17,056 results match your criteria metabolism larval

Leptin receptor-deficient (knockout) zebrafish: effects on nutrient acquisition.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Jun 2:113832. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:

In mammals, knockout of LEPR results in a hyperphagic, morbid obese, and diabetic phenotype, which supports that leptin plays an important role in the control of appetite and energy metabolism, and that its receptor, LEPR, mediates these effects. To date, little is known about the role(s) of lepr in teleost physiology. We investigated a zebrafish (Danio rerio) homozygous lepr knockout (lepr) line generated by CRISPR/Cas9 in comparison to its wt counterpart with respect to nutrient acquisition, energy allocation, and metabolism. Read More

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Kaempferol-3-O-Glucuronide Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Induced Larval Zebrafish and HepG2 Cell Models via Regulating Oxidation Stress.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 14;11(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China.

NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is one of the most prominent liver diseases in the world. As a metabolic-related disease, the development of NAFLD is closely associated with various degrees of lipid accumulation, oxidation, inflammation, and fibrosis. Ilex chinensis Sims is a form of traditional Chinese medicine which is used to treat bronchitis, burns, pneumonia, ulceration, and chilblains. Read More

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Involvement of Huntingtin in Development and Ciliary Beating Regulation of Larvae of the Sea Urchin, .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 12;22(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.

The multiple functions of the wild type Huntington's disease protein of the sea urchin (Hp-Htt) have been examined using the anti-Hp-Htt antibody (Ab) raised against synthetic oligopeptides. According to immunoblotting, Hp-Htt was detected as a single band at around the 350 kDa region at the swimming blastula stage to the prism larva stage. From the 2-arm pluteus stage (2aPL), however, an additional smaller band at the 165 kDa region appeared. Read More

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An integrated in vivo and in silico analysis of the metabolism disrupting effects of CPI-613 on embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 26;248:109084. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

CPI-613 is a mitochondrial metabolism disrupter that inhibits tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity. The consequences of TCA cycle disruption on various metabolic pathways and overall organismal physiology are not fully known. The present study integrates in vivo experimental data with an in silico stoichiometric metabolism model of zebrafish to study the metabolic pathways perturbed under CPI-613 exposure. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis reveals the importance of exogenous nutrition in regulating antioxidant defenses during the mouth-opening stage in oviparous fish.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Institute of Three Gorges Ecological Fisheries of Chongqing, College of Fisheries, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Antioxidant system is crucial for protecting against environmental oxidative stress in fish life cycle. Although the effects of starvation on the antioxidant defenses in several adult fish have been defined, no relevant researches have been reported in the larval stage, particularly during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding. To clarify the molecular response of antioxidant system that occurs during the mouth-opening stage under starvation stress and explore its association with energy metabolism, we employed RNA-seq to analyze the gene expression profiles in zebrafish larvae that received a delayed first feeding for 3 days. Read More

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Embryonic toxicity of epoxiconazole exposure to the early life stage of zebrafish.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 16;778:146407. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:

Epoxiconazole (EPX), as a broad-spectrum triazole fungicide, is widely used in agriculture to resist pests and diseases, while it may have potential toxicity to non-target organisms. In the present study, early developmental stage zebrafish were used as the subject organisms to assess the toxicity of EPX, and the possible mechanism of toxicity was also discussed by biochemical and transcriptomic analysis. Through embryo toxicity test, we had made it clear that the 96 h LC of embryo was 7. Read More

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Two dehydroecdysone reductases act as fat body-specific 20E catalyzers in Bombyx mori.

Insect Sci 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, 212100, China.

Periodic post-embryonic changes in insects, including growth, development and metamorphosis, are strictly controlled by many compounds, including steroid hormones. The biosynthesis and clearance of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the major active form of the insect steroid hormone ecdysone, result in titer fluctuations that help control insect development. The inactivation of 20E in the silkworm Bombyx mori is highly tissue-specific, with CYP18A1 and ecdysone oxidase controlling 20E inactivation specifically in the mid-silk gland and midgut, respectively. Read More

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[Study on the mechanism of resistance to cypermethrin in using proteomics].

Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2021 Apr;33(2):189-194

Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jining 272000, China.

Objective: To compare the differentially expressed proteins between cypermethrin-resistant and -sensitive , so as to unravel the mechanism underlying the resistance to cypermethrin in .

Methods: A quantitative proteomic analysis was performed among cypermethrin-sensitive and -resistant isolates of using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

Results: A total of 164 differentially expressed proteins were identified between cypermethrin-sensitive and -resistant isolates of , including 54 up-regulated proteins and 110 down-regulated proteins. Read More

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Developmental toxicity of procymidone to larval zebrafish based on physiological and transcriptomic analysis.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 15;248:109081. Epub 2021 May 15.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:

As a broad-spectrum with low toxicity, procymidone (PCM), is widely used in agriculture and frequently observed in aquatic system, which may cause some impacts on aquatic organisms. Here, to determine the developmental toxicity of PCM, embryonic and larval zebrafish were exposed to PCM at 0, 1, 10, 100 μg/L in dehydrogenated natural water containing 0.01% acetone for 7 days. Read More

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Effects of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on Immune and Metabolic Parameters of Galleria mellonella L.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Art, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey.

In this study, the effects of dietary CuO nanoparticles (NPs) on metabolic enzyme activity, biochemical parameters, and total (THC) and differential hemocyte counts (DHC) were determined in Galleria mellonella larvae. Using concentrations of 10, 100, 1000 mg/L and the LC10 and LC30 levels of CuO NPs, we determined that the NPs negatively impacted metabolic enzyme activity and biochemical parameters in larval hemolymph. Compared with the control, the greatest increase in THC was observed in larvae fed on diets with 100 mg L of CuO NPs. Read More

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Transcriptional Response to a Dauer-Inducing Ascaroside Cocktail in Late L1 in .

MicroPubl Biol 2021 May 12;2021. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.

The dauer diapause stage in is a non-feeding alternative to the L3 larval stage that is highly resistant to harsh environmental conditions. The decision to enter dauer is a two-step process. First, L1 larvae encounter adverse conditions such as lack of food or overcrowding and decide to enter the L2d rather than the L2 stage. Read More

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Toxic effects of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larval behavior.

Harmful Algae 2021 03 4;103:101996. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Wenzhou Key Laboratory of Sanitary Microbiology, Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Ministry of Education, China, School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China 325035. Electronic address:

Karenia mikimotoi is a toxic dinoflagellate that forms harmful blooms in coastal waters, threatening aquaculture worldwide. However, we do not know whether K. mikimotoi has a neurotoxic effect on aquatic animal behavior. Read More

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The use of different sublethal endpoints to monitor atrazine toxicity in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 3;274:129845. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing, 210042, China. Electronic address:

In this work, Caenorhabditis elegans was employed as an in vivo model to determine the toxic effects of atrazine at different concentrations. After the exposure period from the larval stage L1 to adulthood day 1, atrazine (10 mg/L) significantly decreased the body length and lifespan of nematodes. In addition, exposure to ≥0. Read More

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Exposure impacts of Imazapyr formulation on larval development and thyroid histology of Xenopus laevis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

There are increased concerns about the thyroidal effects of many anthropogenic substances in the environment. These substances include agricultural pesticides and industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals among others. Their potential thyroidal effects are of serious health and ecological concerns, as thyroid hormones mediate numerous physiological processes, including growth regulation, general metabolism and metamorphosis in metamorphic animals. Read More

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Myomixer is expressed during embryonic and post-larval hyperplasia, muscle regeneration and differentiation of myoblats in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Gene 2021 Jul 5;790:145688. Epub 2021 May 5.

INRAE, UR1037 Laboratory of Fish Physiology and Genomics, 35000 Rennes, France. Electronic address:

In contrast to mice or zebrafish, trout exhibits post-larval muscle growth through hypertrophy and formation of new myofibers (hyperplasia). The muscle fibers are formed by the fusion of mononucleated cells (myoblasts) regulated by several muscle-specific proteins such as Myomaker or Myomixer. In this work, we identified a unique gene encoding a Myomixer protein of 77 amino acids (aa) in the trout genome. Read More

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Size, microhabitat, and loss of larval feeding drive cranial diversification in frogs.

Nat Commun 2021 05 4;12(1):2503. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, UK.

Habitat is one of the most important factors shaping organismal morphology, but it may vary across life history stages. Ontogenetic shifts in ecology may introduce antagonistic selection that constrains adult phenotype, particularly with ecologically distinct developmental phases such as the free-living, feeding larval stage of many frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura). We test the relative influences of developmental and ecological factors on the diversification of adult skull morphology with a detailed analysis of 15 individual cranial regions across 173 anuran species, representing every extant family. Read More

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RNAi-Mediated Silencing of the Chitinase 5 Gene for Fall Webworm () Can Inhibit Larval Molting Depending on the Timing of dsRNA Injection.

Insects 2021 Apr 30;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory of Forest Protection of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

Chitinases, which are crucial enzymes required for chitin degradation and reconstruction, are often selectively considered to be effective molecular targets for pest control due to their critical roles in insect development. Although the chitinase gene has been reported previously, its sequence characteristics, gene function, and feasibility as a potential target for pest management were absent. In the present study, we characterized the chitinase gene and designated it . Read More

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Microplastic ingestion induces asymmetry and oxidative stress in larvae of the sea urchin Pseudechinus huttoni.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jul 28;168:112369. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Marine Science, University of Otago, New Zealand.

Determining the effects of microplastic (MP) ingestion by marine organisms, especially during the sensitive larval stages, is an important step in understanding wider ecosystem responses. We investigated the ingestion, retention (1-5 μm), and short-term exposure effects (1-4 μm) of spherical MPs by larvae of the sea urchin Pseudechinus huttoni. Larvae ingested MPs in a dose-dependent manner and successfully egested particles after a short retention period. Read More

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Hemodynamic Forces Regulate Cardiac Regeneration-Responsive Enhancer Activity during Ventricle Regeneration.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 11;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.

Cardiac regenerative capacity varies widely among vertebrates. Zebrafish can robustly regenerate injured hearts and are excellent models to study the mechanisms of heart regeneration. Recent studies have shown that enhancers are able to respond to injury and regulate the regeneration process. Read More

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Estrogen-Related Receptor Influences the Hemolymph Glucose Content by Regulating Midgut Trehalase Gene Expression in the Last Instar Larvae of .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Biological Science Research Center, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China.

The expression of trehalase in the midgut of insects plays an important role in glucose supply to the hemolymph. Energy metabolism is usually regulated by the estrogen-related receptor (ERR). A decrease in ATP levels is caused by the ERR hindering glycolysis. Read More

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Genome-Wide Identification, Comparison, and Expression Analysis of Transcription Factors in Ascidian .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Sars-Fang Centre, MoE Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.

Tunicates include diverse species, as they are model animals for evolutionary developmental biology study. The embryonic development of tunicates is known to be extensively regulated by transcription factors (TFs). , the globally distributed invasive tunicate, exhibits a strong capacity for environmental adaptation. Read More

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Cold hardening improves larval tick questing under low temperatures at the expense of longevity.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Jul 23;257:110966. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, United States of America.

Questing in ticks is essential for locating a host, and this behavioral response can occur at regionally specific low temperatures for most tick species. Little is known about the dynamics between tick questing behavior and temperature in ticks, specifically how this may impact other aspects of tick biology. Here, we examine whether cold hardening increases questing in three larval tick species (Ixodes uriae, Dermacentor variabilis, and Amblyomma americanum) at low temperatures and whether cold hardening impacts longevity. Read More

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Brain-specific lipoprotein receptors interact with astrocyte derived apolipoprotein and mediate neuron-glia lipid shuttling.

Nat Commun 2021 04 23;12(1):2408. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Dendrite Morphogenesis and Plasticity Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Lipid shuttling between neurons and glia contributes to the development, function, and stress responses of the nervous system. To understand how a neuron acquires its lipid supply from specific lipoproteins and their receptors, we perform combined genetic, transcriptome, and biochemical analyses in the developing Drosophila larval brain. Here we report, the astrocyte-derived secreted lipocalin Glial Lazarillo (GLaz), a homolog of human Apolipoprotein D (APOD), and its neuronal receptor, the brain-specific short isoforms of Drosophila lipophorin receptor 1 (LpR1-short), cooperatively mediate neuron-glia lipid shuttling and support dendrite morphogenesis. Read More

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Transcriptomic Changes and the Roles of Cannabinoid Receptors and PPARγ in Developmental Toxicities Following Exposure to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, 38677.

Human consumption of cannabinoid-containing products during early life or pregnancy is rising. However, information about the molecular mechanisms involved in early life stage Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) toxicities is critically lacking. Here, larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to measure THC and CBD-mediated changes on transcriptome and the roles of cannabinoid receptors (Cnr) 1 and 2 and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) in developmental toxicities. Read More

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Balancing nutrients in a toxic environment: the challenge of eating.

Insect Sci 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Insect herbivores can regulate their food intake by mixing food sources with different nutrient content, but face the resulting challenge of ingesting various plant secondary metabolites. How insects deal with toxins in a complex nutrient environment is unclear. Here we investigated the influence of a classic plant secondary metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (sinigrin), and its hydrolyzed product allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), on the development of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) when fed on diets with different protein-to-carbohydrate (p : c) ratios. Read More

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High frequency of Taenia solium antigen positivity in patients admitted for neurological disorders in the Rural Hospital of Mosango, Democratic Republic of Congo.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 17;21(1):359. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: The epidemiology of human cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is not well known in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Within a multicenter etiological and diagnostic study conducted by the NIDIAG consortium ("Better Diagnosis for Neglected Infections") and investigating several challenging syndromes, we consecutively evaluated from 2012 to 2015 all patients older than 5 years presenting with neurological disorders (neurology cohort) and with fever > 7 days (persistent fever cohort) at the rural hospital of Mosango, province of Kwilu, DRC. In both cohorts, etiological diagnosis relied on a systematic set of reference laboratory assays and on pre-established clinical case definitions. Read More

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Expression analysis of genes related to cold tolerance in .

PeerJ 2021 9;9:e10864. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory of Beijing for the Control of Forest Pests, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Pine beetles are well known in North America for their widespread devastation of pine forests. However, LeConte is an important invasive forest pest in China also. Adults and larvae of this bark beetle mainly winter at the trunks and roots of and ; larvae, in particular, result in pine weakness or even death. Read More

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The microRNA miR-33 is a pleiotropic regulator of metabolic and developmental processes in Drosophila melanogaster.

Dev Dyn 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Biology and Program in Biochemistry, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York, USA.

Background: miR-33 family members are well characterized regulators of cellular lipid levels in mammals. Previous studies have shown that overexpression of miR-33 in Drosophila melanogaster leads to elevated triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in certain contexts. Although loss of miR-33 in flies causes subtle defects in larval and adult ovaries, the effects of miR-33 deficiency on lipid metabolism and other phenotypes impacted by metabolic state have not yet been characterized. Read More

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Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the underlying mechanisms of digestion of triacylglycerols and phosphatides and absorption and fate of fatty acids along the midgut of Musca domestica.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 Mar 27;39:100826. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 748, 05508-000 São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Most dietary lipids are triacylglycerols (TAGs) and phosphatides that are digested by TAG lipases and phospholipases (PLIPs), respectively, originating fatty acids (FA). The genome of Musca domestica has genes coding for phospholipases A1 (1PLIP), A2 (2PLIP), B (BPLIP), and acid lipases (ALIP), as for proteins involved in activation, binding, and metabolism of FA, which expression in the larval midgut was evaluated by RNA-seq. Some of the codified proteins were identified in midgut microvillar-enriched membrane by proteomics. Read More

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The Effects of Nitric Oxide and Inhibitor, and Combination of Albendazole and Praziquantel On Liver in Mice Injected with Echinococcus granulosus Larvae.

Acta Trop 2021 Jul 9;219:105917. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

In this study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of hydatidosis and the interaction with effects of anthelmintic drugs, albendazole and praziquantel, were examined in larval infection caused by protoscolices obtained from hydatid cysts of sheep liver in Albino Balb/c mice. Animals were divided into ten groups including controls and infected groups. Larval infection was established with intraperitoneal injection of protoscolices. Read More

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