25,676 results match your criteria metabolomics analysis

Effects of Mediterranean Diet on plasma metabolites and their relationship with insulin resistance and gut microbiota composition in a crossover randomized clinical trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 27;40(6):3798-3806. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Rovira i Virgili (URV), Reus, Spain; Institute of Health Pere Virgili, IISPV, University Hospital Sant Joan, Reus, Spain; Consorcio CIBER, M.P. Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) may decrease the cardiometabolic risk through modulation of metabolic pathways. Furthermore, the interplay between MedDiet, metabolites and microbial metabolism may improve our understanding on the metabolic effects of this diet. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the MedDiet compared to nuts supplementation on circulating metabolites and their relationship with cardiometabolic health. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of liver tissue extraction protocol for untargeted metabolomics analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

J Sep Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

National Key Discipline Laboratory, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, P. R. China.

The aim of untargeted metabolomics study is to obtain a global metabolome coverage from biological samples. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematic protocol for tissue metabolite extraction is highly desirable. In this study, we evaluated a comprehensive liver pretreatment strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to obtain more metabolites using four different protocols. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cardiolipin Remodeling Defects Impair Mitochondrial Architecture and Function in a Murine Model of Barth Syndrome Cardiomyopathy.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Jun 15;14(6):e008289. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Medicine (S.Z., Z.C., M.Z., S.S., C.T., Y.G., A.N., W.F., S.M.E., X.F.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.

Background: Cardiomyopathy is a major clinical feature in Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked mitochondrial lipid disorder caused by mutations in (), encoding a mitochondrial acyltransferase required for cardiolipin remodeling. Despite recent description of a mouse model of BTHS cardiomyopathy, an in-depth analysis of specific lipid abnormalities and mitochondrial form and function in an in vivo BTHS cardiomyopathy model is lacking.

Methods: We performed in-depth assessment of cardiac function, cardiolipin species profiles, and mitochondrial structure and function in our newly generated cardiomyocyte-specific knockout mice and Cre-negative control mice (n≥3 per group). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

O- and N-Glycosylation of Serum Immunoglobulin A is Associated with IgA Nephropathy and Glomerular Function.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

M Falchi, Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide, and is a leading cause of renal failure. The disease mechanisms are not completely understood, but a higher abundance of galactose-deficient IgA is recognized to play a crucial role in IgAN pathogenesis. While both types of human IgA (IgA1 and IgA2) have several -glycans as posttranslational modification, only IgA1 features extensive hinge-region -glycosylation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Host and gut microbial tryptophan metabolism and type 2 diabetes: an integrative analysis of host genetics, diet, gut microbiome and circulating metabolites in cohort studies.

Gut 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota.

Method: We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in 9180 participants of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds from five cohorts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigation of the characteristics of different shrimps by species and habitat using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomics.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Approximately 6.5 million tons of shrimp are consumed annually worldwide. The price of shrimp is greatly influenced by species and habitat (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Preliminary Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics Study Identifies Metabolites That Could Serve as Diagnostic Markers of Major Depressive Disorder.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Pharmacotherapeutics Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra , Malaysia.

Background: Evaluation of metabolites that are directly involved in the physiological process, few steps short of phenotypical manifestation, remains vital at unraveling the biological moieties involved in the development of the (MDD) and in predicting its treatment outcome.

Methodology: Eight bio-fluids ( 8 urine and 8 serum samples) obtained from consenting healthy controls (HC), twenty five (25) biofluids from first episode treatment naïve MDD (TNMDD) patients and twenty (22) biofluids from treatment naïve MDD patients 2 weeks after SSRI treatment (TWMDD) were analysed for metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) spectroscopy. The evaluation of patients' samples was carried out using Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLSDA) models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Calorie restriction conferred improvement effect on long-term rehabilitation of ischemic stroke via gut microbiota.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 11:105726. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key laboratory of whole-period monitoring and precise intervention of digestive cancer (SMHC), Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, 201199, Shanghai, China; Institute of Fudan-Minhang Academic Health System, Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, 201199 Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Calorie restriction can modulate the gut microbiota and protect against many diseases including ischemic stroke. However, the role of calorie-restriction-induced microbiota alteration remained unknown in ischemic stroke rehabilitation. Here we conducted 30% reduction of caloric intake on mice for four weeks, to evaluate its role on ischemic stroke rehabilitation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Digestive promoting effect and mechanism of Jiao Sanxian in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 11:114334. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Jiao Sanxian, a customary term for the three Traditional Chinese Medicines of charred hawthorn (Crataegi Fructus), charred malt (Hordei Fructus Germinatus) and Liu Shenqu (Massa Medicata Fermentata), is a classic prescription for the treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD). This prescription is called "Jiao Sanxian" in China because people believe that it is a miracle medicine for enhancing digestion and improving stagnation of digestive system. Even though Jiao Sanxian is widely used in clinical treatment, the underlying mechanism has not been clarified to date. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolomics analysis underlay mechanisms in the renal impairment of mice caused by combination of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A.

Toxicology 2021 Jun 11:152835. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Quality & Safety Control for Milk and Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, PR China; Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, PR China; Milk and Milk Products Inspection Center of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are pernicious mycotoxins widely co-existing in the environment. However, nephrotoxicity and underlying mechanism induced by AFM1 coupled with OTA still remain to be explored. In this study, CD-1 mice were treated with 3. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gut microbiome composition and serum metabolome profile among individuals with spinal cord injury and normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes/type 2 diabetes.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the gut microbiome composition and serum metabolome profile among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes/type 2 diabetes (P/DM).

Design: Cross-sectional design.

Setting: Research university. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolomics in infectious diseases and drug discovery.

Mol Omics 2021 Jun;17(3):376-393

MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Metabolomics has emerged as an invaluable tool that can be used along with genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics to understand host-pathogen interactions at small-molecule levels. Metabolomics has been used to study a variety of infectious diseases and applications. The most common application of metabolomics is for prognostic and diagnostic purposes, specifically the screening of disease-specific biomarkers by either NMR-based or mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Differentiated 4,4-dimethylsterols from vegetable oils reduce fat deposition depending on the NHR-49/SCD pathway in .

Food Funct 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China.

Consumption of 4-desmethylsterols has been claimed to have many beneficial effects, but the benefits of 4,4-dimethylsterols are less appreciated. We utilized a nematode model, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), to explore the anti-obesity effects of different classes of 4,4-dimethylsterols purified from rice bran oil (RST) and shea nut butter (SST). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Taurine Protects C2C12 Myoblasts From Impaired Cell Proliferation and Myotube Differentiation Under Cisplatin-Induced ROS Exposure.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:685362. Epub 2021 May 26.

Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis and Instrumentation, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

In cancer patients, chemotherapeutic medication induces aberrant ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation in skeletal muscles, resulting in myofiber degradation, muscle weakness, and even cachexia, which further leads to poor therapeutic outcomes. Acting as an antioxidant, taurine is extensively used to accelerate postexercise muscle recovery in athletes. The antioxidant effects of taurine have been shown in mature myotubes and myofibers but not yet in myoblasts, the myotube precursor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Blood Microsampling to Monitor Metabolic Profiles During Physical Exercise.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 27;8:681400. Epub 2021 May 27.

Laboratory for the Analysis of Medicines, Department of Pharmacy, CIRM, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Monitoring approaches and technical improvements are key factors to improve a sportsman's health, training, and recovery after an injury. In this study, a targeted metabolomics approach using microsampling with hemaPEN was developed to measure changes in blood concentrations of nine amino acids and four organic acids before, during, and after exercise. The aim of this research project was to investigate if a reliable monitoring of metabolite levels during sports activity can be achieved by collecting one drop of whole blood at different time points. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessment of Oral Vancomycin-Induced Alterations in Gut Bacterial Microbiota and Metabolome of Healthy Men.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 27;11:629438. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Several classes of antibiotics have reduced the mortality caused by infectious diseases; however, orally administered antibiotics alter the composition of gut microbiota, leading to dysbiosis-related disease. Therefore, in this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing- and metabolomics-based approaches to investigate the effects of oral vancomycin on gut bacterial microbiota and the metabolome in biospecimens collected from healthy men. Samples collected from 11 healthy men were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

L-arginine as a potential GLP-1-mediated immunomodulator of Th17-related cytokines in people with obesity and asthma.

Obes Sci Pract 2021 Jun 11;7(3):339-345. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Department of Internal Medicine University of California-Davis Sacramento California USA.

Obesity is considered as a risk factor for COVID-19 with insulin resistance and increased production of inflammatory cytokines as likely mechanisms. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and inhaled nitric oxide are proposed therapeutic approaches to treat COVID-19 because of their broad anti-inflammatory effects. One approach that might augment GLP-1 levels would be dietary supplementation with L-arginine. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolomic Analysis of the Urine from Rats with Collagen-Induced Arthritis with the Effective Part of Maxim.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 26;2021:5580341. Epub 2021 May 26.

Key Laboratory of Chinese Materia Medica (Ministry of Education), Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease with high incidence and high disability and recurrence rates. Maxim () is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with main effective parts (CRME) commonly used for RA treatment. To explore the mechanism of CRME in RA, we used metabolomics to investigate the effect of CRME intervention on urine metabolism in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolomic Characterization of Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS).

Front Neurosci 2021 28;15:645267. Epub 2021 May 28.

Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Introduction: PANS is a controversial clinical entity, consisting of a complex constellation of psychiatric symptoms, adventitious changes, and expression of various serological alterations, likely sustained by an autoimmune/inflammatory disease. Detection of novel biomarkers of PANS is highly desirable for both diagnostic and therapeutic management of affected patients. Analysis of metabolites has proven useful in detecting biomarkers for other neuroimmune-psychiatric diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nontargeted Metabolomic Analysis of Plasma Metabolite Changes in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 25;2021:5537811. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Spine Surgery and Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Objective: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a relatively common spinal rotation deformity, and the pathogenesis of AIS is accompanied by metabolic dysfunction and changes in biochemical factors. In this study, plasma metabolite changes in AIS patients were analyzed based on nontargeted metabolomics to provide new insights for clarifying functional metabolic abnormalities in AIS patients.

Methods: Clinical indexes and blood samples were collected from 12 healthy subjects and 16 AIS patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Skeletal myopathy in CKD: a comparison of adenine-induced nephropathy and 5/6 nephrectomy models in mice.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 06 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Preclinical models of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are critical to investigate the mechanisms of disease and to evaluate novel therapeutics aimed to treat CKD-associated pathologies. The objective of the present study was to compare the adenine diet and 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) models in mice. Male and female 10-week-old C57BL/6J mice (N=5-9/sex/group) were randomly allocated to CKD groups (0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Breast muscle and plasma metabolomics profile of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress conditions.

Animal 2021 Jun 10;15(7):100275. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Via del Florio 2, 40064 Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy. Electronic address:

Understanding the variations of muscle and plasma metabolites in response to high environmental temperature can provide important information on the molecular mechanisms related to body energy homeostasis in heat-stressed broiler chickens. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic heat stress conditions on the breast muscle (Pectoralis major) and plasma metabolomics profile of broiler chickens by means of an innovative, high-throughput analytical approach such as the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR) spectrometry. A total of 300 Ross 308 male chicks were split into two experimental groups and raised in either thermoneutral conditions for the entire rearing cycle (0-41 days) (TNT group; six replicates of 25 birds/each) or exposed to chronic heat stress conditions (30 °C for 24 h/day) from 35 to 41 days (CHS group; six replicates of 25 birds/each). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comprehensive insights into core microbial assemblages in activated sludge exposed to textile-dyeing wastewater stress.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 30;791:148145. Epub 2021 May 30.

Institute of Environment Pollution Control and Treatment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Water Pollution Control, 388 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Microorganisms in activated sludge are widely recognized for their roles in wastewater treatment. However, previous studies were mainly concerned with the diversity and driving factors of microbial communities within domestic wastewater treatment, and those of domestic wastewater treatment systems mixed with industrial wastewater are poorly understood. In this research, three different full-scale aerobic activated sludge (AS) wastewater treatment systems fed with municipal, textile-dyeing, and mixed wastewater, respectively, were monitored over the operation course of three months. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolomics of extracellular compounds and parasitic enzymes of Beauveria bassiana associated with biological control of whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci).

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jul 21;176:104877. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh 362 001, Gujarat, India.

The Beauveria spp. were isolated from soil and insect cadavers of crop rhizosphere and characterized for parasitic enzyme activity and virulence against whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci). The colony morphology and molecular identification using ITS specific marker were carried out and confirmed entomopathogenic fungi as Beauveria bassiana. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High throughput proteomic and metabolic profiling identified target correction of metabolic abnormalities as a novel therapeutic approach in head and neck paraganglioma.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jun 9;14(8):101146. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, The Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, No. 639, Zhi-Zao-Ju Road, Shanghai 200011, China; Ear Institute, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine on Ear and Nose Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare neoplasms that represent difficult treatment paradigms in neurotology. Germline mutations in genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) are the cause of nearly all familial HNPGLs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis remain unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Integrating multiple-chromatographic approaches to evaluate chemical consistency of Chang-Kang-Fang preparations from mixed-herb decoction and combined single-herb decoction.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jun 3;203:114186. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210028, PR China. Electronic address:

Chang-Kang-Fang formula (CKF), a multi-herbs traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), has been clinically applied in the traditional form of mixed-herb decoction (MHD), or in the modern form of combined single-herb decoction (cSHD, so called dispensing granule decoction) in the near decades, but the chemical consistency between the MHD and cSHD is still unknown. Herein, a new strategy by integrating multiple-chromatographic approaches to characterize both polysaccharides and small molecules was developed to compare the chemical consistency between MHD and cSHD. Sixteen small molecules were simultaneously qualified and quantified by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS, the molecular weight distribution of polysaccharides was characterized by HPGPC-ELSD, while the monosaccharide composition and total saccharides content were determined by HPLC-PDA and UV-VIS, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In vitro generation of oxidized standards for lipidomics. Application to major membrane lipid components.

J Chromatogr A 2021 May 19;1651:462254. Epub 2021 May 19.

Centre for Metabolomics and Bioanalysis (CEMBIO), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid. Spain. Electronic address:

Membrane lipids (sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, cardiolipins, and cholesteryl esters) are critical in cellular functions. Alterations in the levels of oxidized counterparts of some of these lipids have been linked to the onset and development of many pathologies. Unfortunately, the scarce commercial availability of chemically defined oxidized lipids is a limitation for accurate quantitative analysis, characterization of oxidized composition, or testing their biological effects in lipidomic studies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Widely targeted metabolomics analysis of white peony teas with different storage time and association with sensory attributes.

Food Chem 2021 May 30;362:130257. Epub 2021 May 30.

Zhejiang University Tea Research Institute, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

The sensory features of white peony teas (WPTs) significantly change with storage age; however, their comprehensive associations with composition are still unclear. This study aimed to clarify the sensory quality-related chemical changes in WPTs during storage. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on widely targeted metabolomics analysis was performed on WPTs of 1-13 years storage ages. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

MS2Compound: A User-Friendly Compound Identification Tool for LC-MS/MS-Based Metabolomics Data.

OMICS 2021 Jun;25(6):389-399

Center for Systems Biology and Molecular Medicine, Yenepoya Research Centre, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, India.

Metabolomics is a leading frontier of systems science and biomedical innovation. However, metabolite identification in mass spectrometry (MS)-based global metabolomics investigations remains a formidable challenge. Moreover, lack of comprehensive spectral databases hinders accurate identification of compounds in global MS-based metabolomics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Minor pilins are involved in motility and natural competence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

Mol Microbiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Molecular Genetics, Institute of Biology III, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Cyanobacteria synthesize type IV pili, which are known to be essential for motility, adhesion and natural competence. They consist of long flexible fibres that are primarily composed of the major pilin PilA1 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF