Toxics 2021 Mar 16;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.
Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Brunswiker Straße 10, 24105 Kiel, Germany.
To determine the amount of the explosives 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and its metabolites in marine samples, a toolbox of methods was developed to enhance sample preparation and analysis of various types of marine samples, such as water, sediment, and different kinds of biota. To achieve this, established methods were adapted, improved, and combined. As a result, if explosive concentrations in sediment or mussel samples are greater than 10 ng per g, direct extraction allows for time-saving sample preparation; if concentrations are below 10 ng per g, techniques such as freeze-drying, ultrasonic, and solid-phase extraction can help to detect even picogram amounts. Read More