15,436 results match your criteria microbial biomass

Enhancing robustness of activated sludge with Aspergillus tubingensis as a protective backbone structure under high-salinity stress.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 19;297:113302. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China; Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China; Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

High salt seriously destroys the stable interactions among key functional species of activated sludge, which in turn limits the performance of high-salinity wastewater biological treatment. In this study, pelletized Aspergillus tubingensis (AT) was used as a protective backbone structure for activated sludge under high-salinity stress, and a superior salt-tolerant AT-based aerobic granular sludge (AT-AGS) was developed. Results showed that the COD and NH-N removal efficiencies of salt-domesticated AT-AGS were 11. Read More

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Identification of Cd-resistant microorganisms from heavy metal-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting the growth and Cd accumulation of bermudagrass.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 19:111730. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, The Innovative Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, China; Center of Economic Botany, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, China. Electronic address:

Phytoremediation has been increasingly used as a green technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Microorganisms could enhance phytoremediation efficiency by solubilizing heavy metal and improve plant growth by producing phytohormones in the heavy metal contaminated soils. In this study, we investigated the abundance and composition of soil microbial communities in heavy metal contaminated soils. Read More

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The influence of the crowding assumptions in biofilm simulations.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009158. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Computational Systems Biotechnology, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Microorganisms are frequently organized into crowded structures that affect the nutrients diffusion. This reduction in metabolite diffusion could modify the microbial dynamics, meaning that computational methods for studying microbial systems need accurate ways to model the crowding conditions. We previously developed a computational framework, termed CROMICS, that incorporates the effect of the (time-dependent) crowding conditions on the spatio-temporal modeling of microbial communities, and we used it to demonstrate the crowding influence on the community dynamics. Read More

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Soil carbon response to long-term biosolids application.

J Environ Qual 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Merced, CA, United States of America.

A study was conducted in three agroecosystems in California (Sacramento, Solano, and Merced counties) that received biosolids applications for twenty-years. Management varied in application rates and frequencies, resulting in average cumulative amount of biosolids applied of 74 (Solano), 105 (Merced), and 359 (Sacramento) Mg biosolids /ha., resulting in the addition of 26 (Solano), 36 (Merced), and 125 (Sacramento) Mg biosolids-C/ha. Read More

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Tripartite legume-rhizobia-mycorrhizae relationship is influenced by light and soil nitrogen in Neotropical canopy gaps.

Ecology 2021 Jul 22:e03489. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912, USA.

Plants and their soil microbial symbionts influence ecosystem productivity and nutrient cycling, but the controls on these symbioses remain poorly understood. This is particularly true for plants in the Fabaceae family (hereafter legumes), which can associate with both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria. Here we report results of the first manipulated field experiment to explore the abiotic and biotic controls of this tripartite symbiosis in Neotropical canopy gaps (hereafter gaps). Read More

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Recovery of structure and activity of disintegrated aerobic granular sludge after long-term storage: Effect of exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactones.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 20;281:130894. Epub 2021 May 20.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266237, China. Electronic address:

Long-term storage of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) may lead to granule inactivation and disintegration. Granule recovery in both structure and activity is important for scale-up and stability of AGS, but information about the structure recovery of stored AGS is limited. In addition, whether short-term exogenous N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) regulations could accelerate the granule recovery and sustain positive effects on AGS is unknown. Read More

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October 2021

Metabolic engineering of non-pathogenic microorganisms for 2,3-butanediol production.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a promising commodity chemical with various industrial applications. While petroleum-based chemical processes currently dominate the industrial production of 2,3-BDO, fermentation-based production of 2,3-BDO provides an attractive alternative to chemical-based processes with regards to economic and environmental sustainability. The achievement of high 2,3-BDO titer, yield, and productivity in microbial fermentation is a prerequisite for the production of 2,3-BDO at large scales. Read More

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Microbe-dependent heterosis in maize.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(30)

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695;

Hybrids account for nearly all commercially planted varieties of maize and many other crop plants because crosses between inbred lines of these species produce first-generation [F] offspring that greatly outperform their parents. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, called heterosis or hybrid vigor, are not well understood despite over a century of intensive research. The leading hypotheses-which focus on quantitative genetic mechanisms (dominance, overdominance, and epistasis) and molecular mechanisms (gene dosage and transcriptional regulation)-have been able to explain some but not all of the observed patterns of heterosis. Read More

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Start-up of an aerobic granular sludge system from stored granules: Evaluating the impact of storage period on biomass activity and stability and the effect of temperature on nitrification and phosphorus removal rates.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 17;296:113200. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Civil Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Chemical Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) has been considered a breakthrough within the wastewater treatment sector. However, the long reactor start-up for the formation of granules is challenging and may hinder the spread of this technology. To circumvent this obstacle, inoculation of the reactors with pre-formed granules from existing plants is an interesting approach. Read More

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Kinetic modeling and statistical optimization of submerged production of anti-Parkinson's prodrug -DOPA by .

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Jul 20:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Bioengineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India.

-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine, is the drug of choice for Parkinson's disease, which persists due to decreased levels of dopamine in the brain. Present study emphasis the microbial production of -DOPA rather than the biotransformation of -DOPA by L-tyrosine. The production of -DOPA by bacterial isolates had gained more acceptance due to its more straightforward extraction and downstream processes. Read More

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The view of microbes as energy converters illustrates the trade-off between growth rate and yield.

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Quantitative and Theoretical Biology, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

The application of thermodynamics to microbial growth has a long tradition that originated in the middle of the 20th century. This approach reflects the view that self-replication is a thermodynamic process that is not fundamentally different from mechanical thermodynamics. The key distinction is that a free energy gradient is not converted into mechanical (or any other form of) energy but rather into new biomass. Read More

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Soil texture as a key driver of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) distribution in forest topsoils.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 19;11(1):14708. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Ecology and Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 29 Listopada 46, 31-425, Kraków, Poland.

Due to the dynamic development of civilization and the increasing demand for energy, pollution by harmful chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds, is a serious threat to forest soils. The aim of the study was to determine the role of texture in the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements in forest soils. The areas with different texture ranging from sand through sandy loam to silt loam were selected for the study. Read More

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Application of a Bayesian Statistical Framework for Planetary Protection as a Means of Verifying Low-Biomass, Zero-Inflated Test Data from Spacecraft.

Life Sci Space Res (Amst) 2021 Aug 17;30:39-44. Epub 2021 May 17.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasdena, CA 91109, USA.

Planetary Protection is applicable for missions to biologically sensitive targets of interest in the solar system. For robotic missions landing on the Martian surface, Earth-based biological contamination must be reduced, controlled, and monitored to adhere to forward planetary protection requirements. To address the overall biological load limit and microbial density requirements per spacecraft each component is tracked based on its manufacturing pedigree and/or directly assessed using a direct sampling technique with either a swab or wipe. Read More

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Glacier ice archives nearly 15,000-year-old microbes and phages.

Microbiome 2021 07 20;9(1):160. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Glacier ice archives information, including microbiology, that helps reveal paleoclimate histories and predict future climate change. Though glacier-ice microbes are studied using culture or amplicon approaches, more challenging metagenomic approaches, which provide access to functional, genome-resolved information and viruses, are under-utilized, partly due to low biomass and potential contamination.

Results: We expand existing clean sampling procedures using controlled artificial ice-core experiments and adapted previously established low-biomass metagenomic approaches to study glacier-ice viruses. Read More

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Critical insights into psychrophilic anaerobic digestion: Novel strategies for improving biogas production.

Waste Manag 2021 Jul 16;131:513-526. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Global Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, Lenexa, USA.

Anaerobic digestion (AD) under psychrophilic temperature has only recently garnered deserved attention. In major parts of Europe, USA, Canada and Australia, climatic conditions are more suited for psychrophilic (<20 ℃) rather than mesophilic (35 - 37 ℃) and thermophilic (55 - 60 ℃) AD. Low temperature has adverse effects on important cellular processes which may render the cell biology inactive. Read More

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Persistence and spread of tetracycline resistance genes and microbial community variations in the soil of animal corrals in a semi-arid planted forest.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Natural Resources, Gilat Research Center, Agriculture Research Organization, Mobile Post Negev 8531100, Israel.

At the spring, goat and sheep herds are transferred to planted forests, in a semi-arid region in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, to reduce herbaceous biomass and, fire risk. The herds are held overnight in corrals for about four months, enriching the soil with organic matter and nitrogen. This research examined the effect of these enrichments on soil bacterial community structure (BCS) and the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in active and abandoned corrals (1-10 years old). Read More

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Application of Green Algal Biomasses to Modulate Growth of Selected Microbial Species.

Molecules 2021 Jul 1;26(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Bioorganic Technologies sp. z o.o., Sedziszow Malopolski, Sielec 1A, 39-120 Sielec, Poland.

As microalgae are producers of proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, pigments, vitamins and unique secondary metabolites, microalgal biotechnology has gained attention in recent decades. Microalgae can be used for biomass production and to obtain biotechnologically important products. Here, we present the application of a method of producing a natural, biologically active composite obtained from unicellular microalgae of the genus sp. Read More

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Feed digestibility, digesta passage and faecal microbial biomass in desert-adapted goats exposed to mild water restriction.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Soil Biology and Plant Nutrition, University of Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany.

In arid and semi-arid environments, extensively managed ruminants regularly experience drinking water shortage, especially in the dry season. The present study therefore investigated the effects of mild drinking water restriction on feed intake, feed digestibility, solid digesta passage and composition of faeces including faecal microbial biomass. A feeding trial was conducted in Oman, during the dry summer months. Read More

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Mycorrhizal-Assisted Phytoremediation and Intercropping Strategies Improved the Health of Contaminated Soil in a Peri-Urban Area.

Front Plant Sci 2021 2;12:693044. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Spain.

Soils of abandoned and vacant lands in the periphery of cities are frequently subjected to illegal dumping and can undergo degradation processes such as depletion of organic matter and nutrients, reduced biodiversity, and the presence of contaminants, which may exert an intense abiotic stress on biological communities. Mycorrhizal-assisted phytoremediation and intercropping strategies are highly suitable options for remediation of these sites. A two-year field experiment was conducted at a peri-urban site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, to assess the effects of plant growth (spontaneous plant species, , and × , alone intercropped) and inoculation of a commercial arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal inoculum. Read More

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Responses of Low-Cost Input Combinations on the Microbial Structure of the Maize Rhizosphere for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Plant Biomass Production.

Front Plant Sci 2021 30;12:683658. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Soil EcoGenomics Laboratory, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

The microbial composition of the rhizosphere and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the most common input combinations in maize ( L.) cultivated in Brazil have not been characterized yet. In this study, we evaluated the influence of maize stover coverage (S), urea-topdressing fertilization (F), and the microbial inoculant (I) on soil GHG emissions and rhizosphere microbial communities during maize development. Read More

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Use of Photobioreactors in Regenerative Life Support Systems for Human Space Exploration.

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:699525. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Interdisciplinary Biosciences Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Mol, Belgium.

There are still many challenges to overcome for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) (e.g., to the Moon) and for long-term missions (e. Read More

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Decomposition of Microbial Necromass Is Divergent at the Individual Taxonomic Level in Soil.

Front Microbiol 2021 2;12:679793. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The turnover of microbial biomass plays an important part in providing a significant source of carbon (C) to soil organic C. However, whether the decomposition of microbial necromass (non-living microbial biomass) in the soil varies at the individual taxa level remains largely unknown. To fill up these gaps, we compared the necromass decomposition of bacterial and archaeal taxa by separating live microbial biomass with O-stable isotope probing from dead microbial biomass in soil. Read More

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Bio-conversion of CO into biofuels and other value-added chemicals via metabolic engineering.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jul 7;251:126813. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra, 21300, Pakistan.

Carbon dioxide (CO) occurs naturally in the atmosphere as a trace gas, which is produced naturally as well as by anthropogenic activities. CO is a readily available source of carbon that in principle can be used as a raw material for the synthesis of valuable products. The autotrophic organisms are naturally equipped to convert CO into biomass by obtaining energy from sunlight or inorganic electron donors. Read More

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Valorization of poultry litter using Acutodesmus obliquus and its integrated application for lipids and fertilizer production.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 13;796:149018. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban University of Technology, PO Box 1334, Durban 4000, South Africa. Electronic address:

Microalgae are recognized as potential candidates for resource recovery from wastewater and projected for biorefinery models. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of poultry litter and municipal wastewater as nutrient and water sources, for the cultivation of Acutodesmus obliquus for lipids production for biodiesel application. The efficacy of lipid extracted biomass (LEA) as fertilizer for mung bean crops was also assessed in microcosm. Read More

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C:N:P stoichiometry responses to 10 years of nitrogen addition differ across soil components and plant organs in a subtropical Pleioblastus amarus forest.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 8;796:148925. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Key Laboratory of National Forestry, Grassland Administration on Forest Resources Conservation and Ecological Safety in the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, College of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China. Electronic address:

How stoichiometry in different ecosystem components responds to long-term nitrogen (N) addition is crucial for understanding within-ecosystem biogeochemistry cycling processes in the context of global change. To explore the effects of long-term N addition on nutrient stoichiometry in soil and plant components in forest ecosystem, a 10-year N addition experiment using ammonium nitrate (NHNO) was conducted in a bamboo forest in the Rainy Zone of West China, where the background N deposition is the highest in the world. Four N treatment levels (+0, +50, +150, +300 kg N ha yr) (CK, LN, MN, HN) were applied monthly since November 2007, and then, the C:N:P stoichiometry of soil, microbial biomass, and enzymes in rhizosphere soil and bulk soil, and plant organs were measured. Read More

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New directions and challenges in engineering biologically-enhanced biochar for biological water treatment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 12;796:148977. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

UK Biochar Research Centre, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Cost-effective, efficient, and sustainable water treatment solutions utilising existing materials and technology will make it easier for low and middle-income countries to adopt them, improving public health. The ability of biochar to mediate and support microbial degradation of contaminants, combined with its carbon-sequestration potential, has attracted attention in recent years. Biochar is a possible candidate for use in cost-effective and sustainable biological water treatment, especially in agrarian economies with easy access to abundant biomass in the form of crop residues and organic wastes. Read More

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Wood‑feeding termites as an obscure yet promising source of bacteria for biodegradation and detoxification of creosote-treated wood along with methane production enhancement.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 8;338:125521. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Biofuels Institute, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address:

This study aims to explore distinct bacterial strains from wood-feeding termites and to construct novel bacterial consortium for improving the methane yield during anaerobic digestion by degrading birchwood sawdust (BSD) and removing creosote (CRO) compounds simultaneously. A novel bacterial consortium CTB-4 which stands for the molecularly identified species Burkholderia sp., Xanthomonas sp. Read More

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Triple combination of natural microbial action, etching, and gas foaming to synthesize hierarchical porous carbon for efficient adsorption of VOCs.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 15;202:111687. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, 300134, PR China.

Fungi residue, vinasse, and biogas residue differ from general biomass waste due to natural microbial action. Microbial fermentation helps create natural channels for the permeation of activators and produces proteins for natural nitrogen doping. Inspired by these advantages on porous carbon synthesis, this study adopted dual activators of KOH and KHCO to synthesize porous carbon with different pore ratios for efficient adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Read More

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Phytostabilization of a contaminated military site using miscanthus and soil amendments.

J Environ Qual 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Environmental Chemistry and Technology, J.E. Purkyně University, Ústí nad Labem, 40096, Czech Republic.

Military activities can contaminate productive land with potentially toxic substances. The most common trace metal contaminant on military bases is lead (Pb). A field experiment was begun in 2016 at Fort Riley, KS, in an area with total soil Pb concentrations ranging from 900 to 1,500 mg kg and near-neutral pH. Read More

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Spatio-temporal variations in the physiological profiles of streambed bacterial communities: implication of wastewater treatment plant effluents.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 17;37(8):136. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Biology Department, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN, 46135, USA.

The effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) represent a complex mixture of nutrients and toxic substances, thus, the potential exists for the effluents to significantly impact the biochemical characteristics and bacterial communities of the receiving water. We examined spatial and seasonal patterns, and the impact of effluents on microbial biomass, bacterial community structure, and metabolic diversity on a fourth-order stream. We took triplicate sediment samples at five different locations along a 5000 m transect over three sampling periods. Read More

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