18,229 results match your criteria micelle formation

Combination therapy of vanillic acid and oxaliplatin co-loaded in polysaccharide based functionalized polymeric micelles could offer effective treatment for colon cancer: A hypothesis.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Sep 14;156:110679. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144411, India. Electronic address:

Colon cancer is characterised by the persistent change in bowel habits due to the formation of polyps (cancerous) in the inner lining of the colon. Clinically, there are several anticancer drugs available to treat colon cancer. Oxaliplatin (third generation platinum drug) is widely prescribed anticancer drug due to its broad range anticancer properties and low toxicities over cisplatin and carboplatin. Read More

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September 2021

Drainage stratification and nanoscopic thickness transitions of aqueous sodium naphthenate foam films.

Soft Matter 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Sodium naphthenates (NaNs), found in crude oils and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), can act as surfactants and stabilize undesirable foams and emulsions. Despite the critical impact of soap-like NaNs on the formation, properties, and stability of petroleum and OSPW foams, there is a significant lack of studies that characterize foam film drainage, motivating this study. Here, we contrast the drainage of aqueous foam films formulated with NaN with foams containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a well-studied surfactant system, in the relatively low concentration regime (/CMC < 12. Read More

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September 2021

Microsecond dynamics during the binding-induced folding of an intrinsically disordered protein.

J Mol Biol 2021 Sep 16:167254. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru 560065, India; Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, Pashan, Pune 411 008, India. Electronic address:

Tau is an intrinsically disordered protein implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. The repeat domain fragment of tau, tau-K18, is known to undergo a disorder to order transition in the presence of lipid micelles and vesicles, in which helices form in each of the repeat domains. Here, the mechanism of helical structure formation, induced by a phospholipid mimetic, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at sub-micellar concentrations, has been studied using multiple biophysical probes. Read More

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September 2021

Controlling the pH dependent transition between monoolein Fd3m micellar cubosomes and hexosomes using fatty acetate and fatty acid additive mixtures.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 2;607(Pt 1):848-856. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Science, STEM College, RMIT University, Melbourne, Vic 3000, Australia. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Cubosomes made from the inverse micellar cubic mesophase (I) with Fd3m symmetry possess a unique structure of closely packed inverse micelles. These have prospective functionality in sustained drug release. In this study, we hypothesised that similar to fatty acids, various fatty acetate compounds can induce the formation of micellar Fd3m cubosomes in monoolein (MO) nanoparticles. Read More

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September 2021

Viscosity changes and gel formation during storage of liquid micellar casein concentrates.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695.

Our objective was to determine the effects of temperature and protein concentration on viscosity increase and gelation of liquid micellar casein concentrate (MCC) at protein concentrations from 6 to 20% during refrigerated storage. Skim milk (~350 kg) was pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) and filtered through a ceramic microfiltration system to make MCC and replicated 3 times. The liquid MCC was immediately concentrated via a plate ultrafiltration system to 18% protein (wt/wt). Read More

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September 2021

Multistep Micellization of Standard Surfactants Evidenced by Second Harmonic Scattering.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

University of Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Institut Lumière Matière, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.

Processes involving in solution a reduced number of molecules are difficult to identify and characterize. Here, we show that micellization of standard surfactants, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate and trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide, two nonefficient compounds for quadratic nonlinear optics, can be investigated by second harmonic scattering (SHS). In particular, the formation of aggregates at concentrations smaller than the critical micellar concentration is evidenced through a nonmonotonic behavior of the SHS intensity as a function of the surfactant concentration. Read More

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September 2021

Vascular Bursts Act as a Versatile Tumor Vessel Permeation Route for Blood-Borne Particles and Cells.

Small 2021 Sep 15:e2103751. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Dynamic bursting in tumor vasculature has recently sparked interest as a novel particle transportation route for drug delivery. These bursts facilitate the transport of sub-100 nm nanoparticles into tumors, though their contribution on the access of other blood-borne particles remains unknown. To evaluate the versatility of this phenomenon, the in vivo kinetics of a variety of intravenously injected particles and their penetration in tumor xenografts and allografts are compared. Read More

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September 2021

Contrasting effect of 1-butanol and 1,4-butanediol on the triggered micellar self-assemblies of C-type cationic surfactants.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15;23(35):19680-19692. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University (VNSGU), Udhana-Magdalla road, Surat 395007, Gujarat, India.

The self-assembly in aqueous solutions of three quaternary salt-based C-type cationic surfactants with different polar head groups and identical carbon alkyl chain , cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB), cetyltrimethylammonium tosylate (CTAT), and cetyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (CTPPB) in the presence of 1-butanol (BuOH) and 1,4-butanediol (BTD) was investigated using tensiometry, 2D-nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (2D-NOESY) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. The adsorption parameters and micellar characteristics evaluated at 303.15 K distinctly showed that BuOH promotes the mixed micelle formation while BTD interfered with the micellization phenomenon. Read More

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September 2021

Cationic polythiophene-anionic fullerene pair in water and water-dioxane: studies on hydrogen bonding capabilities, kinetic and thermodynamic properties.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), Vatselankatu 2, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.

Despite the vast array of solution- and solid-state bio-analytical, bioelectronic and optoelectronic applications of cationic polythiophenes (CPTs), the number of studies focused on the role of hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) between these and other molecules is scarce, regardless of whether H-bonding is expected to play an important role in several such applications. Also, despite the advantages of using cosolvents to systematically examine the molecular interactions, there are no such studies for CPTs to our knowledge. This work presents a steady-state UV-vis/fluorescence spectroscopic, kinetic and thermodynamic study on the H-bonding interactions between a water-soluble, cationic-anionic (isothiouronium-tetraphosphonate), polythiophene-fullerene donor-acceptor pair with two-point, charge-assisted H-bonding (CAHB) capabilities, tuned using water or a 1,4-dioxane-water mixture (W-DI). Read More

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September 2021

Fluorescent, electrically responsive and ultratough self-healing hydrogels bioinspired all-in-one hierarchical micelles.

Mater Horiz 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education and College of Chemistry, and State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Intelligent hydrogels that simultaneously exhibit excellent toughness, self-healing ability and photoelectronic responsiveness are in high demand but are greatly challenging to prepare. Inspired by the hierarchical structure of fluorescent proteins in jellyfish and biomembranes in nature, herein, a facile and universal all-in-one strategy is demonstrated to construct fluorescent, electrically responsive and ultratough self-healing hydrogels aqueous self-assembly of polyelectrolyte-surfactant micelles with hierarchical structures and functionality. The self-assembled 2-ureido-4-[1]-pyrimidone (UPy) hydrophobic core containing reversible physical crosslinks embedded in micelles leads to a durable network structure with excellent toughness and self-healing ability. Read More

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September 2021

Mussel-inspired self-adhesive hydrogels by conducting free radical polymerization in both aqueous phase and micelle phase and their applications in flexible sensors.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 1;607(Pt 1):431-439. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi'an Technological University, Xi'an 710021, PR China.

Polydopamine (PDA)-based self-adhesive hydrogel sensors are extensively explored but it is still a challenge to construct PDA-based hydrogels by free radical polymerization. Herein, a new approach to construct self-adhesive hydrogels by conducting free radical polymerization in both aqueous phase and micelle phase is developed. The following two-phase polymerization processes account for the formation of the self-adhesive hydrogels. Read More

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September 2021

Rational design of dynamic imine surfactants for oil-water emulsions: Learning from oil-induced reversible dynamic imine bond formation.

Huan Li Xuefeng Liu

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 30;607(Pt 1):163-170. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Chemical & Materials Engineering, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Biological Colloids Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, PR China. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Dynamic imine surfactants (DIS) can be constructed by the formation of dynamic imine bonds (Dibs) between aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic amines in water. Because of the nature of Dibs in water, a thermodynamic equilibrium state was achieved between the DIS and aldehyde and amine precursors to form a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL). When the DIS served as sole emulsifier to form oil-HO emulsions, the precursors migrated between the HO phase and the oil phase, which altered the DCL equilibrium. Read More

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DPD Study on the Interfacial Properties of PEO/PEO-PPO-PEO/PPO Ternary Blends: Effects of Pluronic Structure and Concentration.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 26;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, China.

Using the method of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, we investigated the interfacial properties of PEO/PEO-PPO-PEO/PPO ternary blends composed of the Pluronics L64(EOPOEO), F68(EOPOEO), F88(EOPOEO), or F127(EOPOEO) triblock copolymers. Our simulations show that: (i) The interfacial tensions (γ) of the ternary blends obey the relationship γF68 < γL64 < γF88 < γF127, which indicates that triblock copolymer F68 is most effective in reducing the interfacial tension, compared to L64, F88, and F127; (ii) For the blends of PEO/L64/PPO and the F64 copolymer concentration ranging from = 0.2 to 0. Read More

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Unraveling the Photodynamic Activity of Cationic Benzoporphyrin-Based Photosensitizers against Bladder Cancer Cells.

Molecules 2021 Sep 1;26(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

In this study, we report the preparation of new mono-charged benzoporphyrin complexes by reaction of the appropriate neutral benzoporphyrin with (2,2'-bipyridine)dichloroplatinum(II) and of the analogs' derivatives synthesized through alkylation of the neutral scaffold with iodomethane. All derivatives were incorporated into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) micelles. The ability of the resultant formulations to generate reactive oxygen species was evaluated, mainly the singlet oxygen formation. Read More

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September 2021

Vitamin D Fortification of Consumption Cow's Milk: Health, Nutritional and Technological Aspects. A Multidisciplinary Lecture of the Recent Scientific Evidence.

Molecules 2021 Aug 31;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Vitamin D is essential in assuring bone health at all stages of life, but its non-skeletal effects are also essential: This vitamin impacts the physiology of the immune system, skeletal muscles and adipose tissue, glucose metabolism, skin, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, neuro-cognitive functions and cell division. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency is widespread worldwide, at any age, in young and healthy subjects, as well as in pregnant women and the elderly population, due to several factors, including inadequate sunlight exposure, skin pigmentation and coverage, adiposity, lifestyle and low dietary intakes. To overcome this problem, the fortification of foods that are consumed on a daily basis, such as milk, is strongly advisable. Read More

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Inducing pH control over the critical micelle concentration of zwitterionic surfactants via polyacids adsorption: Effect of chain length and structure.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 26;606(Pt 2):1636-1651. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Universitá degli Studi dell'Insubria, via J. H. Dunant 3, 21100 Varese, Italy.

Hypothesis: The critical concentration above which micelles form from zwitterionic surfactant solutions and their thermodynamic stability is affected by the interaction with weak Brønsted polyacid chains (A) via the formation of charged hydrogen bonds between the latter and anionic moieties.

Experiments: The interaction between zwitterionic micelles and polyacids capable of forming hydrogen bonds, and its dependence on the environmental pH and polymer structure, has been studied with constant-pH simulations and a restricted primitive model for all electrolytes.

Findings: At low pH, the formation of polyacid/micelle complexes is witnessed independently of the polymer size or structure, so that the concentration above which micelles form is substantially decreased compared to polyacid-free cases. Read More

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Asymmetric polymersomes, from the formation of asymmetric membranes to the application on drug delivery.

J Control Release 2021 Sep 5;338:422-445. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, Liaoning, PR China. Electronic address:

Nano drug delivery systems have attracted researchers' growing attention and are gradually emerging into the public views. More and more nano-formulations are being approved for marketing or clinical use, representing the field's booming development. Copolymer self-assembly systems such as micelles, nanoparticles, polymersomes occupy a prominent position in the field of nano-drug delivery carriers. Read More

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September 2021

Self-Assembled Micellar Nanoparticles by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of High-Density Lipoprotein for the Formation and Stability of High Internal Phase Emulsions.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 8;69(37):11015-11025. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Engineering Research Center of Bio-process, Ministry of Education, Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, Anhui 230009, P. R. China.

In this study, the influence of pH on the conformational state of EHT, which was obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of trypsin, and the stabilizing properties of high internal phase emulsions have been demonstrated. Critical micelle concentration and transmission electron microscopy results exhibited the formation of micellar nanoparticles with mean diameters ranging from 108 to 1359.5 nm. Read More

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September 2021

Interrogating the relationship between the microstructure of amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol-b-caprolactone) copolymers and their colloidal assemblies using non-interfering techniques.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 17;606(Pt 2):1140-1152. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Applied Chemistry and Translational Biomaterials (ACTB) Group, UniSA CHS, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. Electronic address:

Understanding the microstructural parameters of amphiphilic copolymers that control the formation and structure of aggregated colloids (e.g., micelles) is essential for the rational design of hierarchically structured systems for applications in nanomedicine, personal care and food formulations. Read More

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Digestion and Absorption of Milk Phospholipids in Newborns and Adults.

Front Nutr 2021 18;8:724006. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Division of Medicine, Experimental Vascular Medicine, Department of Clinical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Milk polar lipids provide choline, ethanolamine, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are needed for the growth and plasticity of the tissues in a suckling child. They may also inhibit cholesterol absorption by interacting with cholesterol during micelle formation. They may also have beneficial luminal, mucosal, and metabolic effects in both the neonate and the adult. Read More

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On the origin of controlled anisotropic growth of monodisperse gold nanobipyramids.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 23;13(36):15292-15300. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale "Toso Montanari", Universitá degli Studi di Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna, Italy.

We elucidate the crucial role of the cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant in the anisotropic growth mechanism of gold nano-bipyramids, nano-objects with remarkable optical properties and high tunability. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations predict different surface coverages of the CTAB (positively charged) heads and their (bromide) counterions as function of the gold exposed surfaces. High concentration of CTAB surfactant promotes formation of gold nanograins in solution that work as precursors for the smooth anisotropic growth of more elongated nano-bipyramidal objects. Read More

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September 2021

Compression-induced Phase Transition in Adsorbed Monolayers of Alkylgalactosides at the Air/Water Interface.

J Oleo Sci 2021 ;70(9):1253-1259

Department of Innovation Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University.

Compression-induced formation of condensed-phase domains in adsorbed monolayers of alkylgalactosides (AGs) at the air/water interface was observed. When an aqueous solution of AGs was poured into a Langmuir trough, the AG molecules were spontaneously adsorbed from the solution at the air/water interface to form the adsorbed or Gibbs monolayer in an expanded, liquid-like phase at equilibrium. The monolayer was subsequently laterally compressed by the barriers of the trough, while simultaneously observing the system using a Brewster angle microscope (BAM). Read More

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January 2021

Carrier-free micellar CpG interacting with cell membrane for enhanced immunological treatment of HIV-1.

Biomaterials 2021 Aug 27;277:121081. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201508, China; Research Institute of Cell Culture, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea; Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, 38541, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Unmethylated CpG motifs activate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), leading to sequence- and species-specific immune stimulation. Here, we engineered a CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) with multiple hydrophobic moieties, so-called lipid-modified uracil, which resulted in a facile micelle formation of the stimulant. The self-assembled CpG nanostructure (U4CpG) containing the ODN 2216 sequence was characterized by various spectroscopic and microscopic methods together with molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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An analytical study of lipid-oligonucleotide aggregation properties.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Aug 12;205:114327. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

ARNA INSERM U1212, CNRS 5320, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux F-33076, France. Electronic address:

Lipid-oligonucleotides (LON) attract great interest as supramolecular scaffolds to improve the intracellular delivery of nucleic acids. Analytical characterization of LON assemblies is critical to formulation development, understanding in-vivo performance, as well as quality control. For this study, we selected LONs featuring different modifications on both oligonucleotide (with or without a G4 prone sequence) and lipid (mono or bis-alkyl chain covalently attached to the oligonucleotide sequence). Read More

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Acid-triggered degradable polyprodrug with drug as unique repeating unit for long-acting drug delivery with minimal leakage.

Xinming Li Peng Liu

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Sep 15;128:112317. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address:

Acid-triggered degradable polyprodrug P(DOX-AH) was designed for long-acting drug delivery with minimal leakage and enhanced antitumor efficacy. By facile polymerization of doxorubicin (DOX) and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)acryloylhydrazine (Boc-AH), P(DOX-AH) with drug as unique repeating unit was obtained, possessing an ultrahigh drug content. It was stable in the neutral media but could degrade completely into DOX-AH in the acidic media without any other by-product. Read More

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September 2021

Zwitterionic Block Copolymer Prodrug Micelles for pH Responsive Drug Delivery and Hypoxia-Specific Chemotherapy.

Mol Pharm 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Manufacturing, CSIRO, Research Way, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Tirapazamine (TPZ) and its derivatives (TPZD) have shown their great potential for efficiently killing hypoxic cancer cells. However, unsatisfactory clinical outcomes resulting from the low bioavailability of the low-molecular TPZ and TPZD limited their further applications. Precise delivery and release of these prodrugs via functional nanocarriers can significantly improve the therapeutic effects due to the targeted drug delivery and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Read More

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September 2021

Enhanced drug retention by anthracene crosslinked nanocomposites for bimodal imaging-guided phototherapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17;13(35):14713-14722. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634, Singapore.

Efficient drug delivery, multifunctional combined therapy and real-time diagnosis are the main hallmarks in the exploitation of precision nanomedicine. Herein, an anthracene-functionalized micelle containing a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and the photosensitizer IR780 is designed to achieve sustained drug release and enhanced photothermal and photodynamic therapy. The polymer-coated hybrid micelle was achieved by crosslinking anthracene-dimer with UV light ( > 300 nm), which is converted from near-infrared (NIR) irradiation upon UCNPs. Read More

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September 2021

Anchorage-Dependent Living Supramolecular Self-Assembly of Polymeric Micelles.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 2;143(36):14684-14693. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, Frontiers Science Center for Materiobiology and Dynamic Chemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Anchorage-dependent contact-inhibited growth usually refers to on-surface cell proliferation inhibited by the proximity of other cells. This phenomenon, prominent in nature, has yet to be achieved with polymeric micelles. Here, we report the control living supra-macromolecular self-assembly of elongated micelles with a liquid crystalline core onto a hydrophobic substrate via the synergetic interactions between the substrate and aggregates dispersed in solution. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular Recognition of the Self-Assembly Mechanism of Glycosyl Amino Acetate-Based Hydrogels.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 13;6(33):21801-21808. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China.

The self-assembly of supramolecular hydrogels has attracted the attention of many researchers, and it also has a broad application prospect in biomedical fields. However, there are few studies on the intrinsic mechanism of molecular self-assembly of hydrogels. In this paper, the self-assembly process of glycolipid-based hydrogels is studied by combining quantum chemistry calculation and molecular dynamics simulation. Read More

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Self-assembly of ionic and non-ionic surfactants in type IV cerium nitrate and urea based deep eutectic solvent.

J Chem Phys 2021 Aug;155(8):084902

Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AX, United Kingdom.

Understanding and manipulating micelle morphology are key to exploiting surfactants in various applications. Recent studies have shown surfactant self-assembly in a variety of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) where both the nature of surfactants and the interaction of the surfactant molecule with the solvent components influence the size, shape, and morphology of the micelles formed. So far, micelle formation has only been reported in type III DESs, consisting solely of organic species. Read More

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