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Content and Performance of the MiniMUGA Genotyping Array: A New Tool To Improve Rigor and Reproducibility in Mouse Research.

Genetics 2020 Dec;216(4):905-930

Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599.

The laboratory mouse is the most widely used animal model for biomedical research, due in part to its well-annotated genome, wealth of genetic resources, and the ability to precisely manipulate its genome. Despite the importance of genetics for mouse research, genetic quality control (QC) is not standardized, in part due to the lack of cost-effective, informative, and robust platforms. Genotyping arrays are standard tools for mouse research and remain an attractive alternative even in the era of high-throughput whole-genome sequencing. Read More

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December 2020

Sniff-synchronized, gradient-guided olfactory search by freely-moving mice.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Neuroscience; Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States.

For many organisms, searching for relevant targets such as food or mates entails active, strategic sampling of the environment. Finding odorous targets may be the most ancient search problem that motile organisms evolved to solve. While chemosensory navigation has been well characterized in micro-organisms and invertebrates, spatial olfaction in vertebrates is poorly understood. Read More

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Intraperitoneal Glucose Transport to Micrometastasis: A Multimodal In Vivo Imaging Investigation in a Mouse Lymphoma Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 23;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Medical Imaging, University of Pécs Medical School, 7624 Pécs, Hungary.

Bc-DLFL.1 is a novel spontaneous, high-grade transplantable mouse B-cell lymphoma model for selective serosal propagation. These cells attach to the omentum and mesentery and show dissemination in mesenteric lymph nodes. Read More

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Rapid Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging of Monoamine Oxidase B for Diagnosis of Early-Stage Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Key Laboratory of Molecular and Nano Probes, Ministry of Education, Collaborative Innovation Center of Functionalized Probes for Chemical Imaging in Universities of Shandong, Institute of Biomedical Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, P.R. China.

Liver fibrosis could induce cirrhosis and liver cancer, causing serious damages to liver function and even death. Early diagnosis of fibrosis is extremely requisite for optimizing treatment schedule to improve cure rate. In early-stage fibrosis, overexpressed monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) can serve as a biomarker, which greatly contributes to the diagnosis of early liver fibrosis. Read More

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TetrODrive: an open-source microdrive for combined electrophysiology and optophysiology.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 26;18(4). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Systems Physiology of Learning, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany.

. In tetrode recordings, the cell types of the recorded units are difficult to determine based on electrophysiological characteristics alone. Optotagging, the use of optogenetic stimulation to precisely identify cells, is a method to overcome this challenge. Read More

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Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity Study of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Stabilized with Innovative Functional Copolymers.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Apr 23:e2100059. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Université de Paris, CNRS ERL 3649 "Pharmacologie et thérapies des addictions", Inserm UMR-S 1124 T3S "Environmental Toxicity, Therapeutic Targets Cellular Signaling an biomarkers", 45 rue des Saints Pères, Paris, F-75006, France.

Oxidative stress, which is one of the main harmful mechanisms of pathologies including ischemic stroke, contributes to both neurons and endothelial cell damages, leading to vascular lesions. Although many antioxidants are tested in preclinical studies, no treatment is currently available for stroke patients. Since cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) exhibit remarkable antioxidant capacities, the objective is to develop an innovative coating to enhance CNPs biocompatibility without disrupting their antioxidant capacities or enhance their toxicity. Read More

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A DNA-binding, albumin-targeting fusion protein promotes the cellular uptake and bioavailability of framework DNA nanostructures.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar 19;13(12):6038-6042. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Nucleic Acid Chemistry and Nanomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, China.

Framework DNA nanostructures exhibit unique characteristics such as precisely controllable physicochemical properties (i.e. size, shape, and surface functionality) and have been used as carriers for the delivery of a variety of therapeutics. Read More

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Urinary protein analysis in mice lacking major urinary proteins.

Exp Anim 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Animal Models for Human Diseases, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition.

Mouse urine contains major urinary proteins (MUPs) that are not found in human urine. Therefore, even healthy mice exhibit proteinuria, unlike healthy humans, making it challenging to use mice as models for human diseases. It was also unknown whether dipsticks for urinalysis could measure protein concentrations precisely in urine containing MUPs. Read More

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K3.1 channels regulate the rate of critical period plasticity.

Neurosci Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Development, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan; International Research Center for Neurointelligence, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan; Center for Brain Science, Department of Molecular Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 52 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Experience-dependent plasticity within visual cortex is controlled by postnatal maturation of inhibitory circuits, which are both morphologically diverse and precisely connected. Gene-targeted disruption of the voltage-dependent potassium channel K3.1 broadens action potentials and reduces net inhibitory function of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABA subtypes within the neocortex. Read More

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ESDN inhibits melanoma progression by blocking E-selectin expression in endothelial cells via STAT3.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 13;510:13-23. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Molecular Biotechnology Center (MBC), University of Torino, Torino, Italy; Dept. Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

An interactive crosstalk between tumor and stroma cells is essential for metastatic melanoma progression. We evidenced that ESDN/DCBLD2/CLCP1 plays a crucial role in endothelial cells during the spread of melanoma. Precisely, increased extravasation and metastasis formation were revealed in ESDN-null mice injected with melanoma cells, even if the primary tumor growth, vessel permeability, and angiogenesis were not enhanced. Read More

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Deconvoluting global cytokine signaling networks in natural killer cells.

Nat Immunol 2021 May 15;22(5):627-638. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Cytokine signaling via signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins is crucial for optimal antiviral responses of natural killer (NK) cells. However, the pleiotropic effects of both cytokine and STAT signaling preclude the ability to precisely attribute molecular changes to specific cytokine-STAT modules. Here, we employed a multi-omics approach to deconstruct and rebuild the complex interaction of multiple cytokine signaling pathways in NK cells. Read More

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RNA decay machinery safeguards immune cell development and immunological responses.

Trends Immunol 2021 May 12;42(5):447-460. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory for Immunogenetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan; Cell Signal Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan.

mRNA decay systems control mRNA abundance by counterbalancing transcription. Several recent studies show that mRNA decay pathways are crucial to conventional T and B cell development in vertebrates, in addition to suppressing autoimmunity and excessive inflammatory responses. Selective mRNA degradation triggered by the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex appears to be required in lymphocyte development, cell quiescence, V(D)J (variable-diversity-joining) recombination, and prevention of inappropriate apoptosis in mice. Read More

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Compartmenting poly-adenine-based spherical nucleic acids for efficient live-cell microRNA capture.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, CHINA.

Direct delivery of exogenous non-coding nucleic acids into living cells has attracted intense interest in biological applications. However, the cell entry efficiency and target capture ability remain to be improved. Here we develop a method for compartmenting poly-adenine-based spherical nucleic acids (polyA-SNAs) for efficient capture of oncogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) in living cells. Read More

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A Requirement of Protein Geranylgeranylation for Chemokine Receptor Signaling and Th17 Cell Function in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:641188. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States.

Precisely controlled lymphocyte migration is critically required for immune surveillance and successful immune responses. Lymphocyte migration is strictly regulated by chemokines and chemokine receptors. Here we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a form of post-translational protein lipid modification, is required for chemokine receptor-proximal signaling. Read More

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Vangl2 promotes the formation of long cytonemes to enable distant Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Nat Commun 2021 04 6;12(1):2058. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Living Systems Institute, School of Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Wnt signaling regulates cell proliferation and cell differentiation as well as migration and polarity during development. However, it is still unclear how the Wnt ligand distribution is precisely controlled to fulfil these functions. Here, we show that the planar cell polarity protein Vangl2 regulates the distribution of Wnt by cytonemes. Read More

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Mapping the Age of Laboratory Rabbit Strains to Human.

Int J Prev Med 2020 11;11:194. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, Malaysia.

Rabbit strains find immense application in biomedical research with every strain having their discrete advantage in specific research endeavor. Acceptability of rabbit strains as laboratory animals owes to their breeding ease, availability, cost-effectiveness, ethical conveniences, larger size, compared to rats and mice, and responsiveness. With respect to different life phases, the article displays that one human year is equivalent to: (1) in developmental phase, 56. Read More

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December 2020

Squamosamide Derivative FLZ Diminishes Aberrant Mitochondrial Fission by Inhibiting Dynamin-Related Protein 1.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:588003. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substrate and Function of Natural Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial morphology is dynamic and precisely regulated by mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery. Aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation, which can result in cell death, is controlled by the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Read More

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ATG14 and RB1CC1 play essential roles in maintaining muscle homeostasis.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 14:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Departments of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Defects in macroautophagy/autophagy are implicated in the pathogenesis of neuromuscular and heart diseases. To precisely define the roles of autophagy-related genes in skeletal and cardiac muscles, we generated muscle-specific and conditional knockout (cKO) mice by using and compared their phenotypes to those of -conditional double-knockout (cDKO) mice. -cKO mice developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which was associated with abnormal accumulation of autophagic cargoes in the heart and early mortality. Read More

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Loss of Nucleobindin-2/Nesfatin-1 increases lipopolysaccharide-induced murine acute lung inflammation.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is expressed in variety of tissues. Treatment with nesfatin-1 reduces inflammation in rat models of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced oxidative brain damage and traumatic brain injury as well as myocardial injury. There is only one study showing anti-inflammatory actions of nesfatin-1 on acute lung inflammation. Read More

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Visceral pressure stimulator for exploring hollow organ pain: a pilot study.

Biomed Eng Online 2021 Mar 25;20(1):30. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Center for Advanced Pain Studies, Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Rd., Richardson, TX, 75080, USA.

Background: The regulation and control of pressure stimuli is useful for many studies of pain and nociception especially those in the visceral pain field. In many in vivo experiments, distinct air and liquid stimuli at varying pressures are delivered to hollow organs such as the bladder, vagina, and colon. These stimuli are coupled with behavioral, molecular, or physiological read-outs of the response to the stimulus. Read More

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Ovalbumin and cholera toxin delivery to buccal mucus for immunization using microneedles and comparison of immunological response to transmucosal delivery.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Bionano Technology and Gachon BioNano Research Institute, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

The oral mucosa is an effective site for vaccination. However, for oral mucosal vaccines, delivery of the right dose of vaccine is not possible due to the water-rich environment. In this study, the buccal mucosa, which is easy to access using a microneedle array in the oral cavity, was selected as the administration site. Read More

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The G protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) regulates cutaneous immunology by maintaining dendritic epidermal T cells and regulating the skin microbiome.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Dermatology, Allergy, and Venereology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

The G protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) regulates homing of different T-cell populations into the gut, thus, preserving tissue homeostasis. Its potential role in the preservation of homeostasis on other body interfaces, including the skin, is less well understood. We addressed the impact of GPR15 on cutaneous T-cell populations and the skin microbiome under steady-state conditions. Read More

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Small Extracellular Vesicles Control Dendritic Spine Development through Regulation of HDAC2 Signaling.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 19;41(17):3799-3807. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Departments of Neurosurgery and Cellular and Molecular Physiology

The release of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) has recently been reported, but knowledge of their function in neuron development remains limited. Using LC-MS/MS, we found that sEVs released from developing cortical neurons obtained from mice of both sexes were enriched in cytoplasm, exosome, and protein-binding and DNA/RNA-binding pathways. The latter included HDAC2, which was of particular interest, because HDAC2 regulates spine development, and populations of neurons expressing different levels of HDAC2 co-exist during the period of spine growth. Read More

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Paxillin Is Required for Proper Spinal Motor Axon Growth into the Limb.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 16;41(17):3808-3821. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Graduate Institute of Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan

To assemble the functional circuits of the nervous system, the neuronal axonal growth cones must be precisely guided to their proper targets, which can be achieved through cell-surface guidance receptor activation by ligand binding in the periphery. We investigated the function of paxillin, a focal adhesion protein, as an essential growth cone guidance intermediary in the context of spinal lateral motor column (LMC) motor axon trajectory selection in the limb mesenchyme. Using mRNA detection, we first show paxillin expression in LMC neurons of chick and mouse embryos at the time of spinal motor axon extension into the limb. Read More

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An analysis of the CatWalk XT and a composite score to assess neurofunctional deficits after photothrombosis in mice.

Neurosci Lett 2021 04 13;751:135811. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Department of Neurology, Kerpener Str. 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate CatWalk's capability for assessing the functional outcome after photothrombotic stroke affecting the motor cortex of mice. Mice were tested up to 21 days after photothrombosis or sham surgery using CatWalk, and a composite score assessing functional deficits (neuroscore). The neuroscore demonstrated deficits of the contralateral forelimb for more than two weeks after stroke. Read More

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Prolonged deficit of low gamma oscillations in the peri-infarct cortex of mice after stroke.

Exp Neurol 2021 Mar 13;341:113696. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, INSERM U1239, DC2N, Rouen, France. Electronic address:

Days and weeks after an ischemic stroke, the peri-infarct area adjacent to the necrotic tissue exhibits very intense synaptic reorganization aimed at regaining lost functions. In order to enhance functional recovery, it is important to understand the mechanisms supporting neural repair and neuroplasticity in the cortex surrounding the lesion. Brain oscillations of the local field potential (LFP) are rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal excitability that synchronize neuronal activity to organize information processing and plasticity. Read More

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Computational modeling reveals a key role for polarized myeloid cells in controlling osteoclast activity during bone injury repair.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 15;11(1):6055. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Tumor Biology Department, SRB3, Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

Bone-forming osteoblasts and -resorbing osteoclasts control bone injury repair, and myeloid-derived cells such as monocytes and macrophages are known to influence their behavior. However, precisely how these multiple cell types coordinate and regulate each other over time within the bone marrow to restore bone is difficult to dissect using biological approaches. Conversely, mathematical modeling lends itself well to this challenge. Read More

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Neuronal circuits overcome imbalance in excitation and inhibition by adjusting connection numbers.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(12)

Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel;

The interplay between excitation and inhibition is crucial for neuronal circuitry in the brain. Inhibitory cell fractions in the neocortex and hippocampus are typically maintained at 15 to 30%, which is assumed to be important for stable dynamics. We have studied systematically the role of precisely controlled excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) cellular ratios on network activity using mice hippocampal cultures. Read More

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Hirschsprung disease and more: dysregulation of ERBB2 and ERBB3.

J Clin Invest 2021 Mar;131(6)

The enteric nervous system mediates reflexes independently of the brain and spinal cord and transmits signals bidirectionally between the gut and the brain. Hirschsprung disease and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) and pediatric CIPO are examples of congenital defects that impair gastrointestinal motility. In this issue of the JCI, Thuy-Linh Le et al. Read More

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Aging and β3-adrenergic stimulation alter mitochondrial lipidome of adipose tissue.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Jul 11;1866(7):158922. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012, India.

Mitochondrial abundance and thermogenic capacity are two imperative components that distinguish brown, beige and white adipose tissues. Most importantly, the lipid composition is vital for maintaining the quantity, quality and function of mitochondria. Therefore, we employed quantitative lipidomics to probe the mitochondrial lipidome of adipose tissues. Read More

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