36,968 results match your criteria memory differences


Neural correlates of the production effect: An fMRI study.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jun 11;152:105757. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Psychology, St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. Electronic address:

Recognition memory is improved for items produced at study (e.g., by reading them aloud) relative to a non-produced control condition (e. Read More

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United States Air Force Academy Cadets' Unprompted Knowledge of Concussions and Bell-Ringers/Dings: Perceived Differences and Similarities.

J Athl Train 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Associate Professor, Twitter:

Context: After a potential concussion mechanism, a cadet is unlikely to have a list of concussion signs and symptoms at their disposal. As such, unprompted concussion knowledge may be an essential factor in personal recognition.

Objective: The primary purpose of an overall study was to explore determinants that contributed to United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) cadets to disclose a concussion. Read More

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Age-preserved semantic memory and the CRUNCH effect manifested as differential semantic control networks: An fMRI study.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0249948. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Semantic memory representations are overall well-maintained in aging whereas semantic control is thought to be more affected. To explain this phenomenon, this study aims to test the predictions of the Compensation Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis (CRUNCH) focusing on task demands in aging as a possible framework. The CRUNCH effect would manifest itself in semantic tasks through a compensatory increase in neural activation in semantic control network regions but only up to a certain threshold of task demands. Read More

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Older and younger adults' hindsight bias after positive and negative outcomes.

Mem Cognit 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Institute for Experimental Psychology, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

After learning about facts or outcomes of events, people overestimate in hindsight what they knew in foresight. Prior research has shown that this hindsight bias is more pronounced in older than in younger adults. However, this robust finding is based primarily on a specific paradigm that requires generating and recalling numerical judgments to general knowledge questions that deal with emotionally neutral content. Read More

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Pythagorean Self-Awareness Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Quasi-Experimental Pragmatic Trial.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

1st Department of Neurology, Aeginition Hospital, Medical School, National Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system affecting patients' well-being and quality of life. Pythagorean Self-Awareness Intervention (PSAI) is a novel non-pharmaceutical intervention with significant benefits both in MS and other chronic diseases. In this study, the longstanding effectiveness of PSAI was investigated. Read More

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Brain networks in patients with isolated or recurrent transient global amnesia.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional networks between transient global amnesia (TGA) patients with a single event and those with recurrent events using arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI.

Methods: We enrolled patients with TGA and classified them into two groups according to the number of TGA events: TGA patients with a single event and those with recurrent events. MRI scans were performed within 24 h after TGA ictal onset in all patients. Read More

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Testosterone is Sufficient to Impart Susceptibility to Isoflurane Neurotoxicity in Female Neonatal Rats.

J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Volatile anesthetic exposure during development leads to long-term cognitive deficits in rats which are dependent on age and sex. Female rats are protected relative to male rats for the same exposure on postnatal day 7. Here we test our hypothesis that androgens can modulate chloride cotransporter expression to alter the susceptibility to neurotoxicity from GABAergic drugs using female rats with exogenous testosterone exposure. Read More

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Subclinical depression and anxiety impact verbal memory functioning differently in men and women -an fMRI study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 May 27;140:308-315. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Spain; Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Depressive symptoms are known to affect memory efficiency in various populations. More specifically, several studies conducted in patients suffering from schizophrenia have indicated that memory efficiency is affected by depressed mood in female patients and by anxiety in male patients. We investigated, using neuroimaging techniques, whether similar gender-specific associations with subclinical depression and anxiety could be observed in a non-clinical sample. Read More

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Loss of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II alters ultrasonic vocalizations in mice, a model for speech impairment in human microdeletion 4q21 syndrome.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 11:136048. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA; Molecular, Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA. Electronic address:

Chromosome 4q21 microdeletion leads to a human syndrome that exhibits restricted growth, facial dysmorphisms, mental retardation, and absent or delayed speech. One of the key genes in the affected region of the chromosome is PRKG2, which encodes cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII). Mice lacking cGKII exhibit restricted growth and deficits in learning and memory, as seen in the human syndrome. Read More

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Altered anterior default mode network dynamics in progressive multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Jun 14:13524585211018116. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Bioengineering, Center for Neuroprosthetics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland / Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Modifications in brain function remain relatively unexplored in progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), despite their potential to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease at this stage.

Objectives: To characterize the dynamics of functional networks at rest in patients with PMS, and the relation with clinical disability.

Methods: Thirty-two patients with PMS underwent clinical and cognitive assessment. Read More

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Vigorous physical activity and cognitive trajectory later in life: prospective association and interaction by apolipoprotein E e4 in the Nurses' Health Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

MGEN Foundation for Public Health, Paris, France.

Background: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele is a well-established genetic risk factor of brain ageing. Vigorous physical activity may be particularly important in APOE-e4 carriers, but data have been inconsistent, likely due to differences in the timing of the physical activity assessment, definition of cognitive decline and/or sample size.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated the association between vigorous physical activity and cognition assessed at least 9 years later, according to APOE-e4 carrier status. Read More

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Directing attention to event changes improves memory updating for older adults.

Psychol Aging 2021 Jun;36(4):475-490

Department of Psychology.

People use memory for observed actions to guide current perceptions. When actions change from one situation to the next, one must register the change to update memory. Research suggests that older adults may sometimes update memory for naturalistic action changes less effectively than younger adults. Read More

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Top-down and bottom-up guidance in normal aging during scene search.

Psychol Aging 2021 Jun;36(4):433-451

School of Psychology.

Age-related differences in visual search have been extensively studied using simple item arrays, showing an attentional decline. Little is known about how aging affects attentional guidance during search in more complex scenes. To study this issue, we analyzed eye-movement behavior in realistic scene search. Read More

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Why Does Cognitive Training Yield Inconsistent Benefits? A Meta-Analysis of Individual Differences in Baseline Cognitive Abilities and Training Outcomes.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:662139. Epub 2021 May 26.

Cognition in Context Lab, Department of Psychology and Center for Mind & Brain, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Despite growing interest in improving cognitive abilities across the lifespan through training, the benefits of cognitive training are inconsistent. One powerful contributor may be that individuals arrive at interventions with different baseline levels of the cognitive skill being trained. Some evidence suggests poor performers benefit the most from cognitive training, showing compensation for their weak abilities, while other evidence suggests that high performers benefit most, experiencing a magnification of their abilities. Read More

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Identification of Key Biomarkers and Immune Infiltration in Sciatic Nerve of Diabetic Neuropathy BKS-db/db Mice by Bioinformatics Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:682005. Epub 2021 May 26.

Graduate School of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, China.

Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is one of the chronic complications of diabetes which can cause severe harm to patients. In order to determine the key genes and pathways related to the pathogenesis of DN, we downloaded the microarray data set GSE27382 from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and adopted bioinformatics methods for comprehensive analysis, including functional enrichment, construction of PPI networks, central genes screening, TFs-target interaction analysis, and evaluation of immune infiltration characteristics. Finally, we examined quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) to validate the expression of hub genes. Read More

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Glycinergic axonal inhibition subserves acute spatial sensitivity to sudden increases in sound intensity.

Elife 2021 Jun 14;10. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Locomotion generates adventitious sounds which enable detection and localization of predators and prey. Such sounds contain brisk changes or transients in amplitude. We investigated the hypothesis that ill-understood temporal specializations in binaural circuits subserve lateralization of such sound transients, based on different time of arrival at the ears (interaural time differences, ITDs). Read More

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Time-of-day effects on objective and subjective short-term memory task performance.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Jun 14:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroergonomics, Institute of Applied Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

The time-of-day along with the synchrony effect (better performance at optimal times of the day according to the chronotype) on the cognitive performance has been well established in previous research. This influence is mediated by both circadian and homeostatic processes consistent with the Borbély two-process model. This experiment focused on the objective and subjective performance of the visual short-term memory task requiring holistic processing. Read More

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Attribute Amnesia in the Auditory Domain.

Perception 2021 Jun 13:3010066211022175. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Individuals are often unable to report an attribute of an object to which they recently attended, if they expected to report a different attribute, a phenomenon known as attribute amnesia (AA). To date, all AA studies have occurred in the visual domain. The purpose of this study was to explore the boundary conditions of AA by testing if AA also occurs in the auditory domain and, if so, for which attributes. Read More

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Racial/ethnic differences in dietary intake among a diverse sample of adolescents: An experimental study.

Pediatr Obes 2021 Jun 13:e12823. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California Irvine (UCI), Irvine, California, USA.

Background: African-American (AA) and Hispanic/Latina (HL) females have higher obesity prevalence than do non-Hispanic Whites (NHW); this may be due to AA and HL consuming more energy-dense foods in response to stressors.

Objectives: This study examined racial/ethnic differences in dietary intake under controlled conditions (relaxation and stress) in a diverse sample of adolescent females.

Methods: Participants included 120 adolescent females (30% AA, 37% HL and 33% NHW) who participated in a laboratory food intake study. Read More

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Interpretation of familiar metaphors and proverbs by Polish people in middle and late adulthood.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Background: The ability to understand figurative language, including metaphors and proverbs, decreases with age, although the phenomenon is not universal. Cognitive capacities and education play an important role in the competence connected with figurative language use and comprehension in people during the second half of life.

Aims: To identify possible similarities and differences in task performance by subjects representing middle adulthood (40-49 and 50-59 years old) and late adulthood (60-69 and 70-92 years old). Read More

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The effects of intensive care unit-initiated transitional care interventions on elements of post-intensive care syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Aust Crit Care 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Research Department of Emergency and Critical Care, HAN University of Applied Science, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Radboud University Medical Centre, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences IQ Healthcare, the Netherlands; Foundation Family and Patient Centered Intensive Care, Alkmaar, the Netherlands.

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of intensive care unit (ICU)-initiated transitional care interventions for patients and families on elements of post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) and/or PICS-family (PICS--F).

Review Method Used: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis SOURCES: The authors searched in biomedical bibliographic databases including PubMed, Embase (OVID), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and included studies written in English conducted up to October 8, 2020.

Review Methods: We included (non)randomised controlled trials focussing on ICU-initiated transitional care interventions for patients and families. Read More

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Linking inhibitory control to math achievement via comparison of conflicting decimal numbers.

Cognition 2021 Jun 10;214:104767. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Newark, USA; Behavioral Neural Sciences Graduate Program, Rutgers University, Newark, USA. Electronic address:

The relationship between executive functions (EF) and academic achievement is well-established, but leveraging this insight to improve educational outcomes remains elusive. Here, we propose a framework for relating the role of specific EF on specific precursor skills that support later academic learning. Starting from the premise that executive functions contribute to general math skills both directly - supporting the execution of problem solving strategies - and indirectly - supporting the acquisition of precursor mathematical content, we hypothesize that the contribution of domain-general EF capacities to precursor skills that support later learning can help explain relations between EF and overall math skills. Read More

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Oh brother, where art tau? Amyloid, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline without elevated tau.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jun 6;31:102717. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be an early manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, other pathologic entities [e.g., cerebrovascular disease, Lewy body disease, LATE (limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy)], or mixed pathologies, with concomitant AD- and non-AD pathology being particularly common, albeit difficult to identify, in living MCI patients. Read More

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Do the young and the old perceive emotional intervals differently when shown on a younger or older face?

Cogn Process 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Via Venezia, 8, 35131, Padova, Italy.

Many authors have analysed the effects of emotion recognition on time perception, showing that the more arousing the stimuli are the greater is the effect on duration perception. Visual stimuli, in particular faces, are the most recurrent stimuli employed in the literature. However, pictures in which emotional faces of older individuals have rarely been used, and when used, only young participants were tested. Read More

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Acute effects of 2.856 GHz and 1.5 GHz microwaves on spatial memory abilities and CREB-related pathways.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12348. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Experimental Pathology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

This study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of 2.856 GHz and 1.5 GHz microwaves on spatial memory and cAMP response element binding (CREB)-related pathways. Read More

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The importance of working memory capacity for improving speech in noise comprehension in children with hearing aid.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 May 24;147:110774. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: One of the most common complaints of hearing aid users is difficulty in receiving speech in noise which is very important for all hearing impaired specially children with limited auditory and language experiences. Since working memory plays a significant role in speech perception, especially in challenging auditory situations such as background noise, it is likely that differences in its performance and capacity may impair the ability to understand speech in noise in hearing aid users. Therefore, we aimed to compare memory capacity between two groups of children using hearing aids in both ears, who differed only in the ability to understand speech in noise. Read More

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Brainstem Dysfunction in Healthy Aging.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 8:118241. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Dept. of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA. Electronic address:

The brainstem controls sub-cortical and cortical activity and influences the processing of incoming information. The goal of this study was to characterize age related alterations of brainstem-brain interactions during different brain states detected by dynamic analysis of task-free fMRI. 79 young (20-40 years) and 51 older adults (55-80 years) were studied. Read More

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Milk, yogurt and cheese intake is positively associated with cognitive executive functions in older adults of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Human Nutrition, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Dr, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, H9X 3L9, QC, Canada.

Background: Dairy products provide essential nutrients such as calcium, vitamins B12 and D, and include bioactive peptides and fermented products, which may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. Yet, few studies of large contemporary cohorts have investigated this relationship using sensitive domain-specific cognitive tests.

Methods: In community-dwelling older adults of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (2011-2015), we examined cross-sectional associations between total and specific dairy product intake and performance in three cognitive domains (executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed). Read More

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Influence of age on postural control during dual task: a centre of pressure motion and electromyographic analysis.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Sport and Exercise Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani, 2, 35128, Padova, Italy.

Background: Dual task influences postural control. A cognitive task seems to reduce muscle excitation during a postural balance, especially in older adults (OA).

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of three cognitive tasks on muscle excitation and static postural control in OA and young adults (YA) in an upright posture maintenance task. Read More

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Declarative Memory Predicts Phonological Processing Abilities in Adulthood.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:658402. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.

Individual differences in phonological processing abilities have often been attributed to perceptual factors, rather than to factors relating to learning and memory. Here, we consider the contribution of individual differences in declarative and procedural memory to phonological processing performance in adulthood. We examined the phonological processing, declarative memory, and procedural memory abilities of 79 native English-speaking young adults with typical language and reading abilities. Read More

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