11,430 results match your criteria memory items

The influence of imagery vividness and internally-directed attention on the neural mechanisms underlying the encoding of visual mental images into episodic memory.

Cereb Cortex 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, United States.

Attention can be directed externally toward sensory information or internally toward self-generated information. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated the attentional processes underlying the formation and encoding of self-generated mental images into episodic memory. Participants viewed flickering words referring to common objects and were tasked with forming visual mental images of the objects and rating their vividness. Read More

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When is memory more reliable? Scientific findings, theories, and myths.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2022 Aug 9:1-18. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Psychology, Bahçeşehir University, Istanbul, Turkey.

The question of whether human memory is reliable generated extensive research. Memory is open to reconstruction and false retrieval of unpresented information or unexperienced events. These can create problems in judgments and decisions that rely on memory accuracy. Read More

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Validation of a COVID-19 mental health and wellness survey questionnaire.

BMC Public Health 2022 08 8;22(1):1509. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Center for Healthy Communities, Department of Social Medicine, Population and Public Health, University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, Riverside, USA.

Background And Aim: COVID-19 affected mental health and wellbeing. Research is needed to assess its impact using validated tools. The study assessed the content validity, reliability and dimensionality of a multidimensional tool for assessing the mental health and wellbeing of adults. Read More

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Repeated series learning revisited with a novel prediction on the reduced effect of item frequency in dyslexia.

Sci Rep 2022 Aug 8;12(1):13521. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Developmental dyslexia, a difficulty with acquiring fluent reading, has also been characterized by reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity, which is often operationalized with span tasks. The low performance of individuals with dyslexia (IDDs) in such tasks is commonly attributed to poor phonological memory. However, we suggest an alternative explanation based on the observation that many times the items that are used in spans tasks are high-frequency items (e. Read More

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Development of the function of autobiographical memories evoked by odor scale for older Japanese people.

Front Psychol 2022 22;13:945002. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Faculty of Human Studies, Bunkyo Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan.

Odor-evoked autobiographical memory and related psychological changes have been evaluated based on several factors, such as emotionality, clarity, and re-experience. We developed the Function of Autobiographical Memories Evoked by Odor Scale (FAMOS) for older Japanese people as a new method for comprehensively evaluating the functions of odor-evoked autobiographical memory. We used the diary method; participants were instructed to record the contents of everyday involuntary autobiographical memories triggered by odor and complete the FAMOS. Read More

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Factor Structure of the Memory for Intentions Test (MIsT): A Conceptual Replication in Older Adults and People with HIV Disease.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2022 Aug 5:1-12. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Objective: The Memory for Intentions Test (MIsT) is a clinical measure of prospective memory that has strong evidence for convergent, discriminative, and ecological validity. This study uses a conceptual replication design to evaluate the latent structure of the MIsT in two parallel samples who commonly experience prospective memory deficits: older adults and people living with HIV disease.

Participants And Methods: Study participants included 303 people with HIV disease (ages 18-67) and 267 community-dwelling older adults (ages 50-91). Read More

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Forgetting Details in Visual Long-Term Memory: Decay or Interference?

Front Behav Neurosci 2022 19;16:887321. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Basic Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Two main explanations for memory loss have been proposed. On the one hand, decay theories consider that over time memory fades away. On the other hand, interference theories sustain that when similar memories are encoded, they become more prone to confusion. Read More

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Common neural mechanisms control attention and working memory.

J Neurosci 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Program in Psychology, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Although previous studies point to qualitative similarities between working memory (WM) and attention, the degree to which these two constructs rely on shared neural mechanisms remains unknown. Focusing on one such potentially shared mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that selecting an item within WM utilizes similar neural mechanisms as selecting a visible item via a shift of attention. We used fMRI and machine learning to decode both the selection among items visually available and the selection among items stored in WM in human subjects (both sexes). Read More

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The locus of visual search's interference on visual working memory.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

School of Psychology.

Visual attention and visual working memory (VWM) are interacting systems. Most research has been directed toward how a retained VWM load can influence visual search behavior. However, the relationship between the two is bidirectional. Read More

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Cognitive domain harmonization and cocalibration in studies of older adults.

Neuropsychology 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Medicine.

Objective: Studies use different instruments to measure cognitirating cognitive tests permit direct comparisons of individuals across studies and pooling data for joint analyses.

Method: We began our legacy item bank with data from the Adult Changes in Thought study ( = 5,546), the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative ( = 3,016), the Rush Memory and Aging Project ( = 2,163), and the Religious on such as the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, the Wechsler Memory Scale, and the Boston Naming Test. CocalibOrders Study ( = 1,456). Read More

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In search for a neuropsychological marker of ADHD: findings from incidental memory testing.

G Gronchi A Peru

Arch Ital Biol 2022 Jul;160(1-2):81-88

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, University of Florence, Via San Salvi 12, Padiglione 26, Firenze (50135), Italy - E-mail:

This paper reports on a study where the incidental memory of 18 children with ADHD and 18 typically developing peers was assessed by means of a conventional two-phase recognition memory test. In the study phase participants were required to categorize as a living or non-living a set of 64 stimuli from 8 semantic categories. In the test phase, they were required to recognize "target" (i. Read More

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Arousal-modulated memory encoding and retrieval in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2022 Jul 30. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Autism Research Group, Department of Psychology, City, University of London, London, UK.

Recently, we have shown that pupil dilation during a recognition memory task can serve as an index of memory retrieval difficulties in autism. At the time of publication, we were unaware of specific data-analysis methods that can be used to shed further light on the origins of such memory related pupil dilation. Specifically, by distinguishing "tonic" from "phasic" changes in pupil dilation and considering their temporal progression, it is possible to draw inferences about the functional integrity of a locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (LC-NE) that is known to play a key role in regulating memory encoding and retrieval processes. Read More

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Study effort and the memory cost of external store availability.

Cognition 2022 Jul 26;228:105228. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

University of Waterloo.

Previous work demonstrates that individuals often recall less information if, at study, there is expectation that an external memory store will be available at test. One explanation for this effect is that when individuals can expect access to an external memory store, they forgo intentional, controlled efforts at encoding. The present work offers a novel test of this account by examining study effort, indexed by study time and self-reported strategy use, as a function of instructed external store availability. Read More

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Test-retest reliability for common tasks in vision science.

J Vis 2022 Jul;22(8):18

Aston University, School of Psychology, College of Health & Life Sciences, Birmingham, UK.

Research in perception and attention has typically sought to evaluate cognitive mechanisms according to the average response to a manipulation. Recently, there has been a shift toward appreciating the value of individual differences and the insight gained by exploring the impacts of between-participant variation on human cognition. However, a recent study suggests that many robust, well-established cognitive control tasks suffer from surprisingly low levels of test-retest reliability (Hedge, Powell, & Sumner, 2018b). Read More

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Episodic Memory and Schizophrenia: From Characterization of Relational Memory Impairments to Neuroimaging Biomarkers.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Douglas Research Centre, Verdun, QC, Canada.

Episodic memory research in schizophrenia has a long history already which has clearly established significant impairments and strong associations with brain measures and functional outcome. The purpose of this chapter is not to make an exhaustive review of the recent literature but to highlight some relatively recent developments in the cognitive neuroscience field of episodic memory and schizophrenia. Hence, we present a contemporary view focusing specifically of relational memory which represents a form of episodic memory that refers to associations or binding among items or elements presented together. Read More

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The formation of specific and gist associative episodic memory representations during encoding: Effects of rate of presentation.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Psychological Sciences.

Assessing the time course under which underlying memory representations can be formed is an important question for understanding memory. Several studies assessing item memory have shown that gist representations of items are laid out more rapidly than verbatim representations. However, for associations among items/components, which form the core of episodic memory, it is unclear whether gist representations form more quickly than, or at least in parallel with, verbatim representations, as fuzzy-trace theory predicts, or whether gist is extracted more slowly from inferring the meaning of verbatim representations, as in gist macroprocessor theories. Read More

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Intent matters: Resolving the intentional versus incidental learning paradox in episodic long-term memory.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Psychology.

Decades of research have established that the intent to remember information has no effect on episodic long-term memory. This claim, which is routinely taught in introductory cognitive psychology courses, is based entirely on pure-list between-subjects designs in which memory performance is equal for intentional and incidental learning groups. In the current 11 experiments, participants made semantic judgements about each word in a list but they had to remember only words presented in a specific color. Read More

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EXPRESS: Attention Allocation Between Item and Order Information in Short-Term Memory.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2022 Jul 28:17470218221118451. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

University of Missouri, Psychological Sciences, Columbia, Missouri, United States 14716.

In immediate memory for verbal lists, recently it has been shown that participants can choose to carry out encoding that prioritizes readiness for an item test at some cost to order information or, conversely, that prioritizes readiness for an order test at a cost to item information (Guitard et al., 2021, 2022). Here we ask whether participants can control attention to items and order in a graded fashion. Read More

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Bender-Gestalt II Test: Psychometric Properties with Global Scoring System on a Turkish Standardization Sample.

Child Neuropsychol 2022 Jul 28:1-21. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Yamaç Kindergarten, Denizli, Turkey.

The present study aims to standardize the Bender-Gestalt II Test by exploring its psychometric properties on a Turkish sample between the ages of 4 and 17 years and to obtain its normative values. The standardization sample consisted of 2691 students aged 4.0-17. Read More

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A Model of Semantic Completion in Generative Episodic Memory.

Neural Comput 2022 Jul 19:1-30. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Institute for Neural Computation, Faculty of Computer Science, Ruhr University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany

Many studies have suggested that episodic memory is a generative process, but most computational models adopt a storage view. In this article, we present a model of the generative aspects of episodic memory. It is based on the central hypothesis that the hippocampus stores and retrieves selected aspects of an episode as a memory trace, which is necessarily incomplete. Read More

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The Stressful Memory Assessment Checklist for the Intensive Care Unit (SMAC-ICU): Development and Testing.

Karin Samuelson

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Jul 16;10(7). Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, P.O. Box 157, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.

Stressful or traumatic memories of an intensive care stay may lead to long-term psychological morbidity. Memory assessment is therefore essential to aid in the patients' recovery process. Acknowledging the large cohort of post ICU patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a simple tool for the evaluation of ICU memories is needed. Read More

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Properties of iconic and visuospatial working memory in pigeons and humans using a location change-detection procedure.

Learn Behav 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Tests of visuospatial memory following short (<1 s) and medium (1 to 30 s) delays have revealed characteristically different patterns of behavior in humans. These data have been interpreted as evidence for different memory systems operating during short (iconic memory) and long delays (working memory). Leising et al. Read More

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Long-term memory retrieval bypasses working memory.

Neuroimage 2022 Jul 23;261:119513. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences (South China Normal University), Ministry of Education, China; Institute for Brain Research and Rehabilitation, South China Normal University, China; Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, China; Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, China. Electronic address:

For decades, it has been assumed that when humans retrieve information from long-term memory (LTM), information need first to be brought back into working memory (WM). However, as WM capacity is limited, it is unclear what happens if information from LTM needs to be retrieved while WM is fully engaged? To address this question, observers had to retrieve colors from LTM while WM storage capacity was fully engaged. The behavioral results showed that retrieving information from LTM is possible even when WM capacity is fully occupied. Read More

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What might COVID-19 patients experience after recovery? A comprehensive review.

Int J Pharm Pract 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

Objectives: The objective of this review was to describe the COVID-19 complications after recovery.

Methods: The researchers systematically reviewed studies that reported post-COVID-19 complications from three databases: PubMed, Google Scholar and the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 database. The search was conducted between 21 November 2020 and 14 January 2021. Read More

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Temporal order memory impairments in individuals with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2022 Jul 25:1-16. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Introduction: Temporal order memory is a core cognitive function that underlies much of our behavior. The ability to bind together information within and across events, and to reconstruct that sequence of information, critically relies upon the hippocampal relational memory system. Recent work has suggested traumatic brain injury (TBI) may particularly impact hippocampally mediated relational memory. Read More

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How do 3-year-olds do on the NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery?

Child Neuropsychol 2022 Jul 25:1-22. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Neurodevelopmental and Behavioral Phenotyping Service, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The NIH Toolbox includes a cognitive battery that provides an Early Childhood Composite score for children age 3-7. However, very few studies have evaluated feasibility when it is used in the youngest segment of this age range-3-year-olds. The current study evaluated performance on the four cognitive subtests composing the early childhood composite, two of which assess executive function, in a large sample of 3-year-olds enrolled in a Vanguard pilot of the National Children's Study. Read More

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Memory-augmented skip-connected autoencoder for unsupervised anomaly detection of rocket engines with multi-source fusion.

ISA Trans 2022 Jul 14. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Science and Technology on Liquid Rocket Engine Laboratory, Xi'an Aerospace Propulsion Institute, Xi'an 710100, PR China.

To ensure the safety and stability of the rocket, it is essential to implement accurate anomaly detection on key parts such as the liquid rocket engine (LRE). However, due to the indistinct features of signals under the interference of extreme conditions and the weak distinguishing ability to exist unsupervised methods, it is difficult to distinguish abnormal samples from normal samples, which leads to the failure of reliable anomaly detection. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposed an unsupervised learning algorithm named Memory-augmented skip-connected deep autoencoder (Mem-SkipAE) for anomaly detection of rocket engines with multi-source data fusion. Read More

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The hippocampal formation as a hierarchical generative model supporting generative replay and continual learning.

Prog Neurobiol 2022 Jul 21;217:102329. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

We advance a novel computational theory of the hippocampal formation as a hierarchical generative model that organizes sequential experiences, such as rodent trajectories during spatial navigation, into coherent spatiotemporal contexts. We propose that the hippocampal generative model is endowed with inductive biases to identify individual items of experience (first hierarchical layer), organize them into sequences (second layer) and cluster them into maps (third layer). This theory entails a novel characterization of hippocampal reactivations as generative replay: the offline resampling of fictive sequences from the generative model, which supports the continual learning of multiple sequential experiences. Read More

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Agency enhances temporal order memory in an interactive exploration game.

Psychon Bull Rev 2022 Jul 23. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Department of Psychology, Temple University, 1701 N 13th Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA.

Agency has been shown to facilitate episodic memory. However, most paradigms use simple list-learning tasks, which preclude the ability to characterize more associative forms of memory, such as binding of items into spatial and temporal context. Across two studies, we characterize the role of agency on associative memory formation. Read More

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The Multilingual Picture Database.

Sci Data 2022 07 21;9(1):431. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

The growing interdisciplinary research field of psycholinguistics is in constant need of new and up-to-date tools which will allow researchers to answer complex questions, but also expand on languages other than English, which dominates the field. One type of such tools are picture datasets which provide naming norms for everyday objects. However, existing databases tend to be small in terms of the number of items they include, and have also been normed in a limited number of languages, despite the recent boom in multilingualism research. Read More

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