76,158 results match your criteria metaplasia


Simultaneous Recognition of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia on White Light Endoscopic Images Based on Convolutional Neural Networks: A Multicenter Study.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 3;12(8):e00385. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Medical School, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Introduction: Patients with atrophic gastritis (AG) or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) have elevated risk of gastric adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic screening and surveillance have been implemented in high incidence countries. The study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for simultaneous recognition of AG and GIM. Read More

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Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Histological Gastric Biopsies Aspects According to the Updated Sydney System in Children.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Pediatric Clinic, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Groupement des Hôpitaux de l'Institut Catholique de Lille (GHICL), Catholic University of Lille, France Department of Pediatrics, Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Department of Gastroenterology, Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium Kaplan Medical Center, Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Rehovot, Israel. University Children's Hospital Ljubljana, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Hospital of Dona Estefania, CHLC, Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Lisbon, Portugal. Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Stockholm, Sweden. Queen Mary's Hospital for children Epsom & St Helier NHS Trust Carshalton, Surrey, United Kingdom. Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda, Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Madrid, Spain. Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Digestive Endoscopy and Surgery Unit, Rome, Italy. INSERM U1053, University of Bordeaux, & National Reference Centre for Campylobacter and Helicobacter, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux, France. Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, First Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens, Agia Sofia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece. Department of Child Health & Nutrition, Istanbul Kent University, Istanbul, Turkey. Microbiology Department, Cochin Hospital, Assistances Publiques des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), University René Descartes Paris V, Paris, France. Mitera Children's Hospital Athens, Greece. Unidade de Gastrenterologia Pediátrica do Centro Materno Infantil do Norte, Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, Porto, Portugal. Yeditepe University Medical Faculty Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ataşehir, Istanbul, Turkey. Vilnius University Clinic of Children's Diseases, Vilnius, Lithuania. Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Servicio de Pediatria, Madrid, Spain. Pathology Department, Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital, Groupement des Hôpitaux de l'Institut Catholique de Lille (GHICL), Catholic University of Lille, France Department of Medical Research, Groupement des Hôpitaux de l'Institut Catholique de Lille (GHICL), Lille Catholic Hospital, Lille, France.

Objectives: A descriptive and comparative study of gastric histological aspects according to the updated Sydney classification (USC), obtained from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) positive vs negative children referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Methods: The Prisma method was used to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis. Read More

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Effect of Silver Nitrate Cauterisation of Nasal Mucosa on Quality-of-Life and Histology in Patients with Intractable Chronic Rhinitis.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Jul 28:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Departments of Otorhinolaryngology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, 632004 India.

Patients with chronic rhinitis causing intractable sneezing which is non-responsive to conventional medication require alternative therapies. The aim of the study was to ascertain the effect of topical 10% silver nitrate solution on the inferior turbinate mucosa as well as quality of life in such patients. Patients with severe chronic rhinitis who failed conventional therapy had application of 10% silver nitrate solution to inferior turbinate mucosa. Read More

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Prevention of IL-6 signaling ameliorates toluene diisocyanate-induced steroid-resistant asthma.

Allergol Int 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shenzhen Institute of Respiratory Diseases, The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University (Shenzhen People's Hospital), The First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology (Shenzhen People's Hospital), Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Background: Accumulating evidence indicated the crucial role for interleukin 6 (IL-6) signaling in the development of allergic asthma. Yet, the role of IL-6 signaling in toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-induced mixed granulocytic airway inflammation still remains unclear. Thus, the aims of this study were to dissect the role of IL-6 signaling and to evaluate the effect of tocilizumab on TDI-induced steroid-resistant asthma. Read More

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Postnatal Ozone Exposure Disrupts Alveolar Development, Exaggerates Mucoinflammatory Responses, and Suppresses Bacterial Clearance in Developing -Tg Mice Lungs.

J Immunol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA

Increased levels of ambient ozone, one of the six criteria air pollutants, result in respiratory tract injury and worsening of ongoing lung diseases. However, the effect of ozone exposure on the respiratory tract undergoing active lung development and simultaneously experiencing mucoinflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, remains unclear. To address these questions, we exposed transgenic (-Tg) mice, a mouse model of cystic fibrosis-like lung disease, and littermate wild-type (WT) mice to ozone from postnatal days (PND) 3-20 and examined the lung phenotypes at PND21. Read More

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Scoring model for discriminating gastric cancer risk in patients with negative serum pepsinogen and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody results.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medical Biostatistics, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: The ABC test measures serum pepsinogen and anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels to predict precancerous conditions in the stomach and gastric cancer. However, a limitation of this test is that the gastric cancer risk is not negligible in patients with a negative result.

Methods: Based on their ABC results, 1157 patients were classified into Groups A (n = 392), B (n = 479), C (n = 247), and D (n = 39). Read More

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Myopic foveal detachment associated with pachychoroid characteristics.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 28;21(1):288. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, #81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06351, South Korea.

Purpose: To describe myopic nontractional foveal detachment associated with pachychoroid diseases.

Methods: This retrospective study included 15 myopic eyes which had nontractional serous foveal detachment. The eyes were divided into myopic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) group (n = 8) and a myopic pachychoroid neovascularization (PNV) group (n = 7) according to the presence of type 1 choroidal neovascularization on multimodal imaging. Read More

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Predictive Value of Marker of Proliferation Ki-67 and Cell Cycle Dependent Protein kinase Inhibitor P16INK4a in Cervical Biopsy to Determine Its Biological Behaviour.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 1;22(7):2237-2241. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Education, Gauhati University, Guwahati, India.

Objective: The aim of the study is to analyse the Immuno-histochemical expression of   Ki-67  and P16INK4a in CIN and cervical cancer cases  and  their utility to determine the accuracy of histological diagnosis and prediction of biological behavior of cervical lesion.

Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried in 110 numbers of cervical biopsy that included 25 CIN1, 21 CIN2, 12 CIN3, 26 SCC and 01 adenocarcinoma and 25 non neoplastic lesion. The tissue sections were stained with Ki-67 and P16INK4a. Read More

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Transbronchial biopsy in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2021 28;38(2):e2021018. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Federal University of São Paulo.

Introduction: The diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is based on relevant exposure, tomographic findings and, in some cases, pathological data. The role of bronchoscopy is uncertain, especially in the fibrotic form of CHP.

Aim: To analyze the yield of transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) in patients with CHP according to tomographic findings and to evaluate the importance of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in the diagnostic approach. Read More

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α-Methylacyl-CoA racemase: a useful immunohistochemical marker of breast carcinoma with apocrine differentiation.

Hum Pathol 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology and Cytology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka 5418567, Japan. Electronic address:

Carcinoma with apocrine differentiation is an androgen receptor (AR)-positive subset of triple-negative breast carcinomas. In addition to carcinoma with apocrine differentiation, other AR-positive triple-negative breast carcinomas occur, albeit less frequently. We found that α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), also known as P504S, is overexpressed in carcinoma with apocrine differentiation and non-neoplastic apocrine metaplasia. Read More

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Pseudopyloric Metaplasia Is Not Associated With the Development of Gastric Cancer.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Corpus atrophic gastritis (CAG) is associated with intestinal metaplasia (IM) and pseudopyloric metaplasia (PPM). Prospective data on corpus mucosa PPM and its link to the development of gastric cancer (GC) are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the presence of corpus mucosa PPM at baseline and the development of GC at follow-up in patients with CAG. Read More

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Keratin 7 expression in hepatic cholestatic diseases.

Virchows Arch 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

1st Department of Pathology, Medical School, Laiko General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias str, 11527, Athens, Greece.

We evaluated keratin 7 (K7) hepatocellular expression in 92 patients with common types of acute and chronic cholestatic diseases caused by bile duct obstruction/destruction or parenchymal lesions [acute hepatitis (n=20), mixed/pure cholestasis (n=16), primary biliary cholangitis-PBC (n=35), primary sclerosing cholangitis-PSC (n=10), vanishing bile duct syndrome (n=3), complete large bile duct obstruction due to space-occupying lesions (n=8)]. K7 immunohistochemical hepatocellular expression and ductular reaction (DR) were semi-quantitatively assessed. Results were correlated with liver enzyme serum levels, cholestasis type, histological features, hepatocellular Ki67 labelling index (LI) and HepPar1 expression. Read More

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Histological Analyses of Capsular Contracture and Associated Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns Treatment, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Capsular contracture is a severe complication to breast surgery with implants. Previous studies suggest multiple risk factors are associated with capsular contracture, but the etiology is still unknown. We performed a literature review to investigate existing studies on histological analyses of breast implant capsules and how clinical risk factors impact the capsule morphology. Read More

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Female primary urethral carcinoma: A rare case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jun 10;85:106100. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Urology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Syiah Kuala, General Hospital dr. Zainoel Abidin, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

Introduction: Primary tumors of the female urethra are exceedingly rare and account for <0.02% of the malignant disease occurring in women. This disease usually presents late and, hence, has a poor outcome. Read More

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ANGPTL4 accelerates KRAS-Induced acinar to ductal metaplasia and pancreatic carcinogenesis.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 24;519:185-198. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, and Program in Biomedical Sciences & Engineering, Inha University, 366, Seohae-daero, Jung-gu, Incheon, 22332, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Oncogenic KRAS induces neoplastic transformation of pancreatic acinar cells through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), and drives pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is known to be involved in the regulation of cancer growth and metastasis. However, whether ANGPTL4 affects KRAS-mediated ADM and early PDAC intervention remains unknown. Read More

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The protective effect of NF-κB signaling pathway inhibitor PDTC on mice with chronic atrophic gastritis.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 26:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Outpatient Department, Chongqing University Central Hospital (Chongqing Emergency Medical Center), Chongqing, China.

Objective: To understand the protective effect of NF-κB signaling pathway inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) on mice with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG).

Methods: () infection combined with high-salt diet was used to construct the CAG mouse model, and 100 or 200 mg/kg/day PDTC was intragastrically treated for 8 weeks. Then, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining were used to observe the pathology of gastric mucosa, while immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting were determined to detect the expression of related molecules. Read More

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ATF3 induces RAB7 to govern autodegradation in paligenosis, a conserved cell plasticity program.

EMBO Rep 2021 Jul 26:e51806. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Differentiated cells across multiple species and organs can re-enter the cell cycle to aid in injury-induced tissue regeneration by a cellular program called paligenosis. Here, we show that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is induced early during paligenosis in multiple cellular contexts, transcriptionally activating the lysosomal trafficking gene Rab7b. ATF3 and RAB7B are upregulated in gastric and pancreatic digestive-enzyme-secreting cells at the onset of paligenosis Stage 1, when cells massively induce autophagic and lysosomal machinery to dismantle differentiated cell morphological features. Read More

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Etiological Analysis of Reactive Gastropathy in an Urban Population.

Gastrointest Tumors 2021 Jun 14;8(3):115-120. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, NYU Brooklyn Hospital, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Background: Reactive gastropathy (RG) is an adaptive response to assaults of the gastric mucosa. Demographic information regarding RG as well as the coincidence of RG and gastrointestinal cancer are poorly characterized entities.

Objective: Herein, we aim to investigate relationships of RG to both modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors, as well as conduct a stratified analysis by race in an ethnically diverse, urban population. Read More

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A unique presentation of a rare renal cancer: Appearance of bone metaplasia in tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma.

Urol Case Rep 2021 Nov 3;39:101767. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

University Urology, USA Health, Mobile, AL, United States.

Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma is a rare cancer that was not defined as a distinct entity until the early 2000s. Due to the recency of its classification, it remains poorly understood and leaves much room for future research. This report looks at a unique case of this rare subtype of renal cancer. Read More

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November 2021

AGR2-dependent nuclear import of RNA polymerase II constitutes a specific target of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in the context of wild-type p53.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University, Medical School, Nanjing, China; Department of Surgery, Ulm University Hospital, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Promoted by pancreatitis, oncogenic Kras triggers acinar cells' neoplastic transformation through acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Agr2 (anterior gradient 2), a known inhibitor of p53, is detected at early stage of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development. RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is a key nuclear enzyme; regulation of its nuclear localization in mammalian cells represents a potential therapeutic target. Read More

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The diverse roles of YAP in the regulation of human nasal epithelial remodeling.

Tissue Cell 2021 Jul 10;72:101592. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Yes-associated protein (YAP) is essential in maintaining tissue size. Aberrant epithelial remodeling is a key pathological alteration in both inflammation and benign tumors in nasal mucosa. We sought to investigate the expression and localization patterns of YAP in remodeled nasal epithelium of basal cell hyperplasia, goblet cell metaplasia and squamous metaplasia. Read More

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Cigarette Smoke Specifically Affects Small Airway Epithelial Cell Populations and Triggers the Expansion of Inflammatory and Squamous Differentiation Associated Basal Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 16;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, 88397 Biberach, Germany.

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and causes remodeling of the small airways. However, the exact smoke-induced effects on the different types of small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) are poorly understood. Here, using air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures, single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals previously unrecognized transcriptional heterogeneity within the small airway epithelium and cell type-specific effects upon acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Read More

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The Efficacy of Anti-PD-L1 Treatment in Melanoma Is Associated with the Expression of the ECM Molecule EMILIN2.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 13;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Division of Molecular Oncology, Department of Research and Diagnosis, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano (CRO) IRCCS, 33081 Aviano, Italy.

The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized the treatment of melanoma patients, leading to remarkable improvements in the cure. However, to ensure a safe and effective treatment, there is the need to develop markers to identify the patients that would most likely respond to the therapies. The microenvironment is gaining attention in this context, since it can regulate both the immunotherapy efficacyand angiogenesis, which is known to be affected by treatment. Read More

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Ocular surface disorder among adult patients with type II diabetes mellitus and its correlation with tear film markers: A pilot study.

Taiwan J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):156-160. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.

Purpose: The purpose is to study the ocular surface changes among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and to correlate them with tear film markers such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels.

Materials And Methods: The study was carried out on diabetic patients (>5 years' duration) and healthy age- and gender-matched controls with 21 individuals in each group. Schirmer's test for basal and reflex tear secretion, tear film breakup time (TBUT) for tear stability, ocular staining score (OSS) for dryness severity, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) for symptomatic assessment of dryness and conjunctival impression cytology (IC) for epithelial cell integrity, keratinization, squamous metaplasia, and goblet cell density was studied. Read More

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October 2020

Primary Idiopathic Cutaneous Intestinal Metaplasia: First Case.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Histopathology, University Hospital El Bierzo, Ponferrada, Spain; Department of Cellular Pathology, Hospital de la Reina, Ponferrada, Spain; Research Department, Institute for Biomedical Research of A Coruña (INIBIC), University of A Coruña (UDC), A Coruña, Spain; and Department of Dermatology, Los Angeles Medical Center (LAMC), Southern California Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA.

Abstract: Cutaneous intestinal either metaplasia or ectopia has mostly been described around intestinal stomas or in patients with Crohn disease. In this study, we described a unique case of cutaneous metaplasia on the elbow of a 25-year-old man who had a clinical history of epidermolysis bullosa simplex, but had no history of any gastrointestinal disease. The lesion had been clinically stable for 5 years. Read More

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Histologic Aspect of the Curved Vomerine Mucosa in Cleft Lip and Palate.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Jul 22:10556656211031419. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Oral and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Common surgical techniques aim to turn the entire vomerine mucosa with vomer flaps either to the oral side or to the nasal side. The latter approach is widely performed due to the similarity in color to the nasal mucosa. However, we lack a histologic description of the curved vomerine mucosa in cleft lip and palate malformations. Read More

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[Clinical pathological characteristics of 4 cases of gastric gland-derived tumors].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2021 Jul;43(7):781-786

Department of Pathology, the 960 Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Jinan 250000, China.

To investigate the pathological features of gastric tumor originated from the fundic gland, including oxyntic gland adenoma (OGA) and gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland (GA-FG). A retrospective analysis of 2 cases of OGA and 2 cases of GA-FG admitted to our hospital from February 2019 to September 2019 was performed. The histological features were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining combined with endoscopic observation. Read More

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Caveolin-1 promotes tumor cell proliferation and vasculogenic mimicry formation in human glioma.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 16;54(10):e10653. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) plays an important role in human glioma progression and resistance to antiangiogenic therapy as a compensatory neovascularization mechanism in malignant tumors. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been found to contribute to VM formation. However, it remains largely unknown whether Cav-1 expression correlates with VM in glioma. Read More

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CXCL12 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1302:51-70

Microenvironment Molecular Targets, Istituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS - Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples, Italy.

Tumor microenvironment (TME) is the local environment of tumor, composed of tumor cells and blood vessels, extracellular matrix (ECM), immune cells, and metabolic and signaling molecules. Chemokines and their receptors play a fundamental role in the crosstalk between tumor cells and TME, regulating tumor-related angiogenesis, specific leukocyte infiltration, and activation of the immune response and directly influencing tumor cell growth, invasion, and cancer progression. The chemokine CXCL12 is a homeostatic chemokine that regulates physiological and pathological process such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and specific migration. Read More

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CXCL11 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Authors:
Qun Gao Yi Zhang

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1302:41-50

Biotherapy Center and Cancer Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China.

CXCL11 which can bind to two different chemokine receptors, CXCR3 and CXCR7, has found a prominent place in current tumor research. In this chapter, we mainly discuss the current evidence on the role of the immune response of CXCL11 in tumor microenvironment (TME). The diverse functions of CXCL11 include inhibiting angiogenesis, affecting the proliferation of different cell types, playing a role in fibroblast directed carcinoma invasion, increasing adhesion properties, suppressing M2 macrophage polarization, and facilitating the migration of certain immune cells. Read More

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