12 results match your criteria memory outcome-specific

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How predictive learning influences choice: Evidence for a GPCR-based memory process necessary for Pavlovian-instrumental transfer.

J Neurochem 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Decision Neuroscience Laboratory, School of Psychology, UNSW SYDNEY, Randwick, NSW, Australia.

Predictive learning endows stimuli with the capacity to signal both the sensory-specific and general motivational properties of their associated rewards or outcomes. These two signals can be distinguished behaviorally by their influence on the selection and performance of instrumental actions, respectively. This review focuses on how sensory-specific predictive learning guides choice between actions that earn otherwise equally desirable outcomes. Read More

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Updated Technique for Reliable, Easy, and Tolerated Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

J Vis Exp 2020 01 3(155). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, CUNY;

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive method of neuromodulation using low-intensity direct electrical currents. This method of brain stimulation presents several potential advantages compared to other techniques, as it is noninvasive, cost-effective, broadly deployable, and well-tolerated provided proper equipment and protocols are administered. Even though tDCS is apparently simple to perform, correct administration of the tDCS session, especially the electrode positioning and preparation, is vital for ensuring reproducibility and tolerability. Read More

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January 2020

Individual differences in working memory capacity and cue-guided behavior in humans.

Sci Rep 2019 05 13;9(1):7327. Epub 2019 May 13.

Centre for Studies and Research in Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Information gathered via Pavlovian and Instrumental learning can be integrated to guide behavior, in a phenomenon experimentally known as Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT). In particular, in appetitive PIT, a reward-associated cue is able to enhance the instrumental response previously associated with the same (outcome-specific PIT), or a similar (general PIT), reward. The PIT effect is increasingly investigated for its numerous implications in clinical contexts as well as daily life situations. Read More

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Amygdala mu-opioid receptors mediate the motivating influence of cue-triggered reward expectations.

Eur J Neurosci 2017 02 28;45(3):381-387. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Department of Psychology, UCLA, 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Environmental reward-predictive stimuli can retrieve from memory a specific reward expectation that allows them to motivate action and guide choice. This process requires the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but little is known about the signaling systems necessary within this structure. Here we examined the role of the neuromodulatory opioid receptor system in the BLA in such cue-directed action using the outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) test in rats. Read More

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February 2017

Bayesian Models for Multiple Outcomes in Domains with Application to the Seychelles Child Development Study.

J Am Stat Assoc 2014 01;109(505):1-10

University of Rochester, Departments of Pediatrics, Environmental Medicine, and Psychiatry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

The Seychelles Child Development Study (SCDS) examines the effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on the functioning of the central nervous system. The SCDS data include 20 outcomes measured on 9-year old children that can be classified broadly in four outcome classes or "domains": cognition, memory, motor, and social behavior. Previous analyses and scientific theory suggest that these outcomes may belong to more than one of these domains, rather than only a single domain as is frequently assumed for modeling. Read More

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January 2014

High pesticide exposure events and central nervous system function among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2012 Jul 7;85(5):505-15. Epub 2011 Sep 7.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa, University of Iowa Research Park, 140 IREH, Iowa City, IA 52242-5000, USA.

Purpose: While acute pesticide poisoning can be associated with persistent adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects, little is known about the effect of one or more episodic and unusually high pesticide exposure events (HPEE) that typically do not result in acute poisoning. The objective of this investigation was to examine the association between ever having an HPEE and CNS function among licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS).

Methods: In 2006-2008, 693 male participants with no history of a physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning completed nine neurobehavioral tests to assess memory, motor speed, sustained attention, verbal learning, and visual scanning and processing. Read More

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Neurobehavioral function and organophosphate insecticide use among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2012 Jan-Feb;34(1):168-76. Epub 2011 Aug 28.

University of Iowa, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Iowa Research Park, 103 IREH, Iowa City, IA 52242-5000, USA.

Although persistent decrements in cognitive function have been observed among persons who have recovered from clinically overt organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning, little is known about the cognitive effects of chronic OP exposures that do not result in acute poisoning. To examine associations between long-term pesticide use and neurobehavioral (NB) function, NB tests were administered to licensed pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa and North Carolina. Between 2006 and 2008, 701 male participants completed nine NB tests to assess memory, motor speed and coordination, sustained attention, verbal learning and visual scanning and processing. Read More

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October 2012

The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in outcome encoding in instrumental and Pavlovian conditioning.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2010 Feb 29;93(2):283-90. Epub 2009 Nov 29.

Abteilung Tierphysiologie, Biologisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart, Germany.

Considerable evidence suggests that dopamine in the core subregion of the nucleus accumbens is not only involved in Pavlovian conditioning but also supports instrumental performance. However, it is largely unknown whether NAc dopamine is required for outcome encoding which plays an important role both in Pavlovian stimulus-outcome learning and instrumental action-outcome learning. Therefore, we tested rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced dopamine depletion of the NAc core for their sensitivity to outcome devaluation in a Pavlovian and an instrumental task. Read More

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February 2010

Dissociation between sex differences in the immunological, behavioral, and physiological effects of kappa- and delta-opioids in Fischer rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006 Mar 6;185(1):66-75. Epub 2006 Jan 6.

Department of Psychology, CB #3270, Davie Hall, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3270, USA.

Rationale: The sex of the individual can have a profound effect on sensitivity to the effects of opioids. Recently, our laboratory provided the first evidence that females may be more sensitive to the immune-altering effects of mu-opioids than males. However, it remains unknown whether kappa- and delta-opioids produce sexually dimorphic effects on immune responses. Read More

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Outcome-specific conditioned inhibition in Pavlovian backward conditioning.

Learn Behav 2003 Nov;31(4):393-402

Brooklyn College, Graduate School of the City University of New York, Psychology Department, Brooklyn, New York 11210, USA.

In the present experiments, the outcome specificity of learning was explored in an appetitive Pavlovian backward conditioning procedure with rats. The rats initially were administered Pavlovian backward training with two qualitatively different unconditioned stimulus conditioned-stimulus (US-CS) pairs of stimuli (e.g. Read More

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November 2003

Glucocorticoid receptor agonist enhances pavlovian appetitive conditioning but disrupts outcome-specific associations.

Behav Neurosci 2003 Dec;117(6):1453-7

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

A Pavlovian-instrumental transfer design was used to investigate the impact of the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (dex) on Pavlovian associations involving the sensory and motivational aspects of rewards. Rats were trained with 2 lever responses, R1 and R2, for different rewards, Outcome (O)1 and O2. In separate Pavlovian training sessions. Read More

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December 2003

The cognitive impact of past behavior: influences on beliefs, attitudes, and future behavioral decisions.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2000 Jul;79(1):5-22

Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, USA.

To study the processes by which past behavior influences future behavior, participants were led to believe that without being aware of it, they had expressed either support for or opposition to the institution of comprehensive exams. Judgment and response time data suggested that participants' perceptions of their past behavior often influenced their decisions to repeat the behavior. This influence was partly the result of cognitive activity that influenced participants' cognitions about specific behavioral consequences and the attitude they based on these cognitions. Read More

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