1,756,019 results match your criteria mice pkcη

Polystyrene microplastics-induced ROS overproduction disrupts the skeletal muscle regeneration by converting myoblasts into adipocytes.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 27;417:125962. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China; Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

The environmental problem of Microplastics (MPs) pollution poses a great threat to human and animal health, which has attracted global attention. The physiological integrity of skeletal muscle is extremely important for the survival of animals. Here, we investigated the effect of two size polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs, 1-10 µm and 50-100 µm) on the growth of anterior tibial (TA) muscle and repair after injury in mice. Read More

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A High Fat Western Diet Attenuates Phasic Dopamine Release.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 9:135952. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, 38152-3520, USA. Electronic address:

Natural rewards, such as food and social interaction, as well as drugs of abuse elicit increased mesolimbic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Drugs of abuse, however, increase NAc dopamine release to a greater extent and are known to induce lasting changes on the functioning of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Less is known about the long-term effects of diet composition on this reward pathway. Read More

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Propofol Modulates Inhibitory Inputs in Paraventricular Thalamic Nucleus of Mice.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 9:135950. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The mechanisms of general anaesthetics such as propofol have drawn substantial attention. The effects of propofol on inhibitory postsynaptic currents are not exactly the same in different brain nuclei. Recent studies revealed that the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) is a critical nucleus modulating wakefulness. Read More

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Inhibition of Death-associated Protein Kinase 1 Attenuates Cis P-tau and Neurodegeneration in Traumatic Brain Injury.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 May 9:102072. Epub 2021 May 9.

Division of Translational Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA; Cancer Research Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and disability in young people and may lead to the development of progressive neurodegeneration, such as that observed in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We have recently found that the conformation-specific cis phosphorylated form of tau (cis P-tau) is a major early driver of neurodegeneration after TBI. However, not much is known about how cis P-tau is regulated in TBI. Read More

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Synthesis of Novel Esters of Mefenamic Acid with Pronounced Anti-nociceptive Effects and a Proposed Activity on GABA Opioid and Glutamate Receptors.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 May 9:105865. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Mefenamic acid (MFA), a commonly prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses a greater risk of dose-related central nervous system (CNS) toxicity than other NSAIDs. In this study, α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol acetate were selected as prodrug moieties for MFA in an attempt to reduce the CNS toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficacy.

Method: α-tocopherol monoester of MFA (TMMA) and α-tocopherol di-ester of MFA (TDMA) were synthesized by esterification reaction and were subjected to various in vivo characterizations. Read More

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High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhances layer II/III morphological dendritic plasticity in mouse primary motor cortex.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 9:113352. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Medical Sciences and Department of Neurology, Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, Nutley, NJ, 07110, USA. Electronic address:

High-frequency repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) is a safe non-invasive neuromodulatory technique and there is a body of evidence shows that it can modulate plasticity in different brain areas. One of the most interesting application of HF-rTMS is the modulation of plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) to promote recovery after brain injuries. However, the underlying mechanism by which HF-rTMS modulates motor cortex plasticity remain to be investigated. Read More

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Interactions between maternal fluoxetine exposure, the maternal gut microbiome and fetal neurodevelopment in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 9:113353. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely used treatment by women experiencing depression during pregnancy. However, the effects of maternal SSRI use on early offspring development remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that SSRIs can modify the gut microbiota and interact directly with particular gut bacteria, raising the question of whether the gut microbiome impacts host responses to SSRIs. Read More

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IL-6 deficiency promotes colitis by recruiting Ly6C monocytes into inflamed colon tissues in a CCL2-CCR2-dependent manner.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 9:174165. Epub 2021 May 9.

Center for New Drug Safety Evaluation and Research, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211198, PR China. Electronic address:

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is elevated in inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of IL-6 deficiency in colitis is not well-defined. Some IL-6 and IL-6 receptor antagonists are associated with severe gastrointestinal immune adverse effects, but the mechanisms of the effects are not clear. Read More

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Efficient optogenetic silencing of neurotransmitter release with a mosquito rhodopsin.

Neuron 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

Information is carried between brain regions through neurotransmitter release from axonal presynaptic terminals. Understanding the functional roles of defined neuronal projection pathways requires temporally precise manipulation of their activity. However, existing inhibitory optogenetic tools have low efficacy and off-target effects when applied to presynaptic terminals, while chemogenetic tools are difficult to control in space and time. Read More

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VEGF counteracts amyloid-β-induced synaptic dysfunction.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109121

Institut NeuroMyoGène (INMG), Synaptopathies and Autoantibodies, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1217, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) UMR5310, 69000 Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69000 Lyon, France. Electronic address:

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway regulates key processes in synapse function, which are disrupted in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by toxic-soluble amyloid-beta oligomers (Aβo). Here, we show that VEGF accumulates in and around Aβ plaques in postmortem brains of patients with AD and in APP/PS1 mice, an AD mouse model. We uncover specific binding domains involved in direct interaction between Aβo and VEGF and reveal that this interaction jeopardizes VEGFR2 activation in neurons. Read More

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Persistent NF-κB activation in muscle stem cells induces proliferation-independent telomere shortening.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109098

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Institute of Regenerative Medicine, Musculoskeletal Regeneration Program, Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

During the repeated cycles of damage and repair in many muscle disorders, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the muscle stem cell (MuSC) pool becomes less efficient at responding to and repairing damage. The underlying mechanism of such stem cell dysfunction is not fully known. Here, we demonstrate that the distinct early telomere shortening of diseased MuSCs in both mice and young DMD patients is associated with aberrant NF-κB activation. Read More

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RhoA/Cdc42 signaling drives cytoplasmic maturation but not endomitosis in megakaryocytes.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109102

Institute of Experimental Biomedicine, University Hospital, University of Würzburg, 97080 Würzburg, Germany; Rudolf Virchow Center, University of Würzburg, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Megakaryocytes (MKs), the precursors of blood platelets, are large, polyploid cells residing mainly in the bone marrow. We have previously shown that balanced signaling of the Rho GTPases RhoA and Cdc42 is critical for correct MK localization at bone marrow sinusoids in vivo. Using conditional RhoA/Cdc42 double-knockout (DKO) mice, we reveal here that RhoA/Cdc42 signaling is dispensable for the process of polyploidization in MKs but essential for cytoplasmic MK maturation. Read More

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Bach2 attenuates IL-2R signaling to control Treg homeostasis and Tfr development.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109096

Shanghai Institute of Immunology & Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

Differentiation and homeostasis of Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are tightly controlled by the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling, yet the mechanisms governing these processes are incompletely understood. Here, we report that transcription factor Bach2 attenuates IL-2R signaling to coordinate Treg differentiation and homeostasis. Bach2 is required for the quiescence, survival, and maintenance of resting Treg cells (rTregs). Read More

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Social isolation impairs the prefrontal-nucleus accumbens circuit subserving social recognition in mice.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109104

Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea; Neuroscience Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea. Electronic address:

Although medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to play important roles in social behaviors, how early social experiences affect the mPFC and its subcortical circuit remains unclear. We report that mice singly housed (SH) for 8 weeks after weaning show a social recognition deficit, even after 4 weeks of resocialization. In SH mice, prefrontal infralimbic (IL) neurons projecting to the shell region of nucleus accumbens (NAcSh) show decreased excitability compared with group-housed (GH) mice. Read More

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A vaccine inducing solely cytotoxic T lymphocytes fully prevents Zika virus infection and fetal damage.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109107

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL 60153, USA. Electronic address:

As vaccine-induced non-neutralizing antibodies may cause antibody-dependent enhancement of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, we test a vaccine that induces only specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) without specific antibodies. We construct a DNA vaccine expressing a ubiquitinated and rearranged ZIKV non-structural protein 3 (NS3). The protein is immediately degraded and processed in the proteasome for presentation via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I for CTL generation. Read More

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Transferrable protection by gut microbes against STING-associated lung disease.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109113

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

STING modulates immunity by responding to bacterial and endogenous cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs). Humans and mice with STING gain-of-function mutations develop a syndrome known as STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI), which is characterized by inflammatory or fibrosing lung disease. We hypothesized that hyperresponsiveness of gain-of-function STING to bacterial CDNs might explain autoinflammatory lung disease in SAVI mice. Read More

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Protein quality and quantity influence the effect of dietary fat on weight gain and tissue partitioning via host-microbiota changes.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109093

Food Biosciences Department, Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, County Cork P61 C996, Ireland; VistaMilk Research Centre, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, County Cork P61 C996, Ireland. Electronic address:

We investigated how protein quantity (10%-30%) and quality (casein and whey) interact with dietary fat (20%-55%) to affect metabolic health in adult mice. Although dietary fat was the main driver of body weight gain and individual tissue weight, high (30%) casein intake accentuated and high whey intake reduced the negative metabolic aspects of high fat. Jejunum and liver transcriptomics revealed increased intestinal permeability, low-grade inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and liver dysfunction in casein-fed but not whey-fed animals. Read More

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Generation of a DAT-P2A-Flpo mouse line for intersectional genetic targeting of dopamine neuron subpopulations.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109123

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Dopaminergic projections exert widespread influence over multiple brain regions and modulate various behaviors including movement, reward learning, and motivation. It is increasingly appreciated that dopamine neurons are heterogeneous in their gene expression, circuitry, physiology, and function. Current approaches to target dopamine neurons are largely based on single gene drivers, which either label all dopamine neurons or mark a subset but concurrently label non-dopaminergic neurons. Read More

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Non-human primates as a model for human development.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May;16(5):1093-1103

Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Biology (WPI-ASHBi), Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; Research Center for Animal Life Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192, Japan. Electronic address:

Human development has been studied for over a century, but the molecular mechanisms underlying human embryogenesis remain largely unknown due to technical difficulties and ethical issues. Accordingly, mice have been used as a model for mammalian development and studied extensively to infer human biology based on the conservation of fundamental processes between the two species. As research has progressed, however, species-specific differences in characteristics between rodents and primates have become apparent. Read More

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Glycolytic ATP fuels phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling to support effector T helper 17 cell responses.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):976-987.e7

Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis Graduate Program, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA; Louis V. Gerstner Jr. Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Aerobic glycolysis-the Warburg effect-converts glucose to lactate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and is a metabolic feature of effector T cells. Cells generate ATP through various mechanisms and Warburg metabolism is comparatively an energy-inefficient glucose catabolism pathway. Here, we examined the effect of ATP generated via aerobic glycolysis in antigen-driven T cell responses. Read More

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Fungus fuels mucosal wounds in Crohn's disease.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):856-858

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Intestinal microbiome perturbation characterizes Crohn's disease (CD), though specific contributors to pathophysiology remain elusive. In a recent issue of Science, Jain et al. show that Debaryomyces hansenii impairs intestinal healing in mice via effects on type I interferon signaling and chemokine CCL5 expression in macrophages and that it is also prevalent in the inflamed mucosa of CD patients. Read More

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Interleukin-9 deficiency affects lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage-related oxidative stress and myocardial cell apoptosis via the Nrf2 pathway both in vivo and in vitro.

Biofactors 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Cardiology, the People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, China.

Previous studies showed that interleukin-9 (IL-9) is involved in cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and cardiac fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate the role of IL-9 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial cell (MC) apoptosis. Mice were treated with LPS, and IL-9 expression was measured and the results showed that compared with WT mice, LPS-treated mice exhibited increased cardiac Mø-derived IL-9. Read More

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Crystalline ruthenium polypyridine nanoparticles: a targeted treatment of bacterial infection with multifunctional antibacterial, adhesion and surface-anchoring photosensitizer properties.

J Mater Chem B 2021 May;9(18):3808-3825

School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, 230036, China.

Photodynamic antibacterial therapy employs nanocomposites as an alternative to traditional antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections. However, many of these antibacterial materials are less effective towards bacteria than traditional drugs, either due to poor specificity or antibacterial activity. This can result in needless and excessive drug use in treatments. Read More

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Interplay between H1N1 influenza a virus infection, extracellular and intracellular respiratory tract pH, and host responses in a mouse model.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251473. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.

During influenza A virus (IAV) entry, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein is triggered by endosomal low pH to undergo irreversible structural changes that mediate membrane fusion. HA proteins from different isolates vary in the pH at which they become activated in endosomes or become irreversible inactivated if exposed to extracellular acid. Little is known about extracellular pH in the upper respiratory tracts of mammals, how pH may shift during IAV infection, and its impact on replication of viruses that vary in HA activation pH. Read More

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C1ql1 is expressed in adult outer hair cells of the cochlea in a tonotopic gradient.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251412. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT, United States of America.

Hearing depends on the transduction of sounds into neural signals by the inner hair cells of the cochlea. Cochleae also have outer hair cells with unique electromotile properties that increase auditory sensitivity, but they are particularly susceptible to damage by intense noise exposure, ototoxic drugs, and aging. Although the outer hair cells have synapses on afferent neurons that project to the brain, the function of this neuronal circuit is unclear. Read More

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Interferon signaling suppresses the unfolded protein response and induces cell death in hepatocytes accumulating hepatitis B surface antigen.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 12;17(5):e1009228. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Virology and Liver Unit, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Virus infection, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), occasionally causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is counteractive machinery to ER stress, and the failure of UPR to cope with ER stress results in cell death. Mechanisms that regulate the balance between ER stress and UPR are poorly understood. Read More

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A novel genotype of Hantaan orthohantavirus harbored by Apodemus agrarius chejuensis as a potential etiologic agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Republic of Korea.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 12;15(5):e0009400. Epub 2021 May 12.

BK21 Graduate Program, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Orthohantaviruses, causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, pose a significant public health threat worldwide. Despite the significant mortality and morbidity, effective antiviral therapeutics or vaccines for orthohantavirus infections are currently unavailable. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HFRS-associated orthohantaviruses and identify the etiological agent of orthohantavirus outbreaks in southern Republic of Korea (ROK). Read More

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Demise of nociceptive Schwann cells causes nerve retraction and pain hyperalgesia.

Pain 2021 Jun;162(6):1816-1827

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract: Recent findings indicate that nociceptive nerves are not "free", but similar to touch and pressure sensitive nerves, terminate in an end-organ in mice. This sensory structure consists of the nociceptive nerves and specialized nociceptive Schwann cells forming a mesh-like organ in subepidermis with pain transduction initiated at both these cellular constituents. The intimate relation of nociceptive nerves with nociceptive Schwann cells in mice raises the question whether defects in nociceptive Schwann cells can by itself contribute to pain hyperalgesia, nerve retraction, and peripheral neuropathy. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effect of Ultrasound Neuromodulation on Kainic Acid-Induced Epilepsy in mice.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 May 12;PP. Epub 2021 May 12.

Preliminary evidence suggest that low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke, d epression and other conditions leading to neuronal cell death (e.g., Pa rkinson's disease). Read More

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Mechanics of dystrophin deficient skeletal muscles in very young mice and effects of age.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, 77030, United Statesgrid.39382.33.

The MDX mouse is an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a human disease marked by an absence of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. We hypothesized that (1) dystrophin serves a complex mechanical role in skeletal muscles by contributing to passive compliance, viscoelastic properties, and contractile force production and (2) age is a modulator of passive mechanics of skeletal muscles of the MDX mouse. Using an in vitro biaxial mechanical testing apparatus, we measured passive length-tension relationships in the muscle fiber direction as well as transverse to the fibers, viscoelastic stress-relaxation curves, and isometric contractile properties. Read More

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