22,769 results match your criteria methylation histone

UV-induced activation of ATR is mediated by UHRF2.

Genes Cells 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, 753-8511, Japan.

UHRF1 (Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1) regulates DNA methylation and histone modifications, and plays a key role in cell proliferation and the DNA damage response. However, the function of UHRF2, a paralog of UHRF1, in the DNA damage response remains largely unknown. Here, we show that UHRF2 is essential for maintaining cell viability after UV irradiation, as well as for the proliferation of cancer cells. Read More

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Age-Related Macular Degeneration: From Epigenetics to Therapeutic Implications.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1256:221-235

Department of Ophthalmology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Aberrant regulation of epigenetic mechanisms, including the two most common types; DNA methylation and histone modification have been implicated in common chronic progressive conditions, including Alzheimer disease, cardiovascular disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). All these conditions are complex, meaning that environmental factors, genetic factors, and their interactions play a role in disease pathophysiology. Although genome wide association studies (GWAS), and studies on twins demonstrate the genetic/hereditary component to these complex diseases, including AMD, this contribution is much less than 100%. Read More

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January 2021

Integrative study of EZH2 mutational status, copy number, protein expression and H3K27 trimethylation in AML/MDS patients.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Apr 12;13(1):77. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medicine I (Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation), Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Mutations in the EZH2 gene are recurrently found in patients with myeloid neoplasms and are associated with a poor prognosis. We aimed to characterize genetic and epigenetic alterations of EZH2 in 58 patients (51 with acute myeloid leukemia and 7 with myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative neoplasms) by integrating data on EZH2 mutational status, co-occurring mutations, and EZH2 copy number status with EZH2 protein expression, histone H3K27 trimethylation, and EZH2 promoter methylation.

Results: EZH2 was mutated in 6/51 acute myeloid leukemia patients (12%) and 7/7 patients with other myeloid neoplasms. Read More

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Genetic and Epigenetic Biomarkers For Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment Of Metabolic Syndrome.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Health Promotion, Mother and Child Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Palermo. Italy.

Background: Metabolic syndrome is a clinical condition that deserves special attention because it puts the individual at high cardiovascular risk, especially heart attack and stroke. Considering the precision medicine, it would be advisable to valuate the individual cardio-metabolic risk by estimating the coesistence of risk factors (abdominal obesity, low level of High- Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, High Triglycerides, and small dense Low-Density Lipoproteins sub-classes, hypertension, and elevated fasting glycemia), which could engrave on metabolism increasing cardiovascular mortality.

Objective: To identify genetic and epigenetic biomarkers may assist in the possibility of helping follow-up strategies and other measures of prevention, and in metabolic risk. Read More

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DNA methylation patterns expose variations in enhancer-chromatin modifications during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 12;17(4):e1009498. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

In mammals, cellular identity is defined through strict regulation of chromatin modifications and DNA methylation that control gene expression. Methylation of cytosines at CpG sites in the genome is mainly associated with suppression; however, the reason for enhancer-specific methylation is not fully understood. We used sequential ChIP-bisulfite-sequencing for H13K4me1 and H3K27ac histone marks. Read More

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The interplay between DNA and histone methylation: molecular mechanisms and disease implications.

EMBO Rep 2021 Apr 12:e51803. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Genetics and Development and Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Methylation of cytosine in CpG dinucleotides and histone lysine and arginine residues is a chromatin modification that critically contributes to the regulation of genome integrity, replication, and accessibility. A strong correlation exists between the genome-wide distribution of DNA and histone methylation, suggesting an intimate relationship between these epigenetic marks. Indeed, accumulating literature reveals complex mechanisms underlying the molecular crosstalk between DNA and histone methylation. Read More

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Epigenetic regulation in Alzheimer's disease: is it a potential therapeutic target?

Fabio Coppedè

Expert Opin Ther Targets 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Translational Research and of New Surgical and Medical Technologies, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the primary form of dementia in the elderly. Changes in DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histone tails are increasingly observed in AD tissues, and likely contribute to disease onset and progression. The reversibility of these epigenetic marks offers the potential for therapeutic interventions. Read More

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Mechanisms of Oocyte Maturation and Related Epigenetic Regulation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:654028. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Meiosis is the basis of sexual reproduction. In female mammals, meiosis of oocytes starts before birth and sustains at the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase I before gonadotropins-induced ovulation happens. Once meiosis gets started, the oocytes undergo the leptotene, zygotene, and pachytene stages, and then arrest at the dictyate stage. Read More

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Rad9, a 53BP1 Ortholog of Budding Yeast, Is Insensitive to Spo11-Induced Double-Strand Breaks During Meiosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:635383. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

Exogenous double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce a DNA damage response during mitosis as well as meiosis. The DNA damage response is mediated by a cascade involving Mec1/Tel1 (ATR/ATM) and Rad53 (Chk2) kinases. Meiotic cells are programmed to form DSBs for the initiation of meiotic recombination. Read More

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Multi-Dimensional Gene Regulation in Innate and Adaptive Lymphocytes: A View From Regulomes.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:655590. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Neuro-Immune Regulome Unit, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

The precise control of cytokine production by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and their T cell adaptive system counterparts is critical to mounting a proper host defense immune response without inducing collateral damage and autoimmunity. Unlike T cells that differentiate into functionally divergent subsets upon antigen recognition, ILCs are developmentally programmed to rapidly respond to environmental signals in a polarized manner, without the need of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. The specification of cytokine production relies on dynamic regulation of cis-regulatory elements that involve multi-dimensional epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, transcription factor binding, histone modification and DNA-DNA interactions that form chromatin loops. Read More

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Dynamic association of the H3K64 trimethylation mark with genes encoding exported proteins in Plasmodium falciparum.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 8:100614. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Pathogen Biology group, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB), Thycaud PO, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695014, India. Electronic address:

Epigenetic modifications have emerged as critical regulators of virulence genes and stage-specific gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum. However, the specific roles of histone core epigenetic modifications in regulating the stage-specific gene expression are not well understood. In this study, we report an unconventional trimethylation at lysine 64 on histone 3 (H3K64me3) and characterize its functional relevance in P. Read More

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Genome-wide programmable transcriptional memory by CRISPR-based epigenome editing.

Cell 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02142, USA. Electronic address:

A general approach for heritably altering gene expression has the potential to enable many discovery and therapeutic efforts. Here, we present CRISPRoff-a programmable epigenetic memory writer consisting of a single dead Cas9 fusion protein that establishes DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications. Transient CRISPRoff expression initiates highly specific DNA methylation and gene repression that is maintained through cell division and differentiation of stem cells to neurons. Read More

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In utero exposure to chlordecone affects histone modifications and activates LINE-1 in cord blood.

Life Sci Alliance 2021 06 9;4(6). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Rennes, EHESP, Inserm, Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail (Irset)-UMR_S 1085, Rennes, France

Environmental factors can induce detrimental consequences into adulthood life. In this study, we examined the epigenetic effects induced by in utero chlordecone (CD) exposure on human male cord blood as well as in blood-derived Ke-37 cell line. Genome-wide analysis of histone H3K4me3 distribution revealed that genes related to chromosome segregation, chromatin organization, and cell cycle have altered occupancy in their promoters. Read More

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Epigenetics: A Missing Link Between Early Life Stress and Depression.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1305:117-128

Center of Molecular Biology & Pharmacogenetics, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile.

Exposure to early life stress (ELS) represents a major risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, including depression. The susceptibility associated with ELS may result from persistent changes in gene transcription, which can occur through epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA expression. Animal models and reports in humans described that negative stimuli can alter the neurodevelopment of an individual, affecting their behavior and cognitive development. Read More

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Translational Potential of Epigenetic-Based Markers on Fine-Needle Aspiration Thyroid Specimens.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 23;8:640460. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3S), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The awareness of epigenetic alterations leading to neoplasia attracted the attention of researchers toward its potential use in the management of cancer, from diagnosis to prognosis and prediction of response to therapies. Our group has focused its attention on the epigenomics of thyroid neoplasms. Although most of the epigenetic studies have been applied on histological samples, the fact is that cytology, through fine-needle aspiration, is a primary diagnostic method for many pathologies, of which thyroid nodules are one of the most paradigmatic examples. Read More

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The chromatin remodeler DDM1 prevents transposon mobility through deposition of histone variant H2A.W.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 Apr 8;23(4):391-400. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Gregor Mendel Institute (GMI), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Vienna, Austria.

Mobile transposable elements (TEs) not only participate in genome evolution but also threaten genome integrity. In healthy cells, TEs that encode all of the components that are necessary for their mobility are specifically silenced, yet the precise mechanism remains unknown. Here, we characterize the mechanism used by a conserved class of chromatin remodelers that prevent TE mobility. Read More

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SNF5 promotes IL-1β Expression via H3K4me1 in Atherosclerosis induced by Homocysteine.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 Apr 5:105974. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Metabolic Cardiovascular Diseases Research, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004, China; Ningxia Key Laboratory of Vascular Injury and Repair Research, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004, China. Electronic address:

Homocysteine (Hcy) is a strong and independent risk factor of atherosclerosis. It can accelerate atherosclerosis through increased production of inflammatory factors, especially interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), while the precise mechanisms remain to be well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the tumor suppressor gene SNF5 related to Switch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable complex (SWI/SNF) in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis induced by Hcy. Read More

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KDM5B promotes self-renewal of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the microRNA-448-mediated YTHDF3/ITGA6 axis.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Hainan General Hospital, Haikou, China.

Histone methylation plays important roles in mediating the onset and progression of various cancers, and lysine-specific demethylase 5B (KDM5B), as a histone demethylase, is reported to be an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanism underlying its tumorigenesis remains undefined. Hence, we explored the regulatory role of KDM5B in HCC cells, aiming to identify novel therapeutic targets for HCC. Read More

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Bcl-2-negative IGH-BCL2 translocation-negative follicular lymphoma of the thyroid differs genetically and epigenetically from Bcl-2-positive IGH-BCL2 translocation-positive follicular lymphoma.

Histopathology 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, Sakai City Medical Center, 1-1-1 Ebaraji-cho, Nishi-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 593-8304, Japan.

Aims: Follicular lymphoma (FL), comprising a minor subset of primary thyroid lymphomas, is divided into two groups based on Bcl-2 expression and IGH-BCL2 translocation. The clinicopathological features exhibited by Bcl-2-negative IGH-BCL2 translocation-negative FL of the thyroid (Bcl-2 /IGH-BCL2 tFL) are different from those of conventional FL; however, its lymphomagenesis remains unclear. Here, we collected samples from seven patients with Bcl-2 /IGH-BCL2 tFL to investigate their epigenetic and genetic aberrations. Read More

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Gut Microbiota Composition and Epigenetic Molecular Changes Connected to the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Govt. College of Pharmacy, Rohru, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, and its pathogenesis is not fully known. Although there are several hypotheses, such as neuroinflammation, tau hyperphosphorylation, amyloid-β plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and oxidative stress, none of them completely explain the origin and progression of AD. Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota and epigenetics can directly influence the pathogenesis of AD via their effects on multiple pathways, including neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and amyloid protein. Read More

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Simplified MethylRAD Sequencing to Detect Changes in DNA Methylation at Enhancer Elements in Differentiating Embryonic Stem Cells.

Epigenomes 2020 Dec 1;4(4). Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Differential DNA methylation is characteristic of gene regulatory regions, such as enhancers, which mostly constitute low or intermediate CpG content in their DNA sequence. Consequently, quantification of changes in DNA methylation at these sites is challenging. Given that DNA methylation across most of the mammalian genome is maintained, the use of genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to measure fractional changes in DNA methylation at specific sites is an overexertion which is both expensive and cumbersome. Read More

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December 2020

Epigenetic Lens to Visualize the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:581726. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Herpes Neuropathogenesis Research Group, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In <20 years, we have witnessed three different epidemics with coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 in human populations, causing widespread mortality. SARS-CoV-2, through its rapid global spread, has led to the pandemic that we call COVID-19. As of February 1, 2021, the global infections linked to SARS-CoV-2 stand at 103,503,340, with 2,236,960 deaths, and 75,108,099 recoveries. Read More

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Deubiquitinating enzyme USP21 inhibits HIV-1 replication by downregulating Tat expression.

J Virol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Virology and AIDS Research, Key laboratory of Organ Regeneration and Transplantation of The Ministry of Education, The First Hospital of Jilin University

Ubiquitination plays an important role in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. HIV proteins such as Vif and Vpx mediate the degradation of the host proteins APOBEC3 and SAMHD1, respectively, through the proteasome pathway. However, whether deubiquitylating enzymes play an essential role in HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. Read More

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