467,376 results match your criteria microbial

Sequencing of Circulating Microbial Cell-Free DNA Can Identify Pathogens in Periprosthetic Joint Infections.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Hospital for Special Surgery Research Institute, New York, NY.

Background: Over 1 million Americans undergo joint replacement each year, and approximately 1 in 75 will incur a periprosthetic joint infection. Effective treatment necessitates pathogen identification, yet standard-of-care cultures fail to detect organisms in 10% to 20% of cases and require invasive sampling. We hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments from microorganisms in a periprosthetic joint infection can be found in the bloodstream and utilized to accurately identify pathogens via next-generation sequencing. Read More

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Acceleration of polychlorinated biphenyls remediation in soil via sewage sludge amendment.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 13;420:126630. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E2-02-13, 1 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576, Singapore. Electronic address:

Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is impeded by difficulties in massively cultivating bioinoculant. Meanwhile, sewage sludge is rich in pollutant-degrading microorganisms and nutrients, drawing our attention to investigate their potential to be used as a supplement for bioremediation of PCBs. Here we reported extensive microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs by waste activated sludge (WAS) and digestion sludge (DS), which were identified to harbor multiple putative organohalide-respiring bacteria (i. Read More

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Remediation of contaminated dredged harbor sediments by combining hydrodynamic cavitation, hydrocyclone, and persulfate oxidation process.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 6;420:126594. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Marine Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

A pilot-scale hybrid treatment system consisting of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC), hydrocyclone separator (HS), and sodium persulfate (PS), was employed for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from dredged harbor sediments. The effectiveness of PAH degradation was studied by varying the inlet pressure (0-2.0 bar), PS dosage (or Σ[PAH] to [PS] mole ratio of 1:1-1:10) at HS inflow velocity of 2. Read More

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Enhancing robustness of activated sludge with Aspergillus tubingensis as a protective backbone structure under high-salinity stress.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 19;297:113302. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China; Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China; Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

High salt seriously destroys the stable interactions among key functional species of activated sludge, which in turn limits the performance of high-salinity wastewater biological treatment. In this study, pelletized Aspergillus tubingensis (AT) was used as a protective backbone structure for activated sludge under high-salinity stress, and a superior salt-tolerant AT-based aerobic granular sludge (AT-AGS) was developed. Results showed that the COD and NH-N removal efficiencies of salt-domesticated AT-AGS were 11. Read More

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Kinetic, metabolic, and statistical analytics: addressing metabolic transport limitations among organelles and microbial communities.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 Jul 19;71:91-97. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA.

Microbial organisms engage in a variety of metabolic interactions. A crucial part of these interactions is the exchange of molecules between different organelles, cells, and the environment. The main forces mediating this metabolic exchange are transporters. Read More

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Review: The development of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and intervention in neonatal ruminants.

Animal 2021 Jul 19;15(8):100316. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Animal Science, College of Animal Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:

The complex microbiome colonizing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants plays an important role in the development of the immune system, nutrient absorption and metabolism. Hence, understanding GIT microbiota colonization in neonatal ruminants has positive impacts on host health and productivity. Microbes rapidly colonize the GIT after birth and gradually develop into a complex microbial community, which allows the possibility of GIT microbiome manipulation to enhance newborn health and growth and perhaps induce lasting effects in adult ruminants. Read More

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Improvement of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through synergistic effect combined trace elements enhancer with enzyme pretreatment and microbial community response.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 16;286(Pt 1):131356. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, CAS, Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610041, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, a double E strategy (enzymes and enhancer) characterized by high efficiency for enhancing sewage sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) is proposed. This strategy combines addition of trace elements (TEs) enhancer and enzyme pretreatment, inducing a synergistic effect on AD, and it is more effective and economical compared with TEs addition or enzyme pretreatment in isolation. When adding 400 U/g cocktail enzymes and 1. Read More

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Toxicity reduction of reverse osmosis concentrates from petrochemical wastewater by electrocoagulation and Fered-Fenton treatments.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 16;286(Pt 1):131582. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Environmental Protection Research Institute of Light Industry, Beijing Academy of Science and Technology, No.1 Gao Li Zhang Road, Beijing, 100095, China.

In this work, both Electrocoagulation (EC) and Fered-Fenton (FF) technologies were used to treat reverse osmosis concentrates (ROC) from petrochemical production. The toxicity reduction capacity and mechanism were comparatively assessed during these two treatments. The results showed that FF exhibited higher capacity to reduce toxicity than EC in the 30 min treatment, which could be attributed to the removal of organic pollutants and heavy metals. Read More

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The complex interplay of gut microbiota with the five most common cancer types: From carcinogenesis to therapeutics to prognosis.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Jul 19:103429. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2747, Australia. Electronic address:

The association between human gut microbiota and cancers has been an evolving field of biomedical research in recent years. The gut microbiota is composed of the microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal system that interact with the host to regulate behaviours and biochemical processes within the gut. This symbiotic physiological interaction between the gut and the microbiota plays a significant role in the modulation of gut homeostasis, in which perturbations to the microbiota, also known as dysbiosis can lead to the onset of diseases, including cancer. Read More

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Microbial production, molecular modification, and practical application of l-Asparaginase: A review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

L-Asparaginase (L-ASNase, EC 3.5.1. Read More

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Identification of Cd-resistant microorganisms from heavy metal-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting the growth and Cd accumulation of bermudagrass.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 19:111730. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, The Innovative Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, China; Center of Economic Botany, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, China. Electronic address:

Phytoremediation has been increasingly used as a green technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Microorganisms could enhance phytoremediation efficiency by solubilizing heavy metal and improve plant growth by producing phytohormones in the heavy metal contaminated soils. In this study, we investigated the abundance and composition of soil microbial communities in heavy metal contaminated soils. Read More

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Anti-microbial antibody response is associated with future onset of Crohn's disease independent of biomarkers of altered gut barrier function, subclinical inflammation, and genetic risk.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: /Aim: Altered host immune reactivity to microbial antigens is hypothesized to trigger the onset of Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to assess whether increased serum anti-microbial antibody response in asymptomatic first-degree relatives (FDR) of CD patients is an independent risk factor for future CD development.

Methods: We measured host serum antibody response to six microbial antigens at enrollment (Prometheus ELISA test: ASCA IgA/IgG, anti-OmpC, anti-A4-Fla2, anti-FlaX, anti-CBir1) and derived the sum of positive antibodies (AS). Read More

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Candida albicans colonization of the gastrointestinal tract: A double-edged sword.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009710. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología-IRYCIS, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

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An evaluation of the chemical content and microbiological contamination of Anatolian bee venom.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255161. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Biology, Düzce University, Düzce, Turkey.

Bee venom is a natural substance produced by worker bees. The aim of this research paper is to determine the characteristics of Anatolian bee venom by evaluating its chemical content and microbiological properties. Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on 25 bee venom samples from different areas of Anatolia, Turkey. Read More

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Shooting yourself in the foot: How immune cells induce antibiotic tolerance in microbial pathogens.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009660. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Antibiotic treatment failure of infection is common and frequently occurs in the absence of genetically encoded antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In such scenarios, the ability of bacteria to enter a phenotypic state that renders them tolerant to the killing activity of multiple antibiotic classes is thought to contribute to antibiotic failure. Phagocytic cells, which specialize in engulfing and destroying invading pathogens, may paradoxically contribute to antibiotic tolerance and treatment failure. Read More

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Inoculation of grape musts with single strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast reduces the diversity of chemical profiles of wines.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254919. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Viticulture and Oenology, South African Grape and Wine Research Institute, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of grape juice is becoming a more popular option in global wine production. Wines produced from the same grape juice by inoculation or spontaneous fermentation usually present distinct chemical and sensorial profiles. Inoculation has been associated with more similar end-products, a loss of typicity, and lower aroma complexity, and it has been suggested that this may be linked to suppression of the local or regional wine microbial ecosystems responsible for spontaneous fermentations. Read More

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The influence of the crowding assumptions in biofilm simulations.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009158. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Computational Systems Biotechnology, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Microorganisms are frequently organized into crowded structures that affect the nutrients diffusion. This reduction in metabolite diffusion could modify the microbial dynamics, meaning that computational methods for studying microbial systems need accurate ways to model the crowding conditions. We previously developed a computational framework, termed CROMICS, that incorporates the effect of the (time-dependent) crowding conditions on the spatio-temporal modeling of microbial communities, and we used it to demonstrate the crowding influence on the community dynamics. Read More

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Spatio-temporal modeling of the crowding conditions and metabolic variability in microbial communities.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009140. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Computational Systems Biotechnology, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The metabolic capabilities of the species and the local environment shape the microbial interactions in a community either through the exchange of metabolic products or the competition for the resources. Cells are often arranged in close proximity to each other, creating a crowded environment that unevenly reduce the diffusion of nutrients. Herein, we investigated how the crowding conditions and metabolic variability among cells shape the dynamics of microbial communities. Read More

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Late onset of microbial keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis surgery: case series.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2021 Aug;47(8):1044-1049

From the Sydney Eye Hospital (Garcerant, Cabrera-Aguas, Khoo, Watson); The University of Sydney (Cabrera-Aguas, Khoo, Watson), Save Sight Institute, Discipline of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose: To report predisposing factors, clinical features, microbiology spectrum, antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial therapy, and outcomes of patients with a previous laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery and diagnosed with presumed microbial keratitis.

Setting: Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Design: Retrospective case review. Read More

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PacBio sequencing revealed variation in the microbiota diversity, species richness and composition between milk collected from healthy and mastitis cows.

Microbiology (Reading) 2021 Jul;167(7)

Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot, PR China.

Mastitis is the economically most important disease of dairy cows. This study used PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing technology to sequence the full-length 16S rRNAs from 27 milk samples (18 from mastitis and nine from healthy cows; the cows were at different stages of lactation). We observed that healthy or late stage milk microbiota had significantly higher microbial diversity and richness. Read More

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Qualitative assessment of compost engendered from municipal solid waste and green waste by indexing method.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Soil Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Campus, Srinagar-190025, J&K, India.

The present study aims at quantification of the quality of three varieties of composts made from municipal solid waste, green waste and combined waste by critically evaluating their physicochemical attributes, effect on soil fertility and metal pollution risk. Each waste type was treated with effective micro-organisms to compare the compost quality using Quality Control Indices. The effect of microbial consortia on the wastes was prominent resulting in decreased pH levels and increased electrical conductivity. Read More

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Extraction of Au(III) by Microbially Reduced Metal-Organic Frameworks.

Langmuir 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

Gold is a critical resource in the jewelry and electronics industries and is facing increased consumer demand. Accordingly, methods for its extraction from waste effluents and environmental water sources have been sought to supplement existing mining infrastructure. Redox-mediated treatments, such as Fe(II)-based platforms, offer promise for precipitating soluble Au(III). Read More

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Cyclic, Hydrophobic Hexapeptide Fusahexin Is the Product of a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase in .

J Nat Prod 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, Frederik Bajers Vej 7H, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark.

The plant pathogenic fungus is known to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites during plant infection. This includes several nonribosomal peptides. Recently, the fusaoctaxin (/9) and gramilin () gene clusters were shown to be induced by host interactions. Read More

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Inverse Hydrogen-Bonding Change Between the Protonated Retinal Schiff Base and Water Molecules upon Photoisomerization in Heliorhodopsin 48C12.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Life Science and Applied Chemistry, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan.

Heliorhodopsin (HeR) is a new class of the rhodopsin family discovered in 2018 through functional metagenomic analysis (named 48C12). Similar to typical microbial rhodopsins, HeR possesses seven transmembrane (TM) α-helices and an all--retinal covalently bonded to the lysine residue on TM7 via a protonated Schiff base. Remarkably, the HeR membrane topology is inverted compared with that of typical microbial rhodopsins. Read More

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Role of antimicrobial peptides system in inflammatory periodontal diseases non-specific oral cavity protection.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 Jul;66(7):422-427

FSBEI HE Northern State Medical University (Arkhangelsk) of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.

The system of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) is one of the most ancient mechanisms of the macroorganism resistance to infectious pathogens invasion. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the antimicrobial peptides system and periodontal pathogenic markers in the development and progression of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Gingival pocket washes (91 samples in total) for the research were received from patients with inflammatory periodontal diseases (chronic periodontitis and gingivitis) and intact periodontium. Read More

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Model-guided development of an evolutionarily stable yeast chassis.

Mol Syst Biol 2021 Jul;17(7):e10253

Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany.

First-principle metabolic modelling holds potential for designing microbial chassis that are resilient against phenotype reversal due to adaptive mutations. Yet, the theory of model-based chassis design has rarely been put to rigorous experimental test. Here, we report the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chassis strains for dicarboxylic acid production using genome-scale metabolic modelling. Read More

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Endocytosis of the CdtA subunit from the Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin.

Cell Microbiol 2021 Jul 22:e13380. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL.

Many Gram-negative pathogens produce a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) with two cell-binding subunits (CdtA + CdtC) and a catalytic CdtB subunit. After adhesion to the plasma membrane of a target cell, CDT moves by retrograde transport to endoplasmic reticulum. CdtB then enters the nucleus where it generates DNA breaks that lead to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis or senescence. Read More

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Soil carbon response to long-term biosolids application.

J Environ Qual 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Merced, CA, United States of America.

A study was conducted in three agroecosystems in California (Sacramento, Solano, and Merced counties) that received biosolids applications for twenty-years. Management varied in application rates and frequencies, resulting in average cumulative amount of biosolids applied of 74 (Solano), 105 (Merced), and 359 (Sacramento) Mg biosolids /ha., resulting in the addition of 26 (Solano), 36 (Merced), and 125 (Sacramento) Mg biosolids-C/ha. Read More

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Tripartite legume-rhizobia-mycorrhizae relationship is influenced by light and soil nitrogen in Neotropical canopy gaps.

Ecology 2021 Jul 22:e03489. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912, USA.

Plants and their soil microbial symbionts influence ecosystem productivity and nutrient cycling, but the controls on these symbioses remain poorly understood. This is particularly true for plants in the Fabaceae family (hereafter legumes), which can associate with both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria. Here we report results of the first manipulated field experiment to explore the abiotic and biotic controls of this tripartite symbiosis in Neotropical canopy gaps (hereafter gaps). Read More

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The keratinolytic bacteria Bacillus cytotoxicus as a source of novel proteases and feather protein hydrolysates with antioxidant activities.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Jul 22;19(1):107. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Fermentaciones Industriales. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata (CINDEFI, CCT La Plata-CONICET, UNLP), Calle 47 y 115, (B1900ASH), La Plata, Argentina.

Background: Argentina's geothermal areas are niches of a rich microbial diversity. In 2020, species of Bacillus cytotoxicus were isolated for the first time from these types of pristine natural areas. Bacillus cytotoxicus strains demonstrated the capability to grow and degrade chicken feathers with the concomitant production of proteases with keratinolytic activity, enzymes that have multitude of industrial applications. Read More

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