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Temporal change in population-level prevalence of detectable HIV viraemia and its association with HIV incidence in key populations in India: a serial cross-sectional study.

Lancet HIV 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Population-level prevalence of detectable HIV viraemia (PDV) has been proposed as a metric for monitoring the population-level effectiveness of HIV treatment as prevention. We aimed to characterise temporal changes in PDV in people who inject drugs (PWID) and men who have sex with men (MSM) in India and evaluate community-level and individual-level associations with cross-sectional HIV incidence.

Methods: We did a serial cross-sectional study in which baseline (from Oct 1, 2012, to Dec 19, 2013) and follow-up (from Aug 1, 2016, to May 28, 2017) respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys were done in MSM (ten community sites) and PWID (12 community sites) across 21 cities in India. Read More

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High prevalence of syphilis in women, minors, and precarious patients: a cross-sectional study in a Reunion Island sexually transmitted infection clinic, 2017-2020.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

CHU Réunion, Service des Maladies Infectieuses - Dermatologie, Saint Pierre, La Réunion, France.

Background: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) with a global prevalence estimated at 0.5% in 2012. Syphilis has been on the rise among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries and remains at endemic levels in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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Distinct opposing associations of upper and lower body fat depots with metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk markers.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Background: To examine the associations of total and regional adiposity with metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1080 (53.8% men, aged 39-44 years) individuals from South India. Read More

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Two-year follow-up cohort study focused on gender-specific associations between socioeconomic status and body weight changes in overweight and obese middle-aged and older adults.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 30;11(7):e050127. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Health Sciences, Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland

Objective: As overall spread of obesity in populations is generally acknowledged to result from unhealthy lifestyles rather than individual genetic makeup, this study aimed to gain specific insights into its determinants through assessing the prevalent associations between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and weight loss in overweight and obese men and women.

Methods: A prospective, 2-year follow-up study covered 3362 (38.0% men) respondents, aged 43-64 years, body mass index ≥25 kg/m. Read More

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Hands-Up program: protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial of a combined 6-week exercise and education intervention in adults aged 50-65 with a distal radius fracture.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 30;11(7):e046122. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

St Joseph's Health Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: This pilot study will determine the feasibility of recruitment, retention and adherence for the online combined exercise and education programme (Hands-Up) compared with usual care.

Methods And Analysis: The proposed randomised controlled trial will be a pilot feasibility study with a 1:1 randomisation to the Hands-Up programme or usual physical therapy. The programme setting is an online home exercise and education program. Read More

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Functional status in older patients with cancer.

J Geriatr Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics and Therapeutics, Sainte Marguerite Hospital, AP-HM, Coordination Unit for Geriatric Oncology (UCOG), PACA West, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, EFS, ADES, Marseille, France.

Background: Functional Status (FS) is an important domain in Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) and is most often evaluated using the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scales separately.

Method And Objectives: This secondary analysis of a previous prospective cohort study was conducted between September 2015 and May 2018 at Marseille University Hospital, France, on 613 cancer outpatients aged ≥70 years. The first objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of FS impairment in older outpatients with cancer using a combination of the information collected with the ADL and short IADL scales. Read More

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A magnetic resonance imaging study on the temporomandibular joint disc-condyle relationship in young asymptomatic adults.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to assess the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc-condyle relationship in asymptomatic young adults. Ninety-three volunteers aged 19-23 years without temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms underwent TMJ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The condylar centre and apex methods were used to measure and analyse the position of the disc in the oblique sagittal plane, and the reliability of the two methods was compared by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Read More

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Handgrip strength: Normative reference values in males and females aged 6-64 Years old in a Colombian population.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Aug 26;44:379-386. Epub 2021 May 26.

Navarrabiomed, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra (CHN), Universidad Pública de Navarra (UPNA), IdiSNA, Pamplona, 31008, Spain; CIBER of Frailty and Healthy Aging (CIBERFES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is an indicator of overall strength; therefore, individual HGS measurements should be interpreted using geographic region and ethnic group references.

Aims: The aim of this study was to develop new normative values for absolute and relative HGS in the Colombian population after stratification by sex, age, and body mass using the large National Representative Nutrition Survey 2015.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 3803 subjects aged 6-64 years. Read More

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Fitness for all: how do non-disabled people respond to inclusive fitness centres?

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2021 Jul 30;13(1):81. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Research Unit for Active Living, Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Representation of people with disabilities in fitness centres is lacking, despite initiatives to promote inclusion mainly in the UK and USA. Success creating these inclusive spaces is mixed and few were crafted taking into account attitudes and biases of non-disabled co-members. Inclusive fitness centres have not gained much attention in Denmark, and the campaign 'Fitness for All - fitness for people with physical disabilities' was initiated. Read More

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The association between manual handling operations and pain in the hands and arms in the context of the 2018 BIBB/BAuA Employment Survey.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jul 30;22(1):644. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Noeldnerstr 40/42, 10317, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Manual handling operations (MHO) are tasks performed by hand that require repetitive and forceful hand and arm movements. MHO are currently performed in many workplaces in skilled and unskilled jobs in the production and service sectors. MHO are considered as work-related health risk factors. Read More

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Effects of lower limb resistance exercise on muscle strength, physical fitness, and metabolism in pre-frail elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Geriatr 2021 Jul 30;21(1):447. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Nursing Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Few studies examined interventions in frail elderly in China, while the awareness of applying interventions to prevent frailty in pre-frail elderly is still lacking. This study aimed to explore the effects of lower limb resistance exercise in pre-frail elderly in China.

Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial of patients with pre-frailty. Read More

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The Comparison of Predictive Value Among Chemerin, IL-18 and Hormonal Parameters in Assessing the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Men.

Am J Mens Health 2021 Jul-Aug;15(4):15579883211034984

Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Wielkopolskie, Poland.

Chemerin (CHEM) is a new proinflammatory adipokine involved in the immune, metabolic and reproductive processes. Low-grade state inflammation (LGSI) is a key element in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MS). Low SHBG is a good marker of male hypogonadism in MS. Read More

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Linking objective measures of physical activity and capability with brain structure in healthy community dwelling older adults.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jul 24;31:102767. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

NORMENT, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital & Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway; Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway; KG Jebsen Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Maintaining high levels of daily activity and physical capability have been proposed as important constituents to promote healthy brain and cognitive aging. Studies investigating the associations between brain health and physical activity in late life have, however, mainly been based on self-reported data or measures designed for clinical populations. In the current study, we examined cross-sectional associations between physical activity, recorded by an ankle-positioned accelerometer for seven days, physical capability (grip strength, postural control, and walking speed), and neuroimaging based surrogate markers of brain health in 122 healthy older adults aged 65-88 years. Read More

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The chest radiographic scoring system in initial diagnosis of COVID-19: Is a radiologist needed?

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: Lung imaging, next to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, is a key diagnostic tool in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The degree of abnormalities correlates with clinical outcome. Imaging of the lungs using chest radiography (CXR) at the peak of a pandemic is considered a basic diagnostic tool at the triage stage. Read More

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Adherence to healthy lifestyle and attenuation of biological aging in middle-aged and older Chinese adults.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Little is known about the effects of lifestyle modification on biological aging in population-based studies of middle-aged and older adults.

Methods: We examined the individual and joint associations of multiple lifestyle factors with accelerated biological aging measured by change in frailty index (FI) over 8 years in a prospective study of Chinese adults. Data were obtained on 24,813 participants in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) on lifestyle factors and frailty status at baseline and at 8 years after baseline. Read More

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Australian men's initial pathways to mental health services.

Health Promot J Austr 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Orygen, Parkville, Melbourne, Australia.

Issue Addressed: Many men are challenged by barriers to mental health help-seeking and engagement. For men who do access care, their pathways to engaging services can offer important insights to what might constitute gender-specific care.

Methods: Data were drawn from an online cross-sectional survey of N=2009 Australian men (aged 16-85; M=43. Read More

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Age estimation based on computed tomography exploration: a combined method.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Service de Médecine Légale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Rangueil, 1 Avenue du Professeur Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059, Toulouse Cedex 9, France.

Despite an extensive number of existing methods, age estimation of human remains is still an unsolved matter in the field of forensic anthropology, especially when it comes to mature adults. The specific aim of this work was to propose a combined method for age estimation, for forensic purposes, by coupling the Suchey-Brooks method and the measure of the pubic bone density. For this purpose, we used an independent test sample comprising 339 CT scans of living individuals aged 15 to 99 years old. Read More

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Email Patient-Provider Communication and Cancer Screenings Among US Adults: Cross-sectional Study.

JMIR Cancer 2021 Jul 30;7(3):e23790. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Background: The growth of electronic medical records and use of patient portals have allowed for patients and health care providers to communicate via email and direct messaging between health care visits. Email patient-provider communication (PPC) may enhance traditional face-to-face PPC by allowing patients to ask questions, receive clear explanations, engage in shared decision-making, and confirm their understanding between in-person visits. Despite increasing trends in the use of email PPC since the early 2000s, few studies have evaluated associations between email PPC and the uptake of preventive services. Read More

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[Gender and age features frequencies of COVID-19].

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2021 Jun;29(Special Issue):613-618

Voronezh State Clinical Polyclinic No. 1, 394036, Voronezh, Russia.

The incidence of COVID-19, both complicated and uncomplicated pneumonia, among men is 40% higher than in women and increases at the age of 35-49 years, with a subsequent decrease in the rate. Pneumonia complicates the course of COVID-19 in older persons, due to the greater burden of comorbidity. Among men, the probability of contracting COVID-19 complicated by pneumonia is 1. Read More

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[Loneliness during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic-results of the German National Cohort (NAKO)].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Zentrum Psychiatrische Rehabilitation, Universitäre Psychiatrische Dienste Bern, Bern, Schweiz.

Background: Early during the pandemic and the following protective countermeasures, an interest in the consequences of the enacted restriction of social contacts for the mental health of the population arose. Loneliness describes the perceived quality of one's own contacts and relationships with other individuals. Several prior studies reported associations of loneliness with different somatic and psychiatric disorders. Read More

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Racial disparity in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in hospitalized patients with diabetes 2005-2015: Potential warning signs for future U.S. public health.

Am J Prev Cardiol 2020 Dec 15;4:100095. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Introduction: The pattern of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and diabetes driven hospitalizations in the United States (U.S.) is unclear. Read More

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December 2020

Validating World Health Organization cardiovascular disease risk charts and optimizing risk assessment in China.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Mar 5;8:100096. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China.

Background: World Health Organization (WHO) released region-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction charts recently, but the extent to which the charts can apply to Chinese population is unknown. We aimed to validate the WHO CVD risk charts for East Asia, and evaluate their practicability combining with China-PAR (Prediction for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk in China) equations among Chinese adults.

Methods: The China-PAR cohort with 93,234 participants aged 40-80 years was followed up during 1992-2015, including 29,337 participants from three sub-cohorts with follow-up period of over 10 years. Read More

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Geographical variations in cardiovascular health in China: A nationwide population-based survey of 74,726 adults.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2020 Oct 30;3:100033. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27# Nanwei Rd, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of cardiovascular health among Chinese adults and to understand the geographic pattern of cardiovascular health.

Methods: In 2015, a total of 74,726 respondents aged ≥ 20 years with no history of cardiovascular disease were randomly sampled from 298 counties/districts of 31 provinces in mainland China and were interviewed. Read More

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October 2020

Lifetime risk of developing diabetes and years of life lost among those with diabetes in Brazil.

J Glob Health 2021 3;11:04041. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, School of Medicine and Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: Given the paucity of studies for low- or middle-income countries, we aim to provide the first ever estimations of lifetime risk of diabetes, years of life spent and lost among those with diabetes for Brazilians. Estimates of Brazil´s diabetes burden consist essentially of reports of diabetes prevalence from national surveys and mortality data. However, these additional metrics are at times more meaningful ways to characterize this burden. Read More

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Gender differences in clinical characteristics and in-hospital and one-year outcomes of young patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction under the age of 40.

J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2021 8;13(2):116-124. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty Department of Cardiology, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Although the incidence of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the elderly population has decreased in recent years, this is not the case for young people. At the same time, no reduction in hospitalization rate after STEMI was shown in young people. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, angiographic findings, in-hospital and one-year outcomes of patients under the age of 40 and their gender differences were investigated. Read More

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February 2021

Fasting biochemical hypoglycemia and related-factors in non-diabetic population: Kanagawa Investigation of Total Check-up Data from National Database-8.

World J Diabetes 2021 Jul;12(7):1131-1140

School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health and Social Services, Kanagawa University of Human Services, Yokosuka 238-8522, Japan.

Background: In healthy people, the lowest daily blood glucose concentration is usually observed in the early morning, after overnight fasting. However, the clinical relevance and the prevalence of fasting biochemical hypoglycemia (FBH) are poorly understood in people who do not have diabetes, although the clinical implications of such hypoglycemia have been extensively studied in patients with diabetes. FBH can be influenced by many factors, including age, sex, body mass, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise levels, medications, and eating behaviors, such as breakfast skipping and late-night eating. Read More

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Engaging young people in the design of a sexual reproductive health intervention: Lessons learnt from the Yathu Yathu ("For us, by us") formative study in Zambia.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jul 29;21(1):753. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Zambart, Lusaka, Zambia.

Background: Meeting the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of adolescents and young people (AYP) requires their meaningful engagement in intervention design. We describe an iterative process of engaging AYP to finalise the design of a community-based, peer-led and incentivised SRH intervention for AYP aged 15-24 in Lusaka and the lessons learnt.

Methods: Between November 2018 and March 2019, 18 focus group discussions, eight in-depth interviews and six observations were conducted to assess AYP's knowledge of HIV/SRH services, factors influencing AYP's sexual behaviour and elicit views on core elements of a proposed intervention, including: community-based spaces (hubs) for service delivery, type of service providers and incentivising service use through prevention points cards (PPC; "loyalty" cards to gain points for accessing services and redeem these for rewards). Read More

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Microvascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Prospective, Multicenter Study.

Neurosurgery 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Seikei-kai Chiba Medical Center, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Microvascular decompression (MVD) is the most effective procedure for the long-term management of trigeminal neuralgia (TGN). However, retrospective and single-center studies are inherently biased, and there are currently no prospective, multicenter studies.

Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes and complications in patients with TGN who underwent MVD at specialized Japanese institutions. Read More

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Psychiatric outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: A prospective, 2-year follow-up study.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jul 26;122:108216. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

National Epilepsy Center, NHO Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan.

Objective: We performed a prospective, longitudinal, 2-year follow-up study to clarify psychiatric courses and outcomes after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery.

Methods: We assessed 141 patients (68 men, 73 women) aged 16 or older with structured interviews and psychiatric rating scales before surgery and 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years afterward.

Results: Fifty-two patients (36. Read More

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Prevalence of gout in the adult general population in Spain: estimating the proportion of undiagnosed cases.

Joint Bone Spine 2021 Jul 26:105257. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of gout in Spain.

Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study of people aged 20 years or older. First, randomly selected individuals were contacted by telephone and rheumatic disease screening questionnaires were conducted. Read More

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