterococcal Endocarditis: Hiding in Plain Sight.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 30;11:722482. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

is a major opportunistic bacterial pathogen of increasing clinical relevance. A substantial body of experimental evidence suggests that early biofilm formation plays a critical role in these infections, as well as in colonization and persistence in the GI tract as a commensal member of the microbiome in most terrestrial animals. Animal models of experimental endocarditis generally involve inducing mechanical valve damage by cardiac catheterization prior to infection, and it has long been presumed that endocarditis vegetation formation resulting from bacterial attachment to the endocardial endothelium requires some pre-existing tissue damage. Read More

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Heavy metals uptake and translocation of typical wetland plants and their ecological effects on the coastal soil of a contaminated bay in Northeast China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 25;803:149871. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China.

Heavy metal pollution in coastal zone is a global environment problem concerning the international society. As an eco-friendly and economical method, phytoremediation is a promising strategy for improving heavy metal pollution in coastal soil. In order to alleviate the ecological risk of heavy metal pollution in Jinzhou Bay, a typical and important heavy industrial area in China, three local wetland plants (Scirpus validus, Typha orientalis and Phragmites australis) were selected and planted in the field. Read More

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MtNPF6.5 mediates chloride uptake and nitrate preference in Medicago roots.

EMBO J 2021 Sep 15:e106847. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

CAS-JIC Centre of Excellence for Plant and Microbial Science (CEPAMS), Centre for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences (CEMPS), Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology (SIPPE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

The preference for nitrate over chloride through regulation of transporters is a fundamental feature of plant ion homeostasis. We show that Medicago truncatula MtNPF6.5, an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana AtNPF6. Read More

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September 2021

Obeticholic Acid Decreases Intestinal Content of Enterococcus in Rats With Cirrhosis and Ascites.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Sep 10;5(9):1507-1517. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Digestive Diseases Section, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

The intestinal microbiome and bacterial translocation (BT), the passage of microorganisms from the gut lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes and other extra-intestinal sites, are main mechanisms implicated in liver injury and further decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We hypothesized that obeticholic acid (OCA), a semisynthetic bile acid, would change the microbiome composition and reduce bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis. Rats with cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride inhalation (a nonseptic model) with ascites present for at least 7 days were randomized to receive a 14-day course of OCA at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day (n = 34) or placebo (n = 34). Read More

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September 2021

Opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida spp.: Secreted and membrane-bound virulence factors.

Med Mycol 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Enzyme Technology and X-ray Crystallography Laboratory, VacBio 5, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida spp. especially Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. Read More

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September 2021

Host-Microbiota Interactions in Liver Inflammation and Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 27;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

ImmunoConcEpT, CNRS, UMR 5164, University of Bordeaux, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a classical inflammation-promoted cancer that occurs in a setting of liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or alcoholic liver disease (ALD). These pathologies share key characteristics, notably intestinal dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability and an imbalance in bile acids, choline, fatty acids and ethanol metabolites. Translocation of microbial- and danger-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs and DAMPs) from the gut to the liver elicits profound chronic inflammation, leading to severe hepatic injury and eventually HCC progression. Read More

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AMPK Phosphorylation Is Controlled by Glucose Transport Rate in a PKA-Independent Manner.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 31;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy.

To achieve growth, microbial organisms must cope with stresses and adapt to the environment, exploiting the available nutrients with the highest efficiency. In , Ras/PKA and Snf1/AMPK pathways regulate cellular metabolism according to the supply of glucose, alternatively supporting fermentation or mitochondrial respiration. Many reports have highlighted crosstalk between these two pathways, even without providing a comprehensive mechanism of regulation. Read More

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Gut microbiome in acute pancreatitis: A review based on current literature.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Aug;27(30):5019-5036

Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore.

The gut microbiome is a complex microbial community, recognized for its potential role in physiology, health, and disease. The available evidence supports the role of gut dysbiosis in pancreatic disorders, including acute pancreatitis (AP). In AP, the presence of gut barrier damage resulting in increased mucosal permeability may lead to translocation of intestinal bacteria, necrosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tissue, and infection, often accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Read More

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Increasing the PACE of characterising novel transporters by functional genomics.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2021 Sep 4;64:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Synthetic Biology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Department of Molecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Since the late 1990's the genome sequences for thousands of species of bacteria have been released into public databases. The release of each new genome sequence typically revealed the presence of tens to hundreds of uncharacterised genes encoding putative membrane proteins and more recently, microbial metagenomics has revealed countless more of these uncharacterised genes. Given the importance of small molecule efflux in bacteria, it is likely that a significant proportion of these genes encode for novel efflux proteins, but the elucidation of these functions is challenging. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of nanofertilizers on soil and plant-associated microbial communities: Emerging trends and perspectives.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 31;287(Pt 2):132107. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

School of Biotechnology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India; Enzyme Technology and Protein Bioinformatics Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, 124001, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

Modern agricultural practices are relying excessively upon the use of synthetic fertilizers to supply essential nutrients to promote crop productivity. Though useful in the short term, their prolonged and persistent applications are harmful to soil fertility and nutrient dynamics of the rhizospheric microbiome. The application of nanotechnology in form of nanofertilizer provides an innovative, efficient, and eco-friendly alternative to synthetic fertilizers. Read More

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A comparison between the function of Serendipita indica and Sinorhizobium meliloti in modulating the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Resource Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD, USA.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are among the most commonly used nano-fertilizers (NF). However, elevated levels of ZnO-NPs in soil may affect plant growth and development due to its potential toxicity when accumulated in large amounts in plant tissues. This research was conducted using an in situ rhizobox system with the aims of evaluating zinc uptake from nano-zinc oxide amended rhizosphere soil by alfalfa plant and the effect of plant growth-promoting microorganisms on alleviating the phytotoxicity of ZnO-NPs. Read More

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September 2021

Nanopore sequencing at Mars, Europa, and microgravity conditions.

NPJ Microgravity 2020 Sep 7;6(1):24. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Nanopore sequencing, as represented by Oxford Nanopore Technologies' MinION, is a promising technology for in situ life detection and for microbial monitoring including in support of human space exploration, due to its small size, low mass (~100 g) and low power (~1 W). Now ubiquitous on Earth and previously demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS), nanopore sequencing involves translocation of DNA through a biological nanopore on timescales of milliseconds per base. Nanopore sequencing is now being done in both controlled lab settings as well as in diverse environments that include ground, air, and space vehicles. Read More

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September 2020

Integrative immunoinformatics paradigm for predicting potential B-cell and T-cell epitopes as viable candidates for subunit vaccine design against COVID-19 virulence.

Biomed J 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Molecular Bio-computation and Drug Design Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: The increase in global mortality rates from SARS-COV2 (COVID-19) infection has been alarming thereby necessitating the continual search for viable therapeutic interventions. Due to minimal microbial components, subunit (peptide-based) vaccines have demonstrated improved efficacies in stimulating immunogenic responses by host B- and T-cells.

Methods: Integrative immunoinformatics algorithms were used to determine linear and discontinuous B-cell epitopes from the S-glycoprotein sequence. Read More

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A comprehensive review of adaptations in plants under arsenic toxicity: Physiological, metabolic and molecular interventions.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 23;290:118029. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Arsenic (As) is recognized as a toxic metalloid and a severe threat to biodiversity due to its contamination. Soil and groundwater contamination with this metalloid has become a major concern. Large fractions of cultivable lands are becoming infertile gradually due to the irrigation of As contaminated water released from various sources. Read More

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New insights into the acetate uptake transporter (AceTr) family: Unveiling amino acid residues critical for specificity and activity.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 5;19:4412-4425. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology (CBMA), Department of Biology, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.

Aiming at improving the transport of biotechnologically relevant carboxylic acids in engineered microbial cell factories, the focus of this work was to study plasma membrane transporters belonging to the Acetate Uptake Transporter (AceTr) family. Ato1 and SatP, members of this family from and respectively, are the main acetate transporters in these species. The analysis of conserved amino acid residues within AceTr family members combined with the study of Ato1 3D model based on SatP, was the rationale for selection of site-directed mutagenesis targets. Read More

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Structure of Geobacter pili reveals secretory rather than nanowire behaviour.

Nature 2021 09 1;597(7876):430-434. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Microbial Sciences Institute Yale University, West Haven, CT, USA.

Extracellular electron transfer by Geobacter species through surface appendages known as microbial nanowires is important in a range of globally important environmental phenomena, as well as for applications in bio-remediation, bioenergy, biofuels and bioelectronics. Since 2005, these nanowires have been thought to be type 4 pili composed solely of the PilA-N protein. However, previous structural analyses have demonstrated that, during extracellular electron transfer, cells do not produce pili but rather nanowires made up of the cytochromes OmcS and OmcZ. Read More

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September 2021

The genome of the extremophile Artemia provides insight into strategies to cope with extreme environments.

BMC Genomics 2021 Aug 31;22(1):635. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Department of Animal Sciences and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Brine shrimp Artemia have an unequalled ability to endure extreme salinity and complete anoxia. This study aims to elucidate its strategies to cope with these stressors.

Results And Discussion: Here, we present the genome of an inbred A. Read More

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Periodontal disease-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: An emerging concept of oral-liver axis.

Periodontol 2000 2021 Oct;87(1):204-240

Department of Periodontology, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory disease of the periodontal tissues, is not only a major cause of tooth loss, but it is also known to exacerbate/be associated with various metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Recently, growing evidence has suggested that periodontal disease has adverse effects on the pathophysiology of liver disease. In particular, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been associated with periodontal disease. Read More

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October 2021

Alzheimer disease and the periodontal patient: New insights, connections, and therapies.

Periodontol 2000 2021 Oct;87(1):32-42

College of Dental Medicine, California Northstate University, Elk Grove, California, USA.

Loss of cognitive function in the aging population, particular those with Alzheimer disease, presents unique challenges to health practitioners. For the dental practitioner these include management of periodontal diseases, caries, and other dental conditions in this special population. It is well established in the cognitively impaired patient that a lack of adherence to dental hygiene routines and professional care leads to increases in the prevalence and severity of these dental conditions, leading to increased loss of teeth. Read More

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October 2021

Ecotoxicological Effects of Microplastics on Bird Embryo Development by Hatching without Eggshell.

J Vis Exp 2021 Aug 14(174). Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Bioremediation, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang Province, College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology;

Microplastics are an emerging global pollutant type that poses a great health threat to animals due to their uptake and translocation in animal tissues and organs. Ecotoxicological effects of microplastics on the development of bird embryos are not known. The bird egg is a complete development and nutrition system, and the entire embryo development occurs in the eggshell. Read More

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Ion Transport Activity Assay for Microbial Rhodopsin Expressed in Cells.

Bio Protoc 2021 Aug 5;11(15):e4115. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Life Science and Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan.

Microbial rhodopsins have diverse functions, including roles as light-driven ion pumps, light-gated ion channels, photosensors, and light-regulated enzymes. As the number of rhodopsin-like genes identified has increased in recent years, so has the requirement for rapid identification of their functions. The patch-clamp method is often used to investigate the ion transport mechanism of microbial rhodopsins in mammalian cells; however, this requires a dedicated system and advanced techniques. Read More

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Effects of photo-irradiation on mercury binding to dissolved organic matter: Insights from FT-IR and synchronous fluorescence two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 25;287(Pt 1):132027. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang Province, College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, China. Electronic address:

The binding interactions between Hg and dissolved organic matter (DOM) affect the fate and transport of Hg in the aquatic environment. Here, we investigate the effects of photo-irradiation on the binding characteristics of dissolved organic matter with Hg(II) using FT-IR and synchronous fluorescence two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). Results showed that the binding of Hg(II) onto humic acid (HA) followed the order of humic-like fraction > fulvic-like fraction > protein-like fraction and photo-irradiation did not affect this order. Read More

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Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficiency in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Aggravates Alcohol-Related Liver Disease.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China; Institute of Modern Biology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The ligand-activated transcription factor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) can sense xenobiotics, dietary, microbial, and metabolic cues. Roles of Ahr in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been much less elucidated compared with those in intestinal innate immune cells. Here, we explored whether the IEC intrinsic Ahr could modulate the development of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) via the gut-liver axis. Read More

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Gut Microbiome Changes Associated with Epithelial Barrier Damage and Systemic Inflammation during Antiretroviral Therapy of Chronic SIV Infection.

Viruses 2021 Aug 8;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University, Covington, LA 70433, USA.

Gut dysbiosis is a common feature associated with the chronic inflammation of HIV infection. Toward understanding the interplay of chronic treated HIV infection, dysbiosis, and systemic inflammation, we investigated longitudinal fecal microbiome changes and plasma inflammatory markers in the nonhuman primate model. Following simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques, significant changes were observed in several members of the phylum Firmicutes along with an increase in Bacteroidetes. Read More

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Tight Adherence (Tad) Pilus Genes Indicate Putative Niche Differentiation in Phytoplankton Bloom Associated .

Front Microbiol 2021 10;12:718297. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Marine Microbial Ecology Laboratory, Biology Program, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

The multiple interactions of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton are central for our understanding of aquatic environments. A prominent example of those is the consistent association of diatoms with of the order . These photoheterotrophic bacteria have traditionally been described as generalists that scavenge dissolved organic matter. Read More

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Autoimmune enteropathy and primary biliary cholangitis after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis: A case report and review of the literature.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Aug;27(29):4929-4938

Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) are both immune-mediated diseases. AIE or PBC complicated with ulcerative colitis (UC) are rare. There are no cases of AIE and PBC diagnosed after proctocolectomy for UC reported before, and the pathogenesis of these comorbidities has not been revealed. Read More

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Therapeutic implications of SARS-CoV-2 dysregulation of the gut-brain-lung axis.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Aug;27(29):4763-4783

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, United States.

The emergence and rapid spread of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused over 180 million confirmed cases resulting in over 4 million deaths worldwide with no clear end in sight for the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Most SARS-CoV-2 exposed individuals experience mild to moderate symptoms, including fever, cough, fatigue, and loss of smell and taste. However, many individuals develop pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and multiorgan dysfunction. Read More

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The Oxoglutarate Binding Site and Regulatory Mechanism Are Conserved in Ammonium Transporter Inhibitors GlnKs from .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 11;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Microbial Metabolism Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Celsiusstraße 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany.

Protein inhibition is a natural regulatory process to control cellular metabolic fluxes. P-family signal-transducing effectors are in this matter key regulators of the nitrogen metabolism. Their interaction with their various targets is governed by the cellular nitrogen level and the energy charge. Read More

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