10,822 results match your criteria memory structures

Episodic representation: A mental models account.

Front Psychol 2022 22;13:899371. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Centre for Philosophy of Memory, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

This paper offers a modeling account of episodic representation. I argue that the episodic system constructs : representations that preserve the spatiotemporal structure of represented domains. In prototypical cases, these domains are events: occurrences taken by subjects to have characteristic structures, dynamics and relatively determinate beginnings and ends. Read More

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IL-10 Overexpression After BCG Vaccination Does Not Impair Control of Infection.

Front Immunol 2022 22;13:946181. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

Control of tuberculosis depends on the rapid expression of protective CD4 T-cell responses in the (Mtb)-infected lungs. We have recently shown that the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 acts intrinsically in CD4 T cells and impairs their parenchymal migratory capacity, thereby preventing control of Mtb infection. Herein, we show that IL-10 overexpression does not impact the protection conferred by the established memory CD4 T-cell response, as BCG-vaccinated mice overexpressing IL-10 only during Mtb infection display an accelerated, BCG-induced, Ag85b-specific CD4 T-cell response and control Mtb infection. Read More

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Sex differences of language abilities of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder and their anatomical correlation with Broca and Wernicke areas.

Front Pediatr 2022 22;10:762621. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Children Nutrition Research Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have language difficulties. This study focuses on whether there are sex differences in language ability in children with ASD and aims to analyze whether such differences may arise from developmental imbalances in the anatomical structures of Broca and Wernicke areas.

Methods: The language development quotient (DQ) scores of Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS) and the scores of language communication of Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) were used to judge the language ability, and the FREESURFER software extracted the anatomical structures of Broca and Wernicke areas on 3DT1 sequences. Read More

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Mesoporous LDH Metastructure from Multiscale Assembly of Defective Nanodomains by Laser Shock for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

Small 2022 Aug 7:e2202403. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

The Institute of Technological Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430072, China.

Laser is a powerful tool for the synthesis of nanomaterials. The intensive laser pulses delivered to materials within nanoseconds allow the formation of novel structures that are inaccessible for conventional methods. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanostructures with high porosity, suitable dopants, and rich defects are desirable for catalysts, however, tremendously difficult in a one-pot synthesis. Read More

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A single-cell atlas of the multicellular ecosystem of primary and metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 6;13(1):4594. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

Department of Genetics & Integrative Omics, State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, National Center for Protein Sciences, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 100850, Beijing, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a paradigm of the relation between tumor microenvironment (TME) and tumor development. Here, we generate a single-cell atlas of the multicellular ecosystem of HCC from four tissue sites. We show the enrichment of central memory T cells (T) in the early tertiary lymphoid structures (E-TLSs) in HCC and assess the relationships between chronic HBV/HCV infection and T cell infiltration and exhaustion. Read More

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Dendrimers: A Neuroprotective Lead in Alzheimer Disease: A Review on its Synthetic approach and Applications.

Drug Res (Stuttg) 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, India.

Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disease that is signified by cognitive decline, memory loss, and erratic behavior. Dendrimers are a type of polymer that has a well-defined structure, a high degree of molecular uniformity, and a low polydispersity which have shown to be effective intracellular drug carriers for bring down the in numerous cases. The data reported by the clinical trials and chemical bonds of dendrimers loading and biological properties that may be used in the bringing out the treatment of nano formulation for Alzheimer disease. Read More

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Enhanced positive emotional reactivity in frontotemporal dementia reflects left-lateralized atrophy in the temporal and frontal lobes.

Cortex 2022 Jun 28;154:405-420. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

In frontotemporal dementia (FTD), left-lateralized atrophy patterns have been associated with elevations in certain positive emotions. Here, we investigated whether positive emotional reactivity was enhanced in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), an FTD syndrome that targets the left anterior temporal lobe. Sixty-one participants (16 people with svPPA, 24 people with behavioral variant FTD, and 21 healthy controls) viewed six 90-sec trials that were comprised of a series of photographs; each trial was designed to elicit a specific positive emotion, negative emotion, or no emotion. Read More

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The effect of chronic stress and its preconditioning on spatial memory as well as hippocampal LRP1 and RAGE expression in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

According to available evidence, prolonged or chronic exposure to stress is detrimental to various brain structures, including the hippocampus. The current study examined the expression of two critical blood-brain barrier receptors required for amyloid-beta clearance to understand better the mechanism by which chronic stress impairs learning and memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups in this study: experiment 1 and experiment 2. Read More

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Emissive Metallacage-Cored Polyurethanes with Self-Healing and Shape Memory Properties.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Xi'an Jiaotong Univeristy, School of Material and Science, No. 28 Xianning West Road, 710049, Xi'an, CHINA.

The structures of the crosslinks in supramolecular polymer networks play an important role on their properties and functions. Herein, emissive metallacages are used as crosslinks to prepare metallacage-cored polyurethanes. The mechanical properties including storage modulus, toughness, Young's modulus and breaking strength of polymers are greatly enhanced with the increase of crosslinking densities. Read More

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Escherichia coli-specific CXCL13-producing TFH are associated with clinical efficacy of neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade against muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Cancer Discov 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Biomarkers guiding the neoadjuvant use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICBs) are needed for patients with localized muscle invasive bladder cancers (MIBC). Profiling tumor and blood samples, we found that follicular helper CD4+ T cells (TFH) are among the best therapeutic targets of pembrolizumab correlating with progression-free survival. TFH were associated with tumoral CD8 and PD-L1 expression at baseline, and the induction of tertiary lymphoid structures post-pembrolizumab. Read More

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Extraction of entity relations from Chinese medical literature based on multi-scale CRNN.

Ann Transl Med 2022 May;10(9):520

Department of Network and Information, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Entity relation extraction technology can be used to extract entities and relations from medical literature, and automatically establish professional mapping knowledge domains. The classical text classification model, convolutional neural networks for sentence classification (TEXTCNN), has been shown to have good classification performance, but also has a long-distance dependency problem, which is a common problem of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Recurrent neural networks (RNN) address the long-distance dependency problem but cannot capture text features at a specific scale in the text. Read More

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Shape Memory Alloy Helical Microrobots with Transformable Capability towards Vascular Occlusion Treatment.

Research (Wash D C) 2022 6;2022:9842752. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

Practical implementation of minimally invasive biomedical applications has been a long-sought goal for microrobots. In this field, most previous studies only demonstrate microrobots with locomotion ability or performing a single task, unable to be functionalized effectively. Here, we propose a biocompatible shape memory alloy helical microrobot with regulative structure transformation, making it possible to adjust its motion behavior and mechanical properties precisely. Read More

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MOQUI: an open-source GPU-based Monte Carlo code for proton dose calculation with efficient data structure.

Phys Med Biol 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Northeast Proton Therapy Centre, Massachusetts General Hospital, 30 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114-2696, UNITED STATES.

Objective: Monte Carlo (MC) codes are increasingly used for accurate radiotherapy dose calculation. In proton therapy, the accuracy of the dose calculation algorithm is expected to have a more significant impact than in photon therapy due to the depth-dose characteristics of proton beams. However, MC simulations come at a considerable computational cost to achieve statistically sufficient accuracy. Read More

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Fear memory-associated synaptic and mitochondrial changes revealed by deep learning-based processing of electron microscopy data.

Cell Rep 2022 Aug;40(5):111151

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Serial section electron microscopy (ssEM) can provide comprehensive 3D ultrastructural information of the brain with exceptional computational cost. Targeted reconstruction of subcellular structures from ssEM datasets is less computationally demanding but still highly informative. We thus developed a region-CNN-based deep learning method to identify, segment, and reconstruct synapses and mitochondria to explore the structural plasticity of synapses and mitochondria in the auditory cortex of mice subjected to fear conditioning. Read More

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[Transient epileptic amnesia-A rare phenomenon in temporal lobe epilepsies].

Nervenarzt 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Epileptologie, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127, Bonn, Deutschland.

Background: Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a rare phenomenon in temporal lobe epilepsy that is often unrecognized or misdiagnosed as transient global amnesia (TGA). It is postulated that TEA is due to both ictal and postictal disturbances. Response to antiseizure medication underlines its epileptic nature. Read More

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Lattice Network for Lightweight Image Restoration.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2022 Aug 1;PP. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Deep learning has made unprecedented progress in image restoration (IR), where residual block (RB) is popularly used and has a significant effect on promising performance. However, the massive stacked RBs bring about burdensome memory and computation cost. To tackle this issue, we aim to design an economical structure for adaptively connecting pair-wise RBs, thereby enhancing the model representation. Read More

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The Immunological Synapse: An Emerging Target for Immune Evasion by Bacterial Pathogens.

Front Immunol 2022 13;13:943344. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Similar to other pathogens, bacteria have developed during their evolution a variety of mechanisms to overcome both innate and acquired immunity, accounting for their ability to cause disease or chronic infections. The mechanisms exploited for this critical function act by targeting conserved structures or pathways that regulate the host immune response. A strategic potential target is the immunological synapse (IS), a highly specialized structure that forms at the interface between antigen presenting cells (APC) and T lymphocytes and is required for the establishment of an effective T cell response to the infectious agent and for the development of long-lasting T cell memory. Read More

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Investigating the Mechanism of Germinal Center Shutdown.

Front Immunol 2022 14;13:922318. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Systems Immunology, Braunschweig Integrated Centre of Systems Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.

Germinal centers (GCs) are transient structures where affinity maturation of B cells gives rise to high affinity plasma and memory cells. The mechanism of GC shutdown is unclear, despite being an important phenomenon maintaining immune homeostasis. In this study, we used a mathematical model to identify mechanisms that can independently promote contraction of GCs leading to shutdown. Read More

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Socioeconomic disadvantage and episodic memory ability in the ABCD sample: Contributions of hippocampal subregion and subfield volumes.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2022 Jul 18;57:101138. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

University of Maryland, College Park, Department of Psychology, United States.

Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with volumetric differences in stress-sensitive neural structures, including the hippocampus, and deficits in episodic memory. Rodent studies provide evidence that memory deficits arise via stress-related structural differences in hippocampal subdivisions; however, human studies have only provided limited evidence to support this notion. We used a sample of 10,695 9-13-year-old participants from two timepoints of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study to assess whether socioeconomic disadvantage relates to episodic memory performance through hippocampal volumes. Read More

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Pathological substrate of memory impairment in multiple system atrophy.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2022 Jul 29:e12844. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan.

Aims And Methods: Synaptic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is caused by propagation of pathogenic α-synuclein between neurons. Previously, in multiple system atrophy (MSA), pathologically characterised by ectopic deposition of abnormal α-synuclein predominantly in oligodendrocytes, we demonstrated that the occurrence of memory impairment was associated with the number of α-synuclein-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) in the hippocampus. Here, using a mouse model of adult-onset MSA and human cases (MSA, N = 25; Parkinson's disease, N = 3, Alzheimer's disease, N = 2; normal controls, N = 11), we aimed to investigate how abnormal α-synuclein in the hippocampus can lead to memory impairment. Read More

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Hippocampal recording via the RNS system reveals marked ipsilateral activation of epileptiform activity during Wada testing.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 Jul 26;134:108854. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Yale Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, PO Box 208018, New Haven, CT 06520-8018, USA. Electronic address:

Wada testing remains an important component of pre-surgical testing to assess the feasibility of temporal lobectomy for patients with intractable epilepsy. In this procedure, an anesthetic is injected into either internal carotid artery while memory and language testing is performed, simulating the effect of temporal lobe resection. The mechanism remains poorly understood because the hippocampal vasculature is predominantly via the posterior circulation. Read More

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Precision medicine in pediatric temporal epilepsy surgery: optimization of outcomes through functional MRI memory tasks and tailored surgeries.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2022 Jul 1:1-12. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

1Neurosciences Center, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle.

Objective: The goal of epilepsy surgery is both seizure cessation and maximal preservation of function. In temporal lobe (TL) cases, the lack of functional MRI (fMRI) tasks that effectively activate mesial temporal structures hampers preoperative memory risk assessment, especially in children. This study evaluated pediatric TL surgery outcome optimization associated with tailored resection informed by an fMRI memory task. Read More

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Operative considerations and surgical treatment of sylvian fissure arteriovenous malformations: a 20-year experience.

Neurosurg Focus 2022 Jul;53(1):E10

3Hospital Ángeles del Pedregal, Mexico City, Mexico.

Objective: Sylvian fissure (SF) arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are among the most challenging vascular lesions amenable to neurosurgical treatment and account for 10% of all locations. As radiosurgery and endovascular techniques are increasingly involved in multimodal management protocols, the role of microsurgery needs to be reassessed as a stand-alone technique. The aim of this study was to show that total excision can be achieved with reasonable levels of morbidity and mortality in a real-world setting from a specialized high-volume center. Read More

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Molecular Dynamics Simulations of PtTi High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys Based on a Modified Embedded-Atom Method Interatomic Potential.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jul 22;15(15). Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Korea.

A new second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom model-based PtTi binary interatomic potential was developed by improving the pure Pt unary descriptions of the pre-existing interatomic potential. Specifically, the interatomic potential was developed focusing on the shape memory-associated phenomena and the properties of equiatomic PtTi, which has potential applications as a high-temperature shape memory alloy. The simulations using the developed interatomic potential reproduced the physical properties of the equiatomic PtTi and various intermetallic compound/alloy compositions and structures. Read More

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Interleukin-21, acting beyond the immunological synapse, independently controls T follicular helper and germinal center B cells.

Immunity 2022 Aug 26;55(8):1414-1430.e5. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, 89 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia. Electronic address:

Germinal centers (GCs), transient structures within B cell follicles and central to affinity maturation, require the coordinated behavior of T and B cells. IL-21, a pleiotropic T cell-derived cytokine, is key to GC biology through incompletely understood mechanisms. By genetically restricting production and receipt of IL-21 in vivo, we reveal how its independent actions on T and B cells combine to regulate the GC. Read More

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Optically Induced Long-Lived Chirality Memory in the Color-Tunable Chiral Lead-Free Semiconductor ()/()-CHEABiBrI ( = 0-10).

J Am Chem Soc 2022 Aug 27;144(31):14079-14089. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Walter Schottky Institute, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 4, Garching 85748, Germany.

Hybrid organic-inorganic networks that incorporate chiral molecules have attracted great attention due to their potential in semiconductor lighting applications and optical communication. Here, we introduce a chiral organic molecule ()/()-1-cyclohexylethylamine (CHEA) into bismuth-based lead-free structures with an edge-sharing octahedral motif, to synthesize chiral lead-free ()/()-CHEABiBrI crystals and thin films. Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements and density functional theory calculations, we identify crystal and electronic band structures. Read More

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Processing of embedded response plans is modulated by an interplay of fronto-parietal theta and beta activity.

J Neurophysiol 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Even simple actions like opening a door require integration/binding and flexible re-activation of different motor elements. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of such 'embedded response plans' are largely elusive, despite theoretical frameworks, such as the Theory of Event Coding, describing the involved cognitive processes. In a sample of N = 40 healthy participants we combine time-frequency decomposition and various beamforming methods to examine neurophysiological dynamics of such action plans - with special emphasis on the interplay of theta and beta frequency activity during the processing of these plans. Read More

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Unraveling the Role of Polydopamines in Resistive Switching in Al/Polydopamine/Al Structure for Organic Resistive Random-Access Memory.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Jul 24;14(15). Epub 2022 Jul 24.

Institute for Wearable Convergence Electronics, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin 17104, Korea.

In an era of rapidly evolving artificial intelligence and 5G communications technologies, massive data storage and processing are required for the real-time operation of digital processors in conventional wearable devices. However, classical von-Neumann architecture computers are limited by bottleneck-related issues. As a solution, resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices are being considered as next generation in-memory computing devices. Read More

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Atrophy of the hippocampal CA1 subfield relates to long-term forgetting in focal epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objective: The mechanisms underlying accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) in patients with epilepsy are still under investigation. We examined the contribution of hippocampal subfields and their morphology to long-term memory performance in patients with focal epilepsy.

Methods: We prospectively assessed long-term memory and performed magnetic resonance imaging in 80 patients with focal epilepsy (61 with temporal lobe epilepsy and 19 with extratemporal lobe epilepsy) and 30 healthy controls. Read More

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Multifunctional PEG Carrier by Chemoenzymatic Synthesis for Drug Delivery Systems: In Memory of Professor Andrzej Dworak.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Jul 16;14(14). Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, 222 FABE, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.

This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of new bivalent folate-targeted PEGylated doxorubicin (FA-dPEG-DOX) made by modular chemo-enzymatic processes using lipase B (CALB) as a biocatalyst. Unique features are the use of monodisperse PEG (dPEG) and the synthesis of thiol-functionalized folic acid yielding exclusive γ-conjugation of folic acid (FA) to dPEG. The polymer-based drug conjugate is built up by a series of transesterification and Michael addition reactions all catalyzed be CALB. Read More

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